In the days of preparation to the XVII Congress of the Komsomol, the Central Council of VOIR, the Ministry of light industry and the Ministry of education of the USSR adopted a decision to hold from 25 April 1974 to 1 March 1975 the all-Union contest for the best sample of IG| tabs and items for children’s technical creativity. The main goal of the competition is to promote the further development of children’s technical creativity, expansion and strengthening of its material base, to find new means of propaganda of achievements of science and technology in the most accessible for children and adolescents form.
In the mess the country with technical toys produced now not only by specialized enterprises and factories in virtually all sectors of the economy.
Assortment of toys for diverse students: there are all sorts of cars, and military equipment, the designers and trade models, microelectronical and internal combustion engines for modeling. Many of them reflect the contemporary state of science and technology, meet the requirements of school programs. In recent time, more and more toys with elements of electronics, automation. Technical toy becomes complicated in accordance with increasing requirements to its quality.
Continuously growing interest in technical toys. Despite the fact that more than 850 industrial enterprises annually produce over 10 thousand different products in the amount of 800 million rubles every year on the shelves of more than 1100 of new toys, the demand is still not satisfied.
Many company toy need help of skilled craftsmen live, need samples, designed not only for children of preschool and younger school age, but Junior high and high school, teenagers, pupils of vocational and technical schools. Therefore, all the interesting proposals submitted to the contest, the Ministry of light industry of the USSR will recommend to the development industry.
The competition is open to all comers: private Amateur designers or groups of them, groups of organizations and institutions.
The contest may be submitted to: technical toys with mechanisms of any type, motors for toys and models, nodes control toys and models, sets for modeling and constructing equipment for conducting experiments in automation, remote control, etc.
The main requirement for competitive designs is their adaptability. This means that the design should be unique, when creating it should take into account the peculiarities of industrial mass production, maximum mechanization and automation of all production processes, to provide for the use of standard component parts (batteries and power supply, resistors, capacitors, triode, etc.), cheap and readily available raw materials.
The second important requirement is a clear age orientation of the sample. The study of consumer demand have shown that the preference for technical toys to have children, especially boys, with age and 4-5 years of sharply increasing interest to designers, models, and other creative toys. So, the boys in 48 cases out of 100 chose them. Preference is more likely the higher the parents ‘ education. It is clear that the author should consider physiological characteristics of childhood and adolescence, the knowledge level of the consumer, his insatiable desire to understand in the game itself (even at the risk to break it) and create something new and original.
Modern toys used a variety of engines: only microelectrophoresis for them annually produces about 10 million pieces. The stores can be found inertial and wind-up toys of different sizes. However, the problem is simple, economical motor for toys is one of the most important in this industry.
Produced in the country microelectrophoresis (der) does not satisfy the designers nor the efficiency nor size. For toys need an engine Ø 20-30 mm at the moment on a shaft 10 gem and efficiency at least 40%. It is advisable not to use magnetic alloys using cobalt, improve performance (service life) up to 40— 50 h, to apply a voltage of 1-1. 2 V.
A more powerful dose rate of 15, 20 and 35 gem with variable speed speed reducers, including “wave-mesh”.
The drive toys can be offered and other engines with any source of energy (compressed air motors, etc.).
For flying and floating models, models of vehicles are now widely used in various internal combustion engines, but their set of power (volume of cylinder) is not so full as we would like, and design in some cases inferior to the best foreign samples. Therefore, these samples will be met by the competition jury. Maybe among miniature engines will be original in design diesels, and even “Stirling”, “Eriksen”…
The engine power of VN domestic combustion, the number of revolutions can be in a wide range: thus, the model aircraft can fit on the palm of your hand or have a wingspan of 2-3 m, and existing car models can even be capable of carrying a child.
By the way, these car — size of the usual pedal or a map — it would be interesting to use the electric motor. This would, perhaps, create a new sport for future drivers, race electrocardiol, for example. With all the advantages of conventional go-karting, they would have one huge advantage — no noise, which is due to the objections of others is often a major obstacle to the development of this technical sport. And in relation to security, including fire, electrocar would have won.
Wonderful release could be a model electroanalyt (similar cord model already released a Japanese firm, however, the length of the cords is less than 1.5 m). Cord for airplanes and cars need powerful motors with low weight, and their management by wire, a radically new design of the actuator.
Low power toy engines require the use of gearboxes, energy storage type springs, pneumococcal and like devices, which at the right moment could bring the toy in motion a strong impetus. Required gear rocker gear enable new propulsion system, the second mechanism.
We also need control units — from basic panels to multi-channel radios, and when designing these elements of the toys like any other node and details, take into account the requirements of ergonomics and mnemonics. A promising wireless communication system with control of light, sound, ultrasound, radio, and in the “magnetic loop” and others.
It is advisable to apply toys a programming device, including mechanical, Electromechanical, electronic and the like; mechanical and Electromechanical sensors “edge of table”, “wall”, “barrier” and other obstacles that have, for example, to get around.
The toy should engage the child. This is not to forget the main thing: about the elements of surprise and the fun that can surprise, arouse interest and curiosity. But to teach” the doll to walk, talk, dog to do backflips, barking, chasing flies, running, etc. is not easy even for skilled professionals.
Along with this, it is desirable that the toy designers — participants of the contest took into account the possibility of their use by the group children of the same age, the possibility of collective games, which is especially important in pre-school and after-school child care.
Features of this collective education require a complex set of interrelated toys: construction sets, designers
with croup 1ыми elements, sets of parts to build various working models and devices.
Modern toys can be used unfairly-forgotten technical devices of mechanical sound recording, steam engines, mechanisms of movement of dolls and figures and much more.
Boundless and natural desire of children to create something new. This industry produces various sets of simulated and design — from the simplest “Mechanical-design” to the collection of plastic “Icebreaker”. Constructor without words contributes to the development of design skills in the child, but stamped out of metal strips and corners with holes already cannot meet all children’s needs: need constructors with surround parts allowing you to create skeletal diagrams of mechanisms, and three-dimensional and active.
Modular models of various aircraft, ships and other modes of transport people familiar with present and past technology, promote military-Patriotic education, however, still difficult to get accurate sketches and drawings of old sailing ships, car Ala the XX century. Then the guys can help tall ship – and avtomodelisty, people interested in building model Railways and aircraft.
When you create competition, you need to remember on the accepted international scale: 1: 400, 1: 200 and 1:100 for ships, 1: 160, 1: 120 and 1: 87 for Railways; 1: 43, 1: 32 and 1: 24 for car; 1: 16 and 1:8 — for motorcycles; 1: 32 and 1:24 for military equipment. These standards will be introduced in the USSR. They will allow you to organize dimensions toys, to make toys and proportionate to create playgrounds for families and children’s institutions.
Almost in the manufacture of toys now with no magic tricks, puzzles, and other amusements, and here for imagination no end. Sets, magic tricks and puzzles would have been great helpers and the pioneer leader and entertainer, and in any family, in any yard, the children would use them, as well as simple theme with elements of competition for dexterity, speed of reaction, etc.
You can come up with interesting simulators-rides to test the knowledge, learning the rules of traffic, follow the car driving, aircraft landing, space mission, work processes. Such simulators can be quite complex: with the use of electronic circuits, mechanisms with electric actuators.
Young technicians and modelers with the necessary tool kits, various stanochki, adaptations, taking into account safety, ergonomics, affordable and compact. A good tool for creating electronic circuits may be modular designers electronic toys, electronic musical instruments, simulated sound, the simplest computer examiners. Offering all of these things, it is important to explain that during the game, children and Teens ve just relax, have fun, but learn, learn new knowledge, acquire the skills of working in a team, create something useful not only for themselves but also for society.
The program of the competition included and toys exhibition “Children and technology”, organized by the Main Department for the production of toys of the Ministry of light industry of the USSR. It will run from 25 July to 25 August and will demonstrate the achievements of the toy industry over the years 1965-1974. In four halls of the Museum, where an exhibition shows more than 3,000 different toys that reflect the level of science and technology, contemporary life and fiction, as the production of toys in the country, the development of technical and artistic creativity of Soviet children.
The contest results will be announced in March 1975. We invite you to participate in the collectives of industrial enterprises, organizations, and institutions in all sectors of the economy paradnogo, teachers, schools, universities and colleges, inventors and innovators. The organizers have provided an increase in the amount of premiums to 20% if it has been granted for development, is protected by the copyright certificate on the invention (marked by a positive decision on the issuance of a copyright certificate). And for all the rest of the winners has 5 peraih premiums for 500 rubles, 10 second — 250 rubles, 10 third — from 150 rubles and 10 runner — 75 rubles.
All samples should be sent to the address: Moscow, B-140, lower Krasnoselskaya str., 12, CKTBI, indicating “For the competition” and the names, had the middle name of the author, place of work or residence, information about the availability of patents for inventions or industrial designs; applications for alleged inventions and other documents confirming the authorship of the submitted sample.
In the case that the sample submitted by the group of authors must be indicated the share of each in its creation.
All samples submitted to the contest, held chrapanie in CKTBI, and at the end of the contest returned to the authors.
The participation of the authors in the contest and the award does not deprive them of the right to remuneration
V. VOLODIN, Deputy head of the Main Department for the production of toys of the Ministry of light industry of the USSR