SAFE CELLAR

CELLAR SAFEDespite the widespread use of electric refrigerators, such building, as a cellar, do not give up their positions. Especially in rural areas and in suburban areas, where in these, prudently organized, compact storage with a good waterproofing and skilfully chosen ventilation is still not forgotten to maintain the desired temperature and humidity conditions, and favorable conditions for savings products that do not rot and does not shrink, without losing its unique taste and smell. However, if used the most common was free-standing cellar, today in order to save area, many prefer the compact storage of vegetables, fruits and homemade food, is equipped with a summer kitchen, a barn, a garage…

In particular, I prefer polysilicones the Annex to the blank wall of the house. This so-called wall, totally safe storage (Fig.1). Its design is reminiscent of the popular option of an extension-greenhouses (see, for example, material published in No. 1 of 1998 of the journal “modelist-Konstruktor”). It is not surprising: the underlying parts in both cases are the wall of the house and a mini-pit. But there are significant differences.
 
In the greenhouse, as you know, there is a greenhouse effect, imposes its own limitations on many of the features of construction, starting with a transparent roof and ending with the profile of the trench. The same heated wall of the cellar is mainly due to the soil (deep) heat gained by the surface layers of the earth in summer (accumulation of soil solar energy) with the introduction of heat Supplement derived from the wall of the house. The temperature in this storage is maintained stable, since the thermal conductivity of the soil and wall is small. In winter, from the soil to the cellar comes the heat, in spring and summer cold, as the soil at this time has a lower temperature than the surrounding outside air.
Additional wall recommended I the cellar are laid out with red, well burnt clay brick on a cement-sandy solution. However, there can be used from concrete and flagstone. Walls plastered with cement mortar and outside their gidroizolirovat coating — hot bitumen two layers.
 
The floor should be of cement, 50 mm thick, with the laying on compacted gravel. The floor is of thick slabs with pricecanada edges on which is placed a layer of crushed clay and then the roofing material in two layers. The use of timber with cracks and end splits, indicating a decrease in its strength, is not allowed.
 
Fig. 1. Cellar wall with advanced security
 
Fig. 1. Wall cellar with advanced security:
 
1 — wall; 2 — Foundation; 3 — two-layer bituminous coating; 4 — floor cellar; 5 — a lining (compacted crushed stone); 6 — hopper; 7 — shelf products; 8 — overlapping (thick slab with fitting edges); 9 — moisture barrier (wrinkled) clay; 10 — basic hydraulic protection slab (roofing felt, 2 layers); 11 — ventilation pipe with a valve (2 PCs at opposite ends of the cellar); 12 — brick wall of the cellar; 13 — embankment; 14 — drain groove
 
It is also impossible to apply the material that has been used (from the dismantling of old houses, even seemingly very strong), as this wood is usually infected by spores of fungi. For this reason, you should not use the timber for a long time (three years or more) had lain under the open sky, as well as deadwood, which is usually weakened by beetles wood borers, and less durable in a wet environment. In any case, I recommend the wood chosen for the construction of the cellar must be treated with an antiseptic solution.
 
The construction of the cellar it is best to begin in mid-summer, when the groundwater level is the lowest. Of course, before you start, you need to prepare all the necessary building blocks to later to avoid interruptions. At the place it will be necessary to remove vegetation layer, and then make an earthen recess 500 mm (depth depends on the level of groundwater). Dredging will improve Parking cellar soil warmth. The selected primer can be used for outer embankment of the cellar
 
Further, the technology is largely traditional. The base of excavation excavation and rams in the 70 — 100 mm fall asleep (with further compaction) coarse sand fine gravel sifted brick rubble, expanded clay, etc. So the lining will reliably protect your cellar from damp. For draining material placed mini-Foundation that gently erect (do not forget about waterproofing!) three walls of red brick.
 
Embankment — dry earth or peat moss with the planting of grass Around the cellar at a distance of 1 — 1.8 m suit drainage groove.
 
The height of the cellar to ceiling — 1.8 m. Inside one side of the aisle is placed a lattice of bins, raised 100 mm above the floor, on the other (at a distance of 500 — 600 mm in height) shelves. The bins make the height about 1 m with slatted floor for ventilation.
 
To avoid freezing cellar in case of severe frost the overlap is additionally insulated. Around the cellar arrange the drainage groove with a depth of about 300 mm, which can even fill drainage material: stone, brick fight, gravel or sticks of peeled bark of the branches.
 
The whole cellar obvalivat the ground and sow grass or overlaid with turf. This helps to preserve a constant temperature inside the cellar. Moreover the hill of the cellar is often used for planting ornamental plants.
 
Wrote prominent Russian scientist and agronomist Andrei Timofeevich Bolotov (1738 — 1833), sound cellar “needs to dry and is quite spacious, so it was not stuffy but cool winds (draught) must not be, because it dries the vegetables. If he, on the contrary, deaf (with a stagnant, unventilated air) and cheese, the vegetables rot”.
 
Of course, to maintain normal temperature and humidity in the cellar must be of sufficiently good ventilation. It is well to install two pipes — exhaust and supply, which for better ventilation come in two levels and, if possible, in different places to avoid being sucked fresh air.
 
The chimney is placed at the top, near the ceiling, and the supply at the bottom and at an altitude of 500 — 600 mm from the floor. The movement of air through them is due to the difference of specific weight of the cold outdoor and warm indoor air, so that the ventilation system is natural. The use of a greater number of exhaust pipes of small cross section is not desirable, especially in the Northern areas.
 
In addition, there is always an additional inflow of outside air through cracks and unsealed a portion of the door. The velocity of air is greater the higher the temperature difference between the cellar and outside. Pipes are made of thick (30-40 mm), well-fitted and tightly nailed together boards, supplied them with valves (valves) and dampers to adjust airflow and temperature and humidity conditions.
 
For small cellars may be limited to one dual-channel vent pipe (metrolinien), for which it is divided vertically into two channels. One channel the air flows in the wall store, and on the other is pushed out. For each channel can make an independent valve.
 
In the cellar is useful to hang a thermometer to accurately record the temperature. But even better to set the psychrometer, which measures temperature and the relative humidity is a very important characteristic of his condition. For example, the optimum temperature for storing potatoes from +2 to +5°C at a relative humidity of 85 — 95%.
 
At low relative humidity the potatoes (as, indeed, lay in storage roots) dries up. On the contrary, too high humidity can lead to the formation of condensation water, which in combination with increased temperature creates favorable conditions for the development of rot and premature sprouting of tubers.
The psychrometer is easy to do it yourself: two alcohol thermometer is fixed next to on the shared stand. The bulb of one of them tightly wrapped in a thin cloth — muslin or gauze soaked in water (preferably distilled); the other ball must be dry. The readings of the wet thermometer will be much lower than dry, because the moisture from the surface of the ball continuously evaporate and it takes heat.
 
From the difference values of dry and wet bulb using a special table (see the above publication) define absolute and relative humidity and dew point. In exceptional cases (e.g., when the new cellar, a psychrometer is not already installed) the first time it is possible to determine the maximum allowable humidity of the air “by eye”. In particular, it must be noted that with excessive dampness of the walls and ceiling (the ceiling) become wet, covered with drops of water and mold, and the top layer of potatoes is moistened. The smell of mustiness. This means that it is time to urgently take appropriate measures!
 
And again. In the cellar we recommend that you use mercury, but alcohol thermometers, to avoid risk of poisoning, if by negligence the glass bulb “ratnika” suddenly broken. You need to remember that mercury vapor is the strongest poison and have the ability to accumulate in the human body.
 
Now about the lighting and the wiring. We should not forget that all basements and cellars for storage of vegetables are potentially hazardous areas from the point of view of experts of electrorazor. Earth and concrete floors, damp walls, high humidity do not give the right to apply for posting directly to household electricity. To avoid electrical shock need a transformer, step-down voltage at least to 36.
 
In the absence of special transformer for this purpose without any alterations suitable, for example, “strongman” TVs-180-2 from an old tube TV CNT-47/50. Winding such a voltage Converter is distributed equally on the two coils, which are located on the yoke (Fig.2).
 
Both the primary (network) winding are connected in series, and between them and secondary are grounding screens (brass protective strip). In case of breaking the “phase” mains voltage on the earthed screen burns only the fuse FU1. On lowering the winding in this case, the high voltage does not pass, it fully meets the safety requirements.
 
The terminals of the windings of the main transformer is soldered to the petals with appropriate numbering (on a single coil accommodation groove, and the other with strokes). Under certain combinations of compounds can be, for example, 36-volt voltage for normal lighting of the cellar (say, for a 60 watt incandescent bulb), and 12-volt — for “carry”.
 
To remove the security from the old CNT-47/50 is quite simple. It is necessary only to the metal chassis tube TV remove the four mounting screws, unsolder the colored wires, departing from the terminals of the transformer and then solder them according to the wiring diagram you have received. In a phase circuit wire winding network is required to enter duhaney fuse and switch.
 
Fig. 2. Power transformer (a) from an old tube TV CNT-47/50 and the peculiarities of its use for food
 
Fig. 2. Power transformer (a) from an old tube TV CNT-47/50 and the peculiarities of its use for food “carry”, and also 36- (b) and 24 volt (V) lighting systems cellar
 
The transformer is preferably mounted on the electrical panel, close to the grounded casing, connecting with the terminal “Earth” and magnetic, and electrostatic winding. You cannot install the transformer directly in the cellar.
 
Electricity in the cellar is done in an open way, on rolls or anchors with insulators. It uses wire with copper conductor and double rubber insulation braided from cotton yarns, impregnated with antiseptic composition. The most suitable for this purpose are considered to be OL and PSG, exceptionally, it is permitted to use the wire grade APR.
 
Glass bulbs equipped with protective caps, using waterproof fittings. Switches are placed outside, at the entrance to the cellar, at a height of 1.5 m. Install plug sockets in cellars and basements shall be prohibited. Well, the input wiring in the cellar are carried out so that they do not accumulate moisture.
 
The harvest lay in clean and disinfected storage, so our cellar should be given annually (of course — up bookmarks!) washing, airing and disinfecting. The most affordable way of disinfecting is to whitewash with lime (1 lime paste bucket 5 — 6 buckets of water) with the addition of a solution of 10 percent copper or iron sulphate (1 kg, pre-dissolved in warm water crystals in 1 bucket pobelochnye composition). Hard to reach areas are sprayed with a rubber bulb. As a disinfectant can be applied a strong solution of potassium permanganate, and “tissue” broth (50 g of dry tobacco dust or tobacco 1 liter of water).
 
In addition, to disinfect the cellar every year to fumigate it with sulfur, pouring it on the hot skillet or baking pan with hot wood coals at the rate of 30 — 60 g per 1 m3 of room volume. The door at the same time tightly closed, the cracks daubed with clay dough to seal the sunroof (if equipped) you can use cotton mattress or an old blanket. After 1 — 2 days cellar air.
 
Sometimes sanitary rules are forced to go to more drastic measures. All the affected places then cut down or cut out. Remote wood immediately burned, but not in the oven and not on the site, not to facilitate the separation of the infection. Then, in the radius of 1 m from the source of damage is removed and burn wood which seems healthy. The rest of the (healthy) forest subjected to careful antiseptic one of the most effective solutions. Moreover, all temporary foundations, walls and basements in the ground near to them as beams, brackets and floor slabs, the affected fungal infection, burned with a blowtorch or gas burner (with strict observance of fire safety rules!) at a depth of 10 — 20 mm. the dirt floor is sprinkled with a thin (1 cm) layer of hydrated lime.
 
To kill insects, often falling into a cellar with allocated for storing vegetables, as well as to combat mold and rot fungi can be used pairs formed in the quenching of chlorine. For every 10 m3 of volume of the cellar take 2 — 3 kg of quicklime lump lime, poured it in the tank or other container, then fill with water and quickly go from the cellar. The door and sunroof (if in the design of the store has one) while carefully closed, sometimes coated with clay to provide a tight seal. Cellar leave closed for 1 2 days, after which it is thoroughly aired. Such processing of the cellar should be 2 — 3 times at intervals of 1 week, to prevent insects and fungi to restore viability.
 
To use for disinfection and disinfestation of the chlorine solution, the concentration of which over 40% is not recommended, as it threatens to purchase a product specific taste. However, processing of highly concentrated solutions permitted if in the cellar will only be stored for seed.
 
M. POVALYAEV, Lipetsk region.

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