SUPERPLANE MOSCOW MODELERSThe history of the development of the expense of building a traditional class of models of gliders is replete with numerous examples of advances in the field of aerodynamics and design and technology. In the late 60-ies the emergence of a dynamic hook has led to a “boom” design creativity in the development of reliable and efficient mechanization of models of gliders. Great contribution to this was made by Soviet athletes being recognized legislators “mod” in aeromodelling sport in the world. Estonian master, world champion 1989, Andres LLP, Kharkov scientist Victor Isaenko, Leningrad, Yuri Yablokov, Kiev engineer Victor Stamov are in fact the founders of new directions the last decade. But despite the achievements of the Ukrainian school (V. Chop), Russian (V. Etenko), Estonian (A. Lelp), Moscow school gliding is particularly. We can talk about it how about giving the sports world a unusual design, receiving subsequently wide distribution. First of all, this high performance culture, advanced technology and unusual materials distribution in the models of G. Orlov, and S. Makarova (1980-1985 gg.), and more recently a number of young talented athletes — Mikhail Kochkarev, A. Litura etc.
Latest new sports season, struck many athletes at all competitions, was a rebalance of the model gliders of the Muscovites in the derailment of a rail in a nearly vertical mode.
A sharp rebalancing of bearing areas with a standard degradation (the difference between the angles of the wing and stabilizer on the plan is usually equal to 3-3,5° C) to a significant negative (-5°) and then return to its original position is widely used by almost all timeritem. And was first used in 1974, a nine-time champion of the USSR, the triple champion of Europe and world champion Eugene Verbitsky Kharkov. This gave the opportunity to more fully use the kinetic energy of the model and to reduce the height loss during the transition from vertical take-off mode for planning. Previously used the outputs of the rudder and the stall model with a deep sideways slide could result in loss of approximately half of the possible suction height. This kind of rebalancing on the models of gliders tried to introduce the City eagles in the 1979 — 1980, but never brought it. A year ago at the training camp of the USSR team before the trip to the world Cup in Argentina Odessa Victor Chop with all the titles: champion of the USSR, Europe and the world, were a little bit shocked the leading glider pilots in the country with ultra-reliability starts with “Tierney” double rebalancing. All is well, and, it would seem, then seems to think there is nothing. But Muscovites went on an incredible and normal standards is absolutely the wrong direction: they increase the negative angle of degradation (lowering of the rear edge by 20 mm!) to -15°! that’s just tripled the deflection angles. What is the result?
Strong and tough wings allowed Muscovites to start at high speeds and at substantial loads without fracture planes. A large deflection angle of the stabilizer in 1.5—2 s after the disappearance of the model with lifelines (0.5—1) and the subsequent deflection of the stabilizer on the planning position gave the opportunity without losing height when you double the rebalancing immediately go to planning. In comparative tests of the same models having the usual start with a delay of the turn, start “timername” contributed to an increase in common planning time on average, 40! The mastermind of the embodiment of a supermodel in real design was a young graduate student of the Moscow aviation Institute Alexey Litura. Close cooperation with S. Pankov and Yu. Vazhiny in the work on the original model is not forced to wait long for results. So, punks are very confident won all-Union competition model airplanes for the aviation industry Ministry and the Moscow regional competition. Makarov, using the same novelty, in the third time became the champion of the USSR.
The manufacture of the wing requires the use of appropriate tooling and equipment. First of all you need to make a metal matrix, repeating the profile of the wing model about 35% of the chord length of 50 mm larger than the dimensions of the center section. Still need to do a “punch” (contraltino). It is made from one layer of thick fiberglass, pre-impregnated with epoxy resin. In a matrix put in as a separation layer astrolon or PTFE, then impregnated with epoxy resin fiberglass with a thickness of 0.5 mm and wrapped closely round to turn the tape tape, leaving the entire design up to full polymerization of the resin. Then coagu cut flush with the rear end face of the matrix. Necessary will the heat chamber made in the form of a metal box with a width of 150 mm, a height of 180-200 mm and a length of about 900 mm. At the bottom of the drawer lay ten. Box cover. When you turn on the heater connected to receive a temperature in the range 150-260 °C, which is necessary for the polymerization of epoxy KDA, used in the manufacture of shells of the front covering the front part of the wing of two layers of carbon fabric with a thickness of 0.08 mm. Also need a vacuum pump.
How is the paneling and the frontal part of the wing? First of all cut into strips of carbon fabric with a width of 25 mm and a length of about 220 mm. Then on a sheet of Teflon or astrolon size 180X850 mm mark a pencil line at an angle of 45° 20-30 mm crosswise, which is necessary for correct orientation of the strips of carbon fabric. First, lay 8-10 strips close to each other and drawn in parallel lines at an angle of 45°. Edge kind of styling have a stepped appearance. Then begin to lay the second layer of strips, but at a 90° angle, twisting both layers.
After completely stacking the two layers, we get a sort of braided strip with a width of 170-180 mm and a length of 850-900 mm, which twisted strips resemble a chess Board. It is necessary to observe extreme care when laying the strips, pushing them close to each other. From the thoroughness of this operation depends on the quality of the caisson plating.
Then the heat curing resin brand KDA diluted one-third with acetone and carefully pour it olepolos woven so that the resin is completely spread across the surface of the carbon fabric. On top of the workpiece is gently applied a strip of metallized Mylar film with a thickness of 0.06 mm, smooth, and then, keeping this kind of “sandwich” metal ruler trim the excess opalescence scalpel. Next “sandwich” is placed on a matrix covering one separating layer of PTFE with a thickness of 0.02 mm, then put colage from the curved front edge, and the other side of the matrix put a metal tube Ø 6-8 mm long 1000 mm and sticking it all together in 2-3 places with electrical tape or duct tape. Then the entire matrix is wrapped in one layer of stalloreggi and carefully wind the coil to a coil with a big old tape tension tape (or vinyl tape). After this matrix is put in a special bag size 150X950 mm of the rubberized fabric (from the hazmat suit or from thin sheet rubber), glued with glue “Moment”. Because the metal tube is much longer than the matrix, then one end of it out of the bag, and the bag is tied tightly around her rubber band. Then the tube is put on the vacuum pump hose from the bag and air is evacuated, after which the bag is placed in a metal box with an already warmed by the heater and close the lid. Exposure in an oven was carried out for 2 hours to complete polymerization of the resin matrix is removed from the bag and peel off her ready-made cover for the caisson of the wing skin. Stekloreza thickness 0.8—1.2 mm, which is wrapped with a matrix with “sandwich”, and the 2 mm Ø holes in the metal tube allow evacuation of air from the bag.
Shelf wing spar is made in a similar vacuum-formed in a heat chamber. To do this, cut strips of carbon fabric with a thickness of 0.08 mm, a width of 100 mm and a length of 850 mm, impregnated them with resin and lay strips on a metal plate the size of 120X15X850 mm so that one end turned out thickness 0.9—1 mm and another 0.5 mm. Variable thickness, get this: since the 7-layer strips of carbon fabric all subsequent layers will shorten the 120 mm Then the process is repeated: vacuum bag, oven; after the billet for spars kept for several days for the final polymerization of the resin, and then the circular saw cut shelf side members of the desired width.
Fig. 1. Model glider championship class.
Fig. 1. Model glider championship class.
Fig. 2. Equipment for forming structural envelope of the forehead.
Fig. 2. Equipment for forming structural envelope of the forehead:
1 — the matrix (D16T), 2 — punch (D16T), 3 — tube air purging (D16T, pipe Ø 6X1 mm, hole Ø 2 mm), 4 — substrate (PTFE or astrolon), 5 — unfolded network of carbon fabric.
Fig. 3. Management system stabilizer.
Fig. 3. Management system stabilizer:
1 — tail boom 2 — pole (D16T), 3 — rubber-band attachment of the stabilizer pole, 4 — stabilizer, 5 — fungus, 6 — stand, 7 — termination, 8 — wheel 9 — wheel bracket, 10 — nut, 11 — tilt stand, 12 — caudal boss with bracket (D16T as the parts 5-11).
The initial position corresponds to the start of the guard rails; I — transition planning II — planning. The conditional contour line shows the position of the stabilizer on parasuraman.
Wing root rib, to a distance of 150 mm from the end section — all from basswood, and then, before the end of the center section, fake alternate with balsa. On the “ears” balsa ribs. The wall between the shelves of the spars wikiepedia resin of three layers of balsa wood with a thickness of 1 mm so that the outer layers have a vertical grain direction.
Pin wing mounting made from spring steel Ø 5 mm, length 140 mm. Sealing is performed between the shelves of the spars, to which the pin is coated a separating layer of wax and wrapped with resin-impregnated vitreous. After curing the resin pin is removed, and the resulting pencil put between two walls and shelves of the spar.
The wing Assembly is produced, in the beginning laid the bottom spar on the frame. On the spar with a pencil, make markings under the ribs. Then cut into the size element of the wall of the spar, carefully adjusting them in height and width between the ribs; alternately gently coat with resin and mounted on the lower spar. After installing all of the ribs and walls on the lower spar their top coat with resin in the area of contact with the upper flange of the spar, and then finally install the top shelf. To get a more durable connection of the shelves of the spar, they are wrapped with tarred thread SVM coil to a coil in the center of the root section, and then 2-3 round between the ribs. The side member installed on the ribs put on the slipway, put the front edge of the balsa on top and place weights across the span of the ribs and spars, leaving them to complete polymerization of the resin. After removing the billet from the pile and thorough cleaning with sandpaper the front edge, ribs and spar the whole front end (including the outer surface of the spars) to gently coat with resin and the front part of the wing wear is made earlier peel coffered paneling. For the quality of gluing of the caisson to the rib and spar wing strapped to the bench with a rubber band. The berth has dimensions of length slightly larger than the center section, with a height of 15-20 mm and a width of 70-80 mm. the frame are made of thick wood, and the ends across the span of the wing is often hammered in small nails, need to them to wind the rubber thread. Rib her tail parts hanging console with no load on the side of the bench. After hardening the resin paste (at last) trailing edge. When it is fully finished part of the wing removed from the pile, carefully sand and ribs (with overlap on the spars and trailing edge) is glued on the glue BF or “Moment” strips of carbon fabric with a width of 1-1,5 mm, paving them over with iron or a special soldering iron. Thus reinforced ribs give the wing an extraordinary rigidity of torsion.
Since the effect of solar radiation on the black surface of carbon fabric result in significant heating (and ultimately to the warping of the planes), cover with coffered paneling metallized lavsan (applied Muscovites when forming crusts).
The rest of the design of the airframe is almost indistinguishable from models of other athletes. Another important “novelty” — the presence of “butterflies” (different fitting angles of the left and right halves of the wing) when towing on the guard rails, which are removed in the planning mode. Another “novelty” — a return to the worm drum three-minute timer (now all used Archimedes spiral), which contributes to a more precise adjustment when working out the teams at the time for deviation of the stabilizer in the dual-mode rebalance…

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