SENTINEL OF THE DEEP SEA

SENTINEL OF THE SEAWith the creation of the first combat submarines mankind was in the hands of weapons of great destructive power. Not all naval power and did not immediately appreciated its power and the danger that it represented for shipping. However, until that time, until the sub was technically flawed and the weapons are more defensive than offensive, in the organization of any serious opposition to them by surface ships was not necessary. With this task successfully cope with any armed ship. But it did not last long. Improving submarines have left no doubt that soon they will become a serious enemy surface ships.

By the beginning of the first world war, Germany, Russia, England and other countries had a large number of combat-ready submarines.
 
The first impetus to the creation of weapons and ships against them was the attack on 22 September 1914 the legacy of the German submarine 11-9 three British cruisers “Aboukir”, “Hogue” and “cressey”. As a result, more than hour battle three cruisers were sunk. In the Russian theater of war 11 Oct 1914-26 put to the bottom of Russian cruiser “Pallada” with the whole crew. In the North, the submarines destroyed the transports, sailing schooners, fired encampments, mines, exposed, undermined the warships of the allies.
 
The results of the submarine war led to the horror of the naval Ministry: if of 372 German submarines killed 178 (69 of them sunk by surface ships), England lost 2260, ship, Russia has lost 106 vessels with a total tonnage of over 150 tons All this encouraged to take protective measures against the underwater enemy. So, ships began to walk in convoys that have significantly reduced losses. Appeared court-traps, have begun to develop projects of anti-submarine weapons.
 
Russian inventors before the war were looking for ways of dealing with submarines. Flagship artillery officer of the 2nd brigade of cruisers Lieutenant G. N. Pell, suggested the shells of special design — diving. In November 1914, was tested, and ship new shells and instructions for their use. In 1916, the British designed and implemented the first depth bombs of 54 and 135 kg. There are special high-speed ships equipped with sonar stations that have already “heard” under the water, and mortars-governmental units such as the “Sea urchin” (“Hedgehog”), And the main role in the struggle with steel “shark” continued to play destroyers and patrol ships.
 
In the Soviet Union before world war II began the construction of large hunters submarines PR. 122A and a small and maneuverable boat MO-4. Posledniaia world war showed that the submarine became a formidable offensive weapon, to expand its zone of influence on the oceans, and the lack of means of anti-submarine warfare can significantly impede and even paralyze transport and military transport in the zone of military conflict.
In the mid 50-ies in the Navy of the USSR there was a small hunters for submarines, in a wooden building, constructed on the basis of SD-200 and 199, and more sophisticated in the steel building (building 201). Their weapons consisted mostly of depth charges dropped on a submarine.
 
The appearance of atomic submarines possessing a long time to move underwater at speeds up to 30 knots, radically changed the requirements for opposing ships. Was needed better tools for fighting in the first place the sonar station and rapid-fire multi-barreled rocket mortars, which could detect and hit the boat volleys of depth charges ahead of the ship. These weapons for the first time in domestic shipbuilding introduced the new project of small anti-submarine ship (D. 204), replaced the small hunters of the first postwar decades.
 
Experience has shown that for various anti-submarine tasks require fast, highly maneuverable, limited (400 — 500 MT) tonnage ships with special weapons.
 
This ship was designed at the Almaz Central marine design Bureau under the leadership of chief designer E. I. yuhnin. It was created on the basis of large missile boats “Molniya-1”. The lead ship of the new project 1241.2 (code “Molniya-2”) was commissioned in 1979. (Add-on from the first three ships are somewhat lower than subsequent.)
 
Their purpose is anti-submarine ship of the coastal area and according to the classification adopted in the Navy of the USSR, and then Russia referred to the class of small anti-submarine warfare (in reference to NATO as corvettes are ASW type “РАUК”-кlass).
 
Case — steel, ship of special low-alloy high-strength steel, the superstructure is made of aluminium alloys, marine grades. System of corrosion protection ensures reliability and durability all metal construction.
 
Small antisubmarine ship PR 1241ПЭ
 
 
 
Small antisubmarine ship PR 1241ПЭ
 
Small antisubmarine ship PR 1241ПЭ:
1 — bow anchor fire 2 — anchor Mat Rosov (cast), 3 — gun mount AK-176,4 — shade deck lighting, 5 —speaker, 6 — tail distinctive fire (right side green, left side red), 7 — repeater gyrocompass, 8 — spotlight 9 — radar Mr-123 “Vympel” ,10 — horn, 11 — RPU radar “Positive”, 12,14 — top lamps 13 — navigation radar “Pechora-1”, 15 — biconical antenna (3 PCs.), 16 — frame finder, 17 — flagship fire, 18—column remote manual fire control gun mounts, 19 — set MTU-4УС, 20 — Crescent sabaliauskas davits, a 21 — gun mount AK-630M, 22 — stern light 23 — launcher PU-16, 24 — Flagstaff, 25 — stern anchor fire 26 — of the wheel, 27 — screw 28 — Sprayhood gas exhaust, a 29 — fairing podlinnoi GUS, a 30 — chain stopper, 31 anchor windlass, 32 — bollards, 33 ventilation the headroom, 34 — balneoclinic, 35 — views 36 — reactive Bambaataa installation RBU-1200M, 37 — lamp lighting, 38 — bale strap, a 39 — 533-mm twin-tube torpedo tubes, 40 torpedoes on the lodgements, 41 container liferaft, 42 — ladder outboard, 43 — mooring spire, 44 is a motor working boat RSP is 5.5, 45 — hatch for loading RBU-1200M, 46 — power supply cable from the shore.

 
When designing IPC Ave 1241.2 were mostly saved layout defense weapon, adopted for large missile boats. The tank is an automatic single-barrel 76-mm gun mount AK-176M, and in the stern, one six-barreled 30 mm AK-630M and installation of MTU-4УС for four type MANPADS “Strela-3” or “Igla”, capable of hitting aerial targets at ranges from 0.5 to 5 km, moving at a height of 10…3500 m at a speed of 570 m/s. These fire weapons allow the ship to solve the problem of self-defense and the destruction of high-speed aerial targets, including anti-ship missiles, to hit all types of unarmored surface targets within reach.
 
Antisubmarine armament consists of four 40 cm torpedo tubes OTA-40-204, two jet petitville bonbonerie the type of RBU-1200M ammunition 30 depth charges and two of the release gear 12 depth charges BB-type-1.
 
Hydroacoustic armament consists of two stations: podlinnoi, omit the “foot” antenna, anti-sabotage
 
Equipment is represented by a set of wireless communications on six channels, navigational radar “Ki-vach-2” and radar is a generic detection Mr-220. Radar fire control system type Mr-123 “Vympel” provides detection of air and surface targets, tracking of targets, elaboration of the data for firing.
For protection from anti-ship weapons with different guidance systems at the stern there are two launchers of the complex interference near the turn of the PC-16.
 
Seaworthiness of this vessel allow you to use the weapons at sea state up to 5 points and ensure a safe stay at sea up to 8 points.
 
Full displacement is about 460 tons, maximum speed — 35 knots, autonomy for the supplies of provisions and fresh water — 10 days, cruising range at 14-knots speed — 1600 miles (with fuel in overload — 3000 miles). Main propulsion unlike the big rocket ship clean diesel twin-shaft consists of two diesel engines M-507A with a capacity of 10 000 HP each.
 
Vessels constructed under the project 1241ПЭ have a number of significant differences. So .instead of 40-cm torpedo tubes OTA-40-204 they have two twin torpedo tubes caliber 533 mm. the Changes were made and radio system.
 
High quality boat PR. 1241 and its provisions for the modernization made it possible to create a whole family of rocket anti-submarine and border patrol boats, distinguished by the weapons, radar and electronic equipment, and main propulsion plant (including boat building 1241.7, PR. 1241.1 T, St. 1241.8, PR. 12421). 
 
The COLOR model of a SMALL ANTI-submarine SHIP PR 1241ПЭ
BALL — freeboard, superstructure, turret and Barbet art installation AK-176, AU AK-630M, a mast, a topmast, containers, life rafts, balneoclinic, anchor and stern mooring spires, installation PC 16, MTU-4УС, radar dome (RPU) radar “Positive” ventilation headroom in the superstructure and deck.
 
BLACK – barrel block AU AK-630M. anchor and anchor chain, sitotroga-tional distinctive side shields
 
lights, starboard stern cleats and bale strap, power cable from shore, the underwater part of the hull 0.6 m below the waterline.
 
WHITE waterline, hull number and brand of the recess.
 
GREEN — deck to vaterveys, the Foundation of the Barbet AU AK-176, bridge decks and superstructure.
 
DARK GREEN — the underwater part of the hull.
 
ORANGE buoys.
RED buoys signal buoys, warning labels on the superstructure, gun mounts and enclosures, radars.
 
SILVER fairing radiator podlinnoi GUS.
 
S. SOLODOV, E. IT., Vladimir V. STEPANOV, Severomorsk

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