INVENTED THE SHOVEL...This, according to the apt definition of “dictionary” V. dal “lopaty shell pick, vygreba, nawalka and suction loose bodies” is one of the most ancient instruments. Its history began in ancient times, when our distant ancestor, for the first time armed with a digging stick.

Since then, all kind of shovels did not come into the light! From gardening to steel (classification by applications), from basic rectangular to combined, with additional cuttings and blades (classification according to external appearance and design). Many of the original shovels created and our readers (see, for example, “M-K” 8’71, 5’73, 10’81, 3’85, 8’91).

Improving the ancient and much-important household tool continues. Editorial mail, a small part of which is published today, factsheet, attests to this.
“Harvester” on the handle
One of the disadvantages of our industry shovel LKP (GOST 19596-87) — weak strength at the transition of the blade (bayonet) to tulaku (tube cutting). Made sure to acknowledge their own experience, when you just bought shovel “ordered to live long” on the heavy soil. Broken off the canvas LKP served as the basis for handmade — universal tool of the gardener-gardener (see figure). Bayonet here swivel, fixed in three positions, locking liner.
Primary tillage (deep digging) perform using the tool-home-made as shovel. Turning the bayonet at 90° and firmly secure it in this position, locking liner, get the perfect hoe. The blade is semi-circular in shape allows you to efficiently perform operations on surface tillage: weeding with a simultaneous loosening and aerating, hilling, execution of holes, grooves for planting or watering plants. The third point of the bayonet was conceived as a vehicle capable of safe transportation of the instrument to the train, bus, etc. But it turned out to be useful in the work — for breaking large lumps, leveling of the ridges, etc.
I have developed a fabrication tool capable of any homebrew, as it does not contain “catchy” parts. An old shovel LKP is trimmed to the shape and dimensions specified in the illustrations. The resulting sharpened edge so that the angle between the face sortoobraztsov housing and a bevel of approximately 20°. Talakai, as in construction, published in the eighth issue of “M-K” over the past year, is a section of steel pipe with a saw cut in the form of “dovetail”. Slightly smaller than conventional paintwork, the size of the bayonet (and thus a reduced load during the digging of the soil) is allowed to move from the “billed” cutting to the “rake-hoe” is less heavy. The last diameter 33-35 mm, and the length of 1200-1400 mm. this handle is Made from birch, ash, maple.
Perhaps, the only difficulty which might face a novice homebrew, far-fetched to make developed by me design, is welding. In the absence of a welding machine and the skills it will have to seek help. But, first, weld parts in the design not so much. And secondly, it will be worth it, as they say, a hundredfold. Go for it!
Universal tool of the gardener-gardener
Universal tool of the gardener-gardener:
1 — canvas (of a shovel digging sharp-rectangular paintwork, GOST 19596-87), 2 — fatty pad (Steel 45), 3 — hook (Steel 45), 4 — core bracket (Steel 45), 5 — tulaka (segment seamless steel pipes, GOST 8732-78 outer diameter of 38 mm, wall thickness 2.5 mm), 6 — rivets or screws 7 — shaft, 8 — retaining liner, 9 — axis.

Y. KUCHEROV, engineer, Moscow.
Bayonet with Windows — better
To dig up a plot of one hundred square meters, you need, say, to shovel about 20 cubic meters of soil. It — if to use standard industrial shovel of LCA (digging sharp-pointed, GOST 1959687). But I have developed design — I am convinced! — the ability to greatly alleviate tedious and unattractive breast. After the penetration of such shovels in the ground rib layer further cut in three places, whereby during separation of the top part of it simply falls through is made in the canvas (the bayonet) a rectangular “window” size 70х120 mm. the lower part of the reservoir, on the contrary, brought to the surface, thereby increasing the quality of the soil.
“Leaky” shovel:
1 — canvas (of a shovel digging sharp-pointed, LKO, GOST 19596-87) with rectangular holes 70х120 mm, 2 — pointed edges-wedges 150х30х2 mm (Steel 45), 3 — the shaft (1100— 1300 mm, diameter 40 mm, birch).
The payoff? It depends on the mechanical properties and moisture of the soil. “But in any case to work with the new shovel will be lighter than usual”, — said the experts, patent attorneys, recognizing the “holey” instrument of the invention by giving him the copyright certificate.
The proposed design (see Fig.) — the same LKO, cloth which is first annealed, and then subjected to major revision. Cut down window and saw round and smooth out the openings with a file. In the center and at the edges of the workpiece are welded pointed edges of the wedges (70х120 mm, from 2 mm steel 45). As material for the latter you can also use pre-painted steel sheet from steel grades according to GOST SONGS 454371, БСт5, БСт6. Cutting edges should be sharpened at an angle of 20° to the front surface of the shovel and termoobrabotki to the hardness of 37 HRC 53….
“Windows” can be made with the sash flanges on the back side of the shovel (Fig. not shown). This — option to work on heavy soils. Folds to sharpen and thermoablative as well as rib-wedges.
The handle of the “leaky” shovel that neither is common. From birch. But it is possible as material for him to use ash, maple or other suitable wood. Size — like cutting any other shovels, that is, the length 1100-1300 mm, diameter 40 mm.
Leonid PISKUN, Saint-Petersburg.

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