left — plan view of the right — the reference node.
The space under the stairs usually used for utility rooms, equipped with under area, etc. are placed cabinets, shelves, sofa, trunk for household purposes or tool. In all cases the General solution has the drawing and character designs to be integrated with a ladder.
Marches, leading to the second floor, I try to be open-source. Therefore, it is essential to the form, proportions, finish and color. It is necessary to consider everything: the thickness of the stringers, the sizes of steps, railings and most importantly — the angle of the stairs. It can be from 45° to 60°. Very steep stairs (slope over 60°) it is difficult to climb, not safe for children, it is difficult for the elderly. However, with increasing tilt angle of the March is reduced occupied by the staircase space.
The width of the March is sufficient, and 600-700 mm, the angle of inclination is 60°. The height of handrails from level steps of 80 cm.
Before you can build a ladder, you should choose the most convenient place for its location to determine elevation, slope, and also to decide which design to choose. The diagrams show different variants of the device of the marches (Fig. 1).
Fig. 1. The constructive scheme of the stairways:
1 — with steps “a tree”, 2 — direct with projections, 3 — with slanting steps.
Given the sequence of pacing steps, you can reduce the length of their reference sites or place them at an angle of 120° (Fig. 1) — in all cases, the thickness of the Board for the stage is 40 mm, and podstupenka — 30 mm. Each stage or podstupenok draws or cuts in the stringers are parallel bars, resting against a floor of the first floor and the beam slab of the second.
Fig. 2. The ladder of the “tree”.
A slightly different version of the device straight stairs was prompted by the Hungarian magazine “Earmaster” (Fig. 3). As the bearing parts (stringers) used dimensional box formed by the two inclined boards and attached on the sides podstupennikov. The length of the box depends on the storey height and the angle of inclination.
Fig. 3. Odnomarshevaya staircase box type and its elements:
1 — shields 2 — stage, 3 — podstupennikov.
For each pair podstupennikov fit shaped notch of variable width from 110 to 240 mm, length 650 mm. Its the largest area and will be a support for feet.
For a fairly spacious rooms (15 m
2) to recommend to the spiral staircase. She also fits well into the interior, being an additional decorative element. If the place for this ladder is still limited PA size, it can be adjacent to the walls of the room.
The design, shown in figure 4, were shown at an exhibition in Moscow, the Finnish firm “Test OOPS” for residential single family homes. This ladder is assembled from standard elements, as children’s designer. The degrees are fixed only at one end and represent the console; the other end is connected with vertical ribs, forming a stepped handrail.
Fig. 4. Spiral staircase and its elements:
1 — pipe rack, 2 — tier, 3 — wheels-spacers.
Externally, the seemingly complicated form of the ladder is actually created from simple elements: the uniform plates of the treads and spacers between them in the form of wooden disks or cylinders, total height 100 mm. In the present embodiment, all these elements are strung on a metal tube rigidly mounted in the floor (bottom) and ceiling (top). Board thickness for steps equal to 50 mm, length 1000 mm; width near the support 280 mm, from the edge of the railing — 425 mm.
Extensive experience in creating simple and at the same time elegant stairs inside the house have accumulated and in many republics of our country: in the Baltic States, Ukraine, Moldova.
Higher the room the ladder can be half-pace or polutorametrovoy (Fig. 5), which allows to maintain the angle of 45°. The March design here consists of two parallel stringers on which are set the stage podstupenniki. I-beam platforms are attached to the walls and wood rack, at the same time retaining the stringer of the stairs. This same rack and attached railings fence height 800 mm Dimensions of the intermediate platform width and length are the same (750X750 mm): because it fits with the same width of the sections of the ladder.
Fig. 5. Scheme half-pace stairs:
1 lower marsh, 2 — rail, 3 — strut, 4 — deck, 5 — upper marsh.
And figure 6 shows a design hillside stairs, is proposed by our reader Sergei Novikov from the city of Orel.
Fig. 6. A steep staircase with exposed treads.
What is its peculiarity? It differs from the others in that each stage is made of boards with a cut: first, the billet is divided in half in the longitudinal and transverse directions, and then from it cut a part. All stages are attached to the stringers so that the neckline of the first one was right and the next left, then back right, etc.
With this placement the ascent and descent easier as resting the foot through the neck does not prevent located above a step that is especially felt when a steep staircase.
Such constructive solutions are found in the homes of the GDR, Czechoslovakia, Poland, and Finland.
It is important to choose the appropriate color of the stairs, and aligning it with the interior. Good effect gives transparent lacquer furniture; suitable and oil paint and combinations of bright and dark tones (yellow and brown, black and light gray, etc.).
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