AT THE START OF THE MODEL-COPY

AT THE START — MODEL-COPYVery often the students see on television or in a magazine, the launch of the spacecraft, have a vital interest in how this happens. If I could build such a rocket! And-models are very close to real rockets: same shape, only the size is much smaller.

-Models of missiles play a big role in aerospace education of youth. In the process of working on them, “the rocketeer” learn to read, match and draw up the technical documentation, get acquainted with history of creation and development of space-rocket techniques, study design missiles. At the same time, the process of learning the fundamentals of designing and manufacturing of individual components and the whole model. In this creative process, develop skills of solving technical problems, chief of which is the creation of a flying copy of the rocket.

Some of the most interesting in the missile and space modeling-models category S7. In my opinion, this “higher mathematics” in flying sports and technical creativity.

Category S7-models to the realism of flight is the only indivisible classes. The competition in this category is perhaps the most interesting not only for participants but also for spectators. After all, not many of us can see what is called a “live” launch of these missiles. And launches miniature models provide an opportunity to experience firsthand this process.

First began to simulate the carrier rocket “Vostok”.

After the flight of Yuri Gagarin thousands of students wanted to build a model rocket, who brought in the space ship “Vostok”. But resisted the boyish impulse only one — there were no drawings. The first flying copy of the “Vostok” was launched in the summer of 1968. And in August of the same year the first all-Union competitions have been played the championship in the class models. Champion was the girl from the suburban town of Elektrostal Natasha Chrastekova. Nice to know that I was involved in this: Natasha for many years engaged me in a circle at the station of young technicians.

The history of the creation of its model. When ripe, the desire to make a flying copy of the “East”, we began to read Newspapers and magazines, write letters to the TASS photo Agency, to get acquainted with books on rocketry. By collecting the crumbs of material, managed to create using a single reliable size — the diameter of the engine nozzle of the first stage, drawing on which we have built flying model rocket “Vostok”, which were reduced in 100 times. With it, we have begun flight testing and participation in competitions.

Each skilled forger who dream about winning, stops the choice on the complex prototype. To them today include carrier rockets of spacecrafts “Soyuz”, “proton”, “Saturn-1” to “Saturn-V”, “Ariane” all modifications “Zenit-S”, “Cyclone”. In many respects the advantage of already being set in the first stage — “the stand”. This is confirmed by statistics. Often (seven times) have become Champions athletes with models-replicas of launch vehicles “Saturn” and “Union” of various modifications.

So, on the first and second world Championships (1972 and 1974) champion Otakar Effec (Czechoslovakia) was performed with a copy of the rocket “Saturn V”. And at the last two world Championships in 2004 and 2006 with a clear advantage won Alexander Left (Russia), sporting “weapon” which was a copy of the carrier rocket of the spacecraft “Soyuz TM-12”, reduced 50 times. A flying replica of the legendary “Union” first appeared in international competitions in 1978. It presented a world champion Maurice Messiah (Bulgaria). He repeated the same success at the next world Cup. And also — with the “Union”.

Competition

Requirements for models-copies category S7: starting weight — no more than 1.5 kg, the mass of the fuel not higher than 125 g; the total momentum of up to 100 NS, the number of feet — no more than three.

Based on the requirements of the code of FAI competition models S7 include two stages. First — poster evaluation, the maximum number of points is 850. This amount is awarded to judges on the following items: the documentation for prototype — 50 points, according to the scale — up to 250 points craftsmanship — maximum 350 points, degree of difficulty, up to 200 points.

The second stage performance characteristics, the maximum number of points is 250.

The amount of the sum of points awarded for demonstration of effects, characteristic of the prototype that implements the model in flight: the division of stages, the reset of the fairing, ejection accelerators, etc.

It is not more than 60 points. The remaining amount falls on the rating of the start, flight, landing (parachutes) and the use of “working” model
engines (up to 30 points) more than one. All special effects must be documented (in the description or drawings).

Where to start?

This question always arises in one who for the first time is going to build a model copy. Answer — with the selection of a prototype to copy. Just want to save you “rocket scientists” from the error which had been made by many. It is not necessary at first, not having sufficient experience and skills to take on complex prototype. Her long experience of a teacher is flying a circle of syt I learned that the student, unable to cope with the difficult and voluminous work, may forever throw this hobby. My advice to new copyists — stop the choice on the simple configuration prototype. This may be the first Soviet missiles from the R-1, R-2 (different versions) and R-5 to research rockets of Mr-12, Mr-2, M-1006.

The next stage in the work on the model-copy — selection documentation and the choice of scale. Copy is a reduced model of existing or existed missiles, guided missiles, and rockets for space vehicles. To confirm the compliance of the prototype and the model, the participant must provide the judges information about the prototype: its size, shape, color, and figure painting, marking. Minimal data, which can guarantee the classification of the copies are the length and diameter, a photograph of missiles in General.

This information should be from reliable sources: magazines, books, drawings, certified by manufacturer, copies, again certified by the seal of the Federation of flying sports of Russia. Photos can be from any source. But at least the documentation does not guarantee the maximum score (50 points) for the documentation. And, as a consequence, will lower the rating in other positions. It is desirable to have pictures of all parts, individual components, assemblies and working drawing. In addition, they will be useful when working on a copy.

Today there is no shortage of printed materials which can be used to build models. This book “the Spaceport is on the table” (1999) — the author of these lines, “Sports-models of rockets” (2006), Vladimir Minakov, the magazine “Russian space”, “news of cosmonautics”, “modelist-Konstruktor” and others.

Scale models-copies in the end determines the size of the future aircraft. By the way, the scale reduction of the model size of the original (prototype) need not be a whole number. It may be fractional. Sometimes this is dictated by the diameter of the nozzle of the engine of this rocket and the diameter of MRD, which are proposed for installation on the flying model. And sometimes the presence of suitable mandrels for the manufacture of elements of the copy. Vsekommentarii especially true for those “rocket scientists”, who have no opportunity to make these.

And again. When choosing a scale model you need to immediately “lay” her energy. In other words, to decide on what engines it will start.

 

So, for a single pulse of 20 mrad B. S. its length is desirable to choose within 800 — 900 mm and a diameter of about 50 — 60 mm. the Starting mass must be equal to about 300 g. I Can assure you that this copy is quite capable to make out of paper.

The final stage of the selection documentation and choice of scale by the production of a working drawing, drawing sketches of the individual elements and mandrel to the nodes of the future miniature missiles.

Model-a copy of the R-5V

In my opinion, for “specialization” in the copies the most suitable samples from the first Soviet ballistic-ical rockets, created in OKB-1 headed by S. P. Korolev. I believe that the construction of models of domestic missiles to a large extent contribute to the Patriotic education of youth.

Geophysical rocket R-5V

Geophysical rocket R-5V

Geophysical rocket R-5V


The first launches of research rockets, from created on the basis of R-1, began in 1951, the R-2A since 1957. Further development of them was the R-5, then R-5M, which has developed a series of research from geophysical rockets R-5A to R-5ВАО. In 1963, she was born subsequent modification of the — R-5V (sometimes referred TO-5V). She had a stable head part to study ultraviolet radiation from the Sun. A spherical container (high-altitude astrophysical Observatory — VAO) was placed under a conical fairing, which separated from the rocket after the active phase of its flight. The R-5V with success you can implement in flight demonstrations-models.

Manufacturer

So, with the choice of the prototype, we decided. I guess I “persuaded” the future of copyists: build a model of the R-5V. Technical data: length — 22,66 m; length of the head portion is 5.5 m; diameter — 1,652 ft; range of stabilizers — 3,452 m; launch weight of 29.5 t; engine operating time — 120 s. the Maximum altitude of about 500 km. the Mass of the payload lifted was up to 1350 kg. flight Control of rocket R-5 were carried out aerodynamic and gas rudders.

The design of the R-5V is not complex. Her entire body length of 17.16 m welded, riveted reinforcement served as fuel tanks — ethyl alcohol and liquid oxygen. Wiring, cables have been blown out and closed garrote and boxes.

At the top of the case had a cone (ogive shape) with a length of 1,837 m, to which was attached the instrument section with a length of 2.05 m. In the main fairing (the length of it — of 3.48 m) were placed (depending on flight program) pressurized cabin for animals, balloon probe, sensors and devices for sampling and geophysical surveys.

After reviewing the main technical data of the prototype, select the degree of reduction. In my opinion, to the category most appropriate S7 scale 1:25. The length of the model thus turns out 906,4 mm, maximum diameter — mm. 66,08 In my memory many of the models are copies, especially the winners of the competitions had just such a scale. It remains to count all the dimensions of such a reduction and make a working drawing. Immediately “lay” material — drawing paper with a thickness of 0.2 — 0.25 mm.

Model making-copies need to carve three mandrel (preferably of metal): main body diameter of 65 mm and a length of about 650 mm: the transition cone ogive shape with a length of about 110 mm in diameter at the base length 99 mm — 65 and 54.8 mm; the upper cylinder (instrument module) is a length of 100 mm and a diameter of 54.8 mm. All the diameters of the mandrels should be reduced by 1 mm (0,5 mm wall thickness).

Body glue two layers of construction paper using casein glue on the mandrel with a diameter of 65 mm. Remember that the paper gives greater shrinkage, but the details turn out much tighter than when using other glues. Paper blank size 600×430 mm (fiber paper always have along a mandrel) was wrapped once (in one layer) along the mandrel. The rest of the surface coat with glue, giving it a little dry, tightly wound on the first layer and carefully iron the entire piece.

After drying, the workpiece housing is treated with sandpaper and cover with two layers of nitrocellulose lacquer. Then, holding the mandrel in the Chuck of the lathe, butt body to a desired size by length 587 mm rotation Frequency of the minimum is about 100 rpm. And here, on the machine, put a pencil marking of the welds, and then glue on her cuts thin cotton thread, simulating the welds. Then, placing a frame around a bucket of water, remove the hull. In the same way and made the top cylinder (the instrument compartment), its length is 80 mm.

A transition housing having a arched shape, made by papier-mache. Doing it this way. Slightly heat the mandrel and grease it with mastic or wax. Then cut out of paper petals with a length of 110 mm and a width at the ends of the 30 mm and 25 mm. Moisten them, smeared with PVA glue and applied to the mandrel with the wide side on the larger diameter. On one layer you need 8 — 9 petals, the width of the overlap of the petals 5 to 7 mm. Just need to paste 5 — 6 layers. After drying, the mandrel with the workpiece is clamped in a lathe at low RPMs, treat the surface with a fine file and emery paper. Then, when rotating the Chuck, put a layer of liquid putty, allow to dry and treat again. If there are irregularities, we must again proshpaklevat, process and trim the sharpened cutter to length — 99 mm.

The connection of the case elements is performed as follows. From basswood turn three sleeves: one (bottom) plays the role of the power frame; the other two serve for fastening the housing, the transition cone and the instrument module. The width of the sleeves 22 mm and 13 mm wall Thickness — 2.5 mm First sleeve with a diameter of 54.8 mm connect the upper cylinder and the cone element and the lower (aft) part of the main body glued power frame with a width of 48 mm. this mating parts preferably mounted vertically on a flat plate, and the top to press down a small load.

After drying, finally assemble the housing, kleiva in its upper (free) end of epoxy resin of the second sleeve with a diameter of 65 mm, and put two (already glued) element of a cone and instrument compartment (small cylinder). The joints are lightly sanded and coated the entire body with a nitrocellulose lacquer. In the rear of the hull, in a circle, doing four curly cut for a length of 18 mm. the Remaining four elements serve as a place of fastening of the stabilizer, mounted on the inside parts, gas rudders for the number of copies and supports at the start. All external elements of the bottom part of the housing is made of lime, putty and paint black. Attach them to the finished model.
Outside along the entire length of the body paste of the thread, simulating the welds (if it was not possible to do this operation on the machine). Cuts of cotton strands longer than 200 mm need to pre-coat 2 — 3 times a nitrocellulose lacquer with the subsequent removal of the pile. All the speakers and exterior details (doors, transition bands, etc.) made from paper, imitation rivets carry out a method of rolling of gears with a pitch of 1.5 — 2 mm Gargrota for laying of cables, plug sockets, pads, Linden slats of appropriate size.

Antenna pin (four of them) cut from strips of fiberglass with a thickness of 2 mm, and a framework (six), diamond shape, solder of the needles from the syringe with a diameter of 1 mm. Attach the antenna at the connection of the elements of the case, where there is reinforcement inside of sleeve width 22 mm. Pre-painting them black.

Stabilizers (four of them) are cut from the balsa plate thickness of 6 mm, collected in a package on the drops of glue and handle on the contour with sandpaper, glued to the bar. Their dimensions (length and width) doing 2 — 2.5 mm less. Then stick around and all parties (except the biggest) lime strips (to enhance edges). Then cook them on a path to the desired size and profile. Then coated with nitrocellulose lacquer, and the sides hang writing paper from which to cut blanks and make the simulated rivets.

Fairing machined from billet Linden, within easy curly boring cutter. Landing the skirt has a diameter of 54.8 mm and a length of 25 mm. due To the fact that the prototype fairing riveted, imitation rivets done as follows. From pre-coated with nitrocellulose lacquer writing paper (density 80 g/m3 ) cut out template four pieces: two on the top of the cone, two on the bottom. They draw a line of rivets and roll the gear. (By the way, just simulate the riveting on the aft part of the hull). Then glue them to the fairing, and again cover with a nitrovarnish. Imitation outdoor items from the phony rails, and drawing paper (hatches). Giving a good dry, the fairing painted white.

Dyeing and finishing of

The choice of colors today is wide enough. The model described above painted by nitropaints of different colors according to the drawing. To avoid sagging and Sadovo coloring should be done in parts — separately, case, stabilizers, etc. Markings (labels, lines, supports, part numbers) is performed by daylami.

Run the model on one engine MRD-20-10-4. Starting weight is about 285 g.

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