Originated twenty lot back movement of student production brigades flock as a mass, gained importance and power of social phenomena. Addressing the participants of the all-Union gathering of members of student production teams, General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee L. I. Brezhnev wrote:
“Combining study with a feasible work, members of the student teams take their first school career and education high responsibility for the charged business, comradely mutual aid, initiative, initiatives, and working wit, master the basics of agro-technical expertise, best practices and agricultural techniques, acquire the skills to participate in socialist competition”.
Students ‘ proficiency in agricultural technique is especially successful if they approach this matter, if the schools are not only organized the study of serial samples of machines and evolving design work. “Small mechanization”, create your own hands an original and useful to farm, farm tools and devices, small and easy to infantile hands of machines and mechanisms is one of the most effective means of teaching techniques, instilling in them the interest and love for agricultural labor.
How to organize with the greatest impact of design and innovation working in a rural school, says our special correspondent Yuri Stolyarov, who was in the village of Enem, Krasnodar territory.
— Vorovskaya work in enemskoe school develops unique, — says Deputy head of the Krasnodar krajono Vladimir Ilyich Biryukov. — Do you know what the young innovators of the region are mainly towards the creation, so to speak, small engine technology: all kinds of tractors with trailers and pump guns, drills, winnowing, mowers and similar units. “Modelist-Konstruktor” repeatedly told about the machines created in the Kuban schools. But enemskoe guys unlike many of his colleagues started from the ground up, in the full sense of the school followed the logic “from simple — to complex”. This gradually increasing complexity of “simple” was hand-guns of a farmer. Of course, not normal, and adapted to the childish hands, the little plots and plots. Manual cultivators, pralniki, cultivators, seeders and much, much more. First ready-made models and schemes, then laced with his, and then a new original device.
— A good helper in the design cases for guys was your journal, — says Nikolay Moiseevich Obreja, head and mastermind of enemskoe vorovtsev, teacher at work. — We started with, repeated in metal and tree diagram of the devices that publish a “modelist-Konstruktor”, checked THEIR B business. Their creative “I” appeared at our children much later.
Today enemskoe school gained all-Union fame came in the category, as they say, a “beacon.” Way to fame of a small time — just seven years. But during this period in the metal workshop of an ordinary village school made on samples and re-invented in a total of more than fifty types of agricultural tools, devices and machines. All of this small appliances were created with a specific sight: for of the district EEPC, yunnatskih on the school plot, to work in the student production brigades.
So, at school there is a primary organization of VOIR. Youthful, but quite full. From an adult such an organization differs only in that the contributions of its members charged in the original form — in the form of technical ideas, technical innovations, personal creative activity.
Not to say that the fruits of creativity poured immediately and in abundance. Generation of Mature ideas began much later. The start looked like since all lacked something — tools, materials and, most importantly, experience. But the boys are not discouraged, at first, came up with some simple adaptations for school workshops, then things are more complicated, for example, a lathe for the Lycium, sawing-planing and grinding machines.
The guys have learned to set technical goals, design mechanisms, to calculate the transmission finally learned how soundly and carefully build “in the metal” that was born on the sheet of paper. All this, combined with the production environment (around the village — the large fields of the Kuban collective farm, where the parents of many young vorovtsev) has created the favorable environment, so bright to bloom extremely purposeful school work.
— We wanted to mechanize the work on the school experimental plot, which would resemble in miniature the work of our parents on the farm fields, — says the head of the design group, the ninth-grader Luda Horn. And we got our own hoes, rippers, asociatii. Soon they are joined by mowers and mechanical scissors. The latter is very useful for harvesting stalks of sunflower and corn. We came and its a grind: the Foundation took the project proposed I. G. Kitaeva in the journal “modelist-Konstruktor”.
Of the five dozen varieties of agricultural instrument, machinery and vehicles, built in enemskoe school direct guys invented and developed more than thirty. The figure itself is impressive. But for every novelty is great work, both mental and physical tension, a continuous challenge.
How is he this search? Let’s follow at least one example, the dynamics of the inventive idea guys.
Before the school created maturehotel Mr-3-4 that you see in the hands of Sergei shchelkanova (photo in the color section), was the exhibit of the USSR, it went through several stages of development and improvement, having started his “biography” with the construction not the most successful. The first version of the machine depicted in the top drawing (all of which, incidentally, is enemskoe guys).
Electric motorglider first designed with one working shaft and four wedge-shaped knives. When it was constructed and experienced in the work, it was found that under the action of forces of resistance of the soil when loosening the car crawls in the direction opposite to the direction of rotation of the working shaft. In addition, when tilling wet soil the spaces between the blades clogged with dirt. Before the boys got up a specific technical problem is to eliminate the revealed defects.
Announced a contest. Young vairiety trying to solve the problem on their own. One carefully studying the device tillage machines used on the farm, others became absorbed in the technical literature, and others continue to explore the shortcomings of the mechanism during its operation. And then break out heated arguments, debates, generate new schemes, which are often tight also refuted picky opponents.
Finally, a solution is found. As if the authors and the opponents met. All came to the conclusion that the drag force acting on the blades in a direction perpendicular to the movement of the machine may be balanced, if the cultivator to supply two working rollers rotating in opposite directions. In this case, the machine will be able to move straight into. And in order that the working space is not clogged with dirt, the guys offered to change the design of the knives and their location. They came to the conclusion that to remove the knife sticking clod by using a nearby knife if you can get him to go into the zone of action of the first (second picture).
Thus, the young designers create new, more advanced engine, but the problems are not over.
The farm sector is extensive, stretch for many kilometers. Not everywhere and not always convenient to use the machine with the motor attached to the network electric cable. There is an idea to replace the electric motor with the internal combustion engine. Moreover, it raises new challenge on the improvement of the machine: it is necessary to increase the width of the processing in one pass and, most importantly, to construct a device that ensures the stability of the penetration of the knives in any soil. Prior to that, the depth was set by changing the position of the handles and couldn’t adapt to the structure and stiffness of the soil.
On the third picture you see the Ripper, which is already installed gasoline engine, the working body consists of four paired knives. This machine allows you to process in one pass twice as large area. In addition, motorycles a reliable mechanism of penetration: a kind of frame with a small wheel. In the transport position of the machine the knives are raised upward. If you lift the handle of the mechanism of penetration, the wheel will fall down and the mechanism will adopt its working position. And to ensure that during operation the wheel remained in the lower position, the frame provided with latches-clamps.
— There was a time when our borovtsy and had no idea that they are able to do to improve the some mechanism, not to mention the development and construction of something completely new, says N. M. Obreja. — And today, creative work is an integral part of life of a childish team, it is natural and as a matter of course.
Vorovskaya organization in enemskoe quite numerous school — 80 students, of which one third are girls. Girls, as it turned out, working in technical circles with a large hunting and vehicles are not only not afraid, but rather successfully “tame”, participate together with children in the creation of new technology. And this played a significant role in a rational and flexible structure of organization in vorovskoy enemskoe school. It has such, for example, teams like design, mechanical, repair, technical information, even a group of supply. It is clear that this is not difficult to find interesting to any student. Usually in youth organizations IN the IR is dominated by seniors. About enemskoe same school do not say, are on an equal footing with the older working students from the seventh, sixth and even fifth class.
When meeting with a correspondent of the magazine enemskoe guys shared their new plans to start serial production of some of its machines, the best.
Why series? Well, first, in order to equip the modern, “new”, as they say, the technique his student production team, working on the farm “Druzhba” in the Adyghe and vegetable farm. Secondly, to help some other schools in the province, those in which before the construction of such machines have not yet arrived.
Plans serious, do not say anything, but to implement them need the corresponding technical equipment. What is it with enemskoe guys? It turns out that the calculation is done only on themselves and the school workshop, where, however, there is quite decent (thanks chiefs!) machine Park— turning, screw-cutting, drilling, milling machines, welding machines, in abundance of different locksmith tools.
By the way, technical creativity, as practice shows, is an excellent incentive to master the skills of manual labor and machines. After all, when the design is finished, the same guys that developed the design on paper, get up to the machines and plumbing Vice, embody conceived in metal. For the same motorycles, for example, required to make a special reducer, to carve a lot of different shafts, housings for bearings, caps, rings and other parts. Many of them have been thermally processed. Then the guys interested and therefore successfully acquire the basics of the technology of metal production.
We mentioned the proposed series. Yes, this stage — the implementation stage — can be rightfully considered the crowning design-and-search operation. That’s the way it happens in adults, design bureaus and pilot plants: the creative process — from the emergence of the technical concept to implementation of finished product into production — flows through the same in principle, just more complex and strict scheme. However, at the stage of introduction of the product g mass production process of technical creativity, as you know, ends. The Creator should switch to new object creation.
Well, enemskoe guys and this time remain faithful to the principles of creativity: further search will be used for improvement of already established mechanisms, and on this basis to construct the Assembly, a sort of harvester, which could simultaneously produce ploughing, hoeing and sowing, as well as several varieties of machinery for harvesting.
This is a task for guys. And for their leader N. M. Obrero the main thing is that each of his Pets was the creative person and wherever he had a chance to work after school, inquisitive, from the standpoint of transducer suited to any business.
I respect and love guys of his mentor, confide to him any of your ideas even if these ideas seem crazy at first glance. Know that Nikolai Moiseevich always listen carefully, if necessary — will correct, if deserve is going to approve or deny proposed.
Teacher and designer. The importance of the combination of such qualities for teacher labor in today’s school, we were convinced, having become acquainted with the Affairs of enemskoe guys and their leader. And these speak eloquently for themselves: participation school organization VOIR in the Central exhibition of all-Union review of scientific and technical creativity of youth at ENEA USSR, 23 diploma NTTM! This means that every fourth enemskoe the society — winner. A truly brilliant result for the young seekers!