The psychrometer is easy to do it yourself: two alcohol thermometer is fixed next to on the shared stand. The bulb of one of them tightly wrapped in a thin cloth — muslin or gauze soaked in water (preferably distilled); the other ball must be dry. The readings of the wet thermometer will be much lower than dry, because the moisture from the surface of the ball continuously evaporate and it takes heat.
From the difference values of dry and wet bulb using a special table (see the above publication) define absolute and relative humidity and dew point. In exceptional cases (e.g., when the new cellar, a psychrometer is not already installed) the first time it is possible to determine the maximum allowable humidity of the air “by eye”. In particular, it must be noted that with excessive dampness of the walls and ceiling (the ceiling) become wet, covered with drops of water and mold, and the top layer of potatoes is moistened. The smell of mustiness. This means that it is time to urgently take appropriate measures!
And again. In the cellar we recommend that you use mercury, but alcohol thermometers, to avoid risk of poisoning, if by negligence the glass bulb “ratnika” suddenly broken. You need to remember that mercury vapor is the strongest poison and have the ability to accumulate in the human body.
Now about the lighting and the wiring. We should not forget that all basements and cellars for storage of vegetables are potentially hazardous areas from the point of view of experts of electrorazor. Earth and concrete floors, damp walls, high humidity do not give the right to apply for posting directly to household electricity. To avoid electrical shock need a transformer, step-down voltage at least to 36.
In the absence of special transformer for this purpose without any alterations suitable, for example, “strongman” TVs-180-2 from an old tube TV CNT-47/50. Winding such a voltage Converter is distributed equally on the two coils, which are located on the yoke (Fig.2).
Both the primary (network) winding are connected in series, and between them and secondary are grounding screens (brass protective strip). In case of breaking the “phase” mains voltage on the earthed screen burns only the fuse FU1. On lowering the winding in this case, the high voltage does not pass, it fully meets the safety requirements.
The terminals of the windings of the main transformer is soldered to the petals with appropriate numbering (on a single coil accommodation groove, and the other with strokes). Under certain combinations of compounds can be, for example, 36-volt voltage for normal lighting of the cellar (say, for a 60 watt incandescent bulb), and 12-volt — for “carry”.
To remove the security from the old CNT-47/50 is quite simple. It is necessary only to the metal chassis tube TV remove the four mounting screws, unsolder the colored wires, departing from the terminals of the transformer and then solder them according to the wiring diagram you have received. In a phase circuit wire winding network is required to enter duhaney fuse and switch.
Fig. 2. Power transformer (a) from an old tube TV CNT-47/50 and the peculiarities of its use for food “carry”, and also 36- (b) and 24 volt (V) lighting systems cellar
The transformer is preferably mounted on the electrical panel, close to the grounded casing, connecting with the terminal “Earth” and magnetic, and electrostatic winding. You cannot install the transformer directly in the cellar.
Electricity in the cellar is done in an open way, on rolls or anchors with insulators. It uses wire with copper conductor and double rubber insulation braided from cotton yarns, impregnated with antiseptic composition. The most suitable for this purpose are considered to be OL and PSG, exceptionally, it is permitted to use the wire grade APR.
Glass bulbs equipped with protective caps, using waterproof fittings. Switches are placed outside, at the entrance to the cellar, at a height of 1.5 m. Install plug sockets in cellars and basements shall be prohibited. Well, the input wiring in the cellar are carried out so that they do not accumulate moisture.
The harvest lay in clean and disinfected storage, so our cellar should be given annually (of course — up bookmarks!) washing, airing and disinfecting. The most affordable way of disinfecting is to whitewash with lime (1 lime paste bucket 5 — 6 buckets of water) with the addition of a solution of 10 percent copper or iron sulphate (1 kg, pre-dissolved in warm water crystals in 1 bucket pobelochnye composition). Hard to reach areas are sprayed with a rubber bulb. As a disinfectant can be applied a strong solution of potassium permanganate, and “tissue” broth (50 g of dry tobacco dust or tobacco 1 liter of water).
In addition, to disinfect the cellar every year to fumigate it with sulfur, pouring it on the hot skillet or baking pan with hot wood coals at the rate of 30 — 60 g per 1 m3 of room volume. The door at the same time tightly closed, the cracks daubed with clay dough to seal the sunroof (if equipped) you can use cotton mattress or an old blanket. After 1 — 2 days cellar air.
Sometimes sanitary rules are forced to go to more drastic measures. All the affected places then cut down or cut out. Remote wood immediately burned, but not in the oven and not on the site, not to facilitate the separation of the infection. Then, in the radius of 1 m from the source of damage is removed and burn wood which seems healthy. The rest of the (healthy) forest subjected to careful antiseptic one of the most effective solutions. Moreover, all temporary foundations, walls and basements in the ground near to them as beams, brackets and floor slabs, the affected fungal infection, burned with a blowtorch or gas burner (with strict observance of fire safety rules!) at a depth of 10 — 20 mm. the dirt floor is sprinkled with a thin (1 cm) layer of hydrated lime.
To kill insects, often falling into a cellar with allocated for storing vegetables, as well as to combat mold and rot fungi can be used pairs formed in the quenching of chlorine. For every 10 m3 of volume of the cellar take 2 — 3 kg of quicklime lump lime, poured it in the tank or other container, then fill with water and quickly go from the cellar. The door and sunroof (if in the design of the store has one) while carefully closed, sometimes coated with clay to provide a tight seal. Cellar leave closed for 1 2 days, after which it is thoroughly aired. Such processing of the cellar should be 2 — 3 times at intervals of 1 week, to prevent insects and fungi to restore viability.
To use for disinfection and disinfestation of the chlorine solution, the concentration of which over 40% is not recommended, as it threatens to purchase a product specific taste. However, processing of highly concentrated solutions permitted if in the cellar will only be stored for seed.
M. POVALYAEV, Lipetsk region.