YOUR HELPER IN THE GARDEN

YOUR HELPER IN THE GARDENVictor D. Berezhnoy — native Valdez. In his main profession he is a welder qualifications. However in the regional centre it is difficult to find a paying job. Had to be and Shvets, and the Reaper. Remained unchanged only the fascination of Careful technical work. It helped him in difficult times.

 
Take, for example, a multi-purpose tractor “Small brother”, built Careful a few years ago. “Small” because there are “Big brother” — wheeled all-terrain vehicle for which Victor D. in 2002 he received a prize from the television program “to Itself the Director”.
 
Now, towing our Amateur designer needed for urgent matters in the country. We had to bring to the area building materials, fuel, and fertilizers, to take in the city harvest… it’s one of the “horseless” motoboy trailer. However, the barn had a stock of materials necessary for any Masterova: steel profiles of various sections, sheet metal, pipes, wire, fasteners as well As tools and welding equipment. Remained the least — to invent and build for trailer truck And soon it was built.
 
Hand designer touched and trailer; drawbar equipped with a homemade hitch knot; the body is extended in length to 220 mm reinforced steel front corner, wings raised, so you can use larger diameter wheels; passenger seat protected, and equipped the driver’s steering with a short column from the car GAZ-51.
 
Layout multi-purpose tractor with trailer
 
Layout multi-purpose tractor with trailer:
 
1 — a casing of the muffler; 2 — fuel tank capacity 15 l; 3 — the lever transmission: 4 — lever hoist: 5 — steering wheel with column (GAZ-51); 6 handle grip; 7 throttle; 8 — the brake pedal of the truck; 9 — driver seat: 10 — the cart; 11 — steering gear (GAZ-51); 12 — the brake pedal of the tractor; 13 — steering joint: 14 — additional support shaft; 15 — double-strand pulley shaft transmission; 16 — idler pulley (clutch); 17— the frame of the tractor; 18,26 — front; 19 — double-strand pulley on the output shaft of the engine; 20 — the fuel filters coarse and fine filters (GAZ-51): 21,22 — panel toggle switches high beam, turn indicators: 23 — the air filter housing; 24 — engine UD2-M1; 25 — kickstarter: 27 — mini winch; 28 — CAT (GAZ-51); 29 — Wat transmission output; 30 — pin articulation of the tractor and truck; 31 — turning unit; 32 — tool kit; 33 — passenger seat

 
Kinematic diagram of the tractor
 
Kinematics of the tractor:
 
1 — a pulley of the generator; 2 — double-strand pulley on the output shaft of the engine; 3 — idler pulley (clutch); 4,16 — bearings 208 leading bridge; 5 — shaft of the leading axle; 6 — bearing of 205 additional support shaft; 7 — double-strand pulley on the primary shaft of the transaxle (left hand Creek drive pulley, right brake); 8 — fitting the upper end of the brake V-belt; 9 — tension end of the brake V-belt; 10 — the pivot bearing in the brake pedal; 11 — brake pedal: 12 — CAT (GAZ-51); 13 — sprocket (z = 12, t = 19,05); 14 — drive sprocket (z = 34, t = 19,05); 15 — the wheel (from the electric vehicle, 2 PCs.); 17 — the pivot bearing in the idler pulley; 18 — drive idler pulley; 19 — engine UD2-M1; 20 — generator.
 
All V-belts have a cross-section of type A

 
In fairness it should immediately be noted one feature-or rather, the lack of a control system of the towing vehicle?: turning, say, to the right of his steering wheel necessary to turn… in the opposite direction, that is to the left. And Vice versa. This paradoxical result has led the designer tries to simplify the kinematics of the steering. In this case, fry the steering mechanism (GAZ-51) directly, with just one rod connected to the left corner of the frame of the tractor. Of course, it would be necessary to immediately impose interim chair, another thrust and move the ball joint on the right corner of the frame. But father and son Careful (a “Small brother” lead only they) have quickly adapted to this particular.
 
New spring Victor D. decided to use the “Small brother” in horticultural matters, as they say, to the fullest. It was equipped with the tractor hydraulics, which lifted the body and placed on the wheel axis of the trailer power cylinder, pump and tank with slurry (PAZ), and under the steering wheel — spreader (tractor DT-20). A mounted plow is attached directly to the power cylinder.
 
However, in a limited area of a country garden “Small brother” it was hard to turn. Then the designer developed a special mini-winch and engine-driven tractor and a simple guide mechanism that is attached to the front bumper and the plow is supplied with a cable, and the front wheel And began to plow the land together with the son: one of them controls the motor and winch, the second plow. It immediately went faster than I. most importantly, the quality of work was higher.
 
THE DESIGN OF THE TRACTOR
 
All units of the tractor are arranged on a rectangular frame welded from steel profiles. In front, two angled shelves, fastened with four bolts 2-cylinder engine UD2-M1 mass of 90 kg and a power of 8 BHP at 3000 rpm On the engine, angled racks, not shown in the figure, a fuel tank capacity of 15 liters, air filter, muffler, block filters coarse and fine filters (GAZ-51).
 
Behind the engine is the place for gear box (also from GAZ-51). For its installation there are two mounting bracket: inboard left — a longitudinal steel plate with holes in place and a removable right (although his place could put a copy of the left. But it made the author’s design, so here is the version).
 
Frame truck
 
The frame of the tractor:
 
1,20 — front and rear bumpers (profile 80x40x8); 2 — shelf generator (strip 50×5); 3,5 — spars (channel No. 8); 4,6 — shelf engine (area 90x56x6); 7 — the left transaxle mount hole (sheet s8); 8 — lug idler pulley (band 45×8); 9 — reinforcing wall (band 65×8, 2); 10 — reinforcing the placket (the strip 20×8); 11 — the cradle of the right transaxle mount hole (area 28x28x3); 12 — bearing housing and the additional support shaft; 13 — additional support (sheet s8); 14 — bracket control panel (area 28x28x3); 15,29 — bracket (pipe 27,4×4); 16,19 —eyes rotating unit (sheet s13); of 17.35 — loop fastening of the lever of the winch (strip 30×5); 18 — steering eye (sheet s14); 21 — jumper (area 50x50x5); 22 — front (channel № 6,5, 2); 23 — bolt M16 (4 piece); 24 — bearing axle (strip 36×15, L175, 2 PCs); 25 — control puck (4 pieces); 26 — bearing housing drive axle (2 pieces); 27,32 — bolts M10; 28 — Klondike (sheet s8); 30— mount casing running circuit (28x28x3 area); 31 — mounting bracket additional support (strip 30×8, L100); a 33 — plate (sheet s5): 34 — mounting bracket for steering eyes (utolok 50x50x5); 36 nut M10 (2 PCs.); 37,38 — loop attachment of front implements (sheet s6)

 
Under the frame — axle rotating in two bearings 208, the housing for which was chosen the best of Gentle parts, and the cover is turned in addition.
 
The force from the engine to the wheels is transmitted by two gears from the shank of the crankshaft to the gearbox V-belt (belt with section type A), and from box to wheels — chain (in increments of t = 19,05).
 
Why used V-belt drive? Because it is gentle on all of their homemade vehicles prefer as a linkage mechanism to use a idler pulley. He believes what the clutch is more reliable and remontoprigoden any other. At least, personal experience has convinced him of this repeatedly. Idler pulley 120 mm in diameter on the tractor at the end of the pivot arm and is driven through the cable in the sheath, the end of which is secured to the handle grip under the steering wheel.
 
To the output shank of the crankshaft pulley worn-strand. The first stream is designed for running belt, the second for the generator. The generator is installed in front of the engine on the special shelf of steel strips, welded to the front bumper (the holes in the shelf mounting bolt of the generator in the picture frame not shown, but shows the cutout in the right front corner of the frame for the fan shroud of the engine).
 
In addition, another V-belt is applied in the brake mechanism of the tractor. Usually this mechanism is used at low speeds and as a Supplement to the braking system of the trailer, which is considered the main one.
 
For this the input shaft of the gearbox is extended and he planted a double-strand pulley with a diameter of 260 mm from some agricultural machines. To shaft clean out of the bending efforts, its end strengthened with an additional support bearing 205.
 
On the left the Creek of the pulley wearing a long drive belt, the right short brake. The last cut, and its upper end fixed to the nearest support bracket control panel, and the bottom is connected with the pedal on the same support. Enough to turn off the clutch, that is, to release the tension on the drive belt and step on the pedal, as the brake “grab” pulley and will significantly slow the running of the “little brother”.
 
On the output shaft of the transaxle has a small sprocket connected by roller chain with a large driving sprocket on the shaft of a driving axle. Stretched the chain by selecting the thickness of the four shims on the bolts securing the axle to the frame.
 
YOUR HELPER IN THE GARDEN
 
Drive shaft pestiferously, monolithic. Rotation from the driving sprocket is transmitted directly to both wheels. It would seem that the gain due to the simplicity of the design must be reduced to zero because of problems with turns. However, experience has shown that there are no such problems. Even when driving on asphalt — the author of a witness — difficulties with the management of the tractor was not. Obviously, the track of the tractor is so small (only 860 mm!), bus (from electric cars) and the driving shaft is powerful, and the soil, which moves on a “Small brother”, mainly loose that the wheel turns easily cope with the overload.
 
By the way, thick tires, are designed for very high pressure air (electric car — it is, after all, hoisting machine), allowed Careful significantly improve the coupling quality of the wheels. In every spare moment Victor Dmitrievich took up a sharp knife and cut around the edge in a dense array of rubber recesses. Over time, almost “bald” tires have gained quite a prominent tread pattern.
 
Expected difficulties with the installation of the wheels. Drives they split, the six bolts so that the tire mounting operation called “razbaltyvaniya” in this case is excluded. It is not easy, however, to manually pump the chamber up to several tens of atmospheres. But while Careful to do it only accounted for once.
 
If we talk about specific components of the tractor, the most difficult knot, of course, the frame. For its production went to the steel profiles of different cross-section.
 
YOUR HELPER IN THE GARDEN
 
At first glance, the frame looks like a conglomeration of most of these profiles. However, each of them went to his place not by chance, but as a result of multiple checks for performance. Following his principle of reasonable sufficiency, the designer sometimes went to the obvious weighting of any joint, but dramatically simplifying the shape of the welded joint. It gave a noticeable gain in time, in the consumption of energy and resources.
 
Longer he had to Tinker with the turning hub, the manufacture of which was necessary to resort to lathe work. Since the articulation of the tractor-trailer had to meet the principle of “breaking” the frame with two degrees of freedom, Victor D. for the sake of saving time (spring pressed) stopped on the first variant with an intermediate hinge element with two mutually perpendicular axes of rotation. Benefit all the necessary parts including the needle and tapered bearings at hand then had.
 
Today, however, the designer would advise your possible followers who agree with this embodiment, rotary unit, to make it even more simple. And for this instead of built-in needle bearings 4074104 and homemade king pin to use a regular twin needle bearings 46490518 and the finger of the gearbox GAZ-51, but instead tapered bearings 7606Н and 7607 and homemade axle — regular tapered bearings and the axle of the front wheel hub of the same car. Of course, if they are available.
 
And the last one. In the pictures in the Intro clearly shows that almost all the units of the power plant “Small brother” are hidden by the hood and the front bumper of coarse channel — more decorative chrome bumper from “penny” VAZ-2101 (shortened and without the “fangs”).
 
The hood is made of cutting steel sheet with a thickness of 1 mm and equipped with a metal fine screen for access of air to the crankcase of the engine (front) and cooling fan (right), and a hinge spring holders located on the wings and headlights for movement in the dark. Holders and both headlights from the car GAZ — 51.
 
Technical data of tractor-trailer
 
Length, mm………………………………………………………………………… 3560
Width, mm:
tagaca………………………………………………………………………………..1040
Kosova………………………………………………………………………………..1270
Height, mm………………………………………………………………………..1130
The track of the tractor, mm………………………………………………………………….860
Engine……………………………………………………………………….UD2-M1
Engine power (at 3000 Rev min), HP……………………………..8
Fuel consumption, l/100 km………………………………………………………..10
Maximum speed, km/h………………………………………………….60
Transport speed, km/h…………………………………………………..40
Load capacity, kg…………………………………………………………….760

 
A. TIMCHENKO

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