REACTIVE “FRAME” DE-HAVILLAND

REACTIVE This project began with specification E6/41, dated November 1941 In her Ministry of aviation industry of great Britain has offered the firm “de Havilland air craft company” to explore the issues of creating a jet fighter and engine for it. By that time, the company proactively developed an experimental twin-boom DH’s car.99. It was a single-engine monoplane of all-metal construction with a tricycle landing gear with nose wheel. The development of the engine in April 1941 did the firm “Halford”, headed by Frank Halford, simplifying the design of the turbojet engine with centrifugal compressor and through the location of the combustion chamber between the compressor and the turbine.

But it was too late, and in April 1942 the Ministry of aviation industry granted the company a contract to build two prototypes (the prototypes brought to three) light single-engine fighter with four 20 mm guns. The project “de Havilland” was renamed the DH.100 “Spider Crab” (crab spider).
 
Having extensive experience in creating wooden structures acquired in the course of work on the bomber “mosquito” and its fighter version, the “Honiton”, decided the nose of a fighter to do proprietary technology from balsa and plywood with birch plywood paneling. The wing was all-metal construction with one of the power spar. Tail boom and tail were also all-metal. To ensure a minimal pressure losses in intakes, air intakes, having the form of a rotated letter “A”, placed at the base of the wing, close to the input channels of the compressor. The original design had a takeoff and landing mechanization.
September 20, 1943 the chief pilot of the company Geoffrey de Havilland (son of the founder and owner of the company) raised the first prototype (number LZ548/G) in the air from the factory airfield Hatfield. The aircraft was equipped with an engine Halford N. 1 1225 thrust (according to others — 1130) kgs. The whole flight was normal, although showed some yaw instability, and increased reaction roll on the Aileron. Note that the first flight of second British jet aircraft took place only half a year after the takeoff of the fighter “meteor” company “Gloucester”, although the design creation de Havilland began two years later Macapa work on the “Meteor”.
 
The first prototype of the DH. 100 (LZ548) during the test, 1943.
 
The first prototype of the DH. 100 (LZ548) during the test, 1943
 
Second prototype, with a modified form of the keels and the position of the stabilizer, took to the skies on 17 March 1944, Later it was used as a prototype carrier-based variant of the fighter, which has been significantly improved.
 
Interestingly, the third prototype, fitted with a modified engine.1A is the same thrust as N. 1, along with a set of cannons, first flew earlier than the second, 21 Jan.
 
The stage of factory tests prosep fairly smoothly, although the problem of directional instability completely failed to solve. During the tests, the third prototype was noted by the decreased rate of climb and slower acceleration, which was associated with an increase in takeoff weight due to the installation of weapons. Also increased the takeoff run and takeoff speed. Both characteristics were higher than comparable reciprocating machines. But neither the designers nor the military is not razocharoval, as serial machines predpolagalos the installation of more powerful engines.
 
In April 1944, the third prototype passed army trials at the research center, air force Wax Down. Overall military pilots were positive. They noted the low level of noise in the cabin even at high speeds, convenience of the cabin, the absence of any difficulties for taxiing on grass field. As disadvantages called a tendency to limit the instability that reduced precision aiming in the use of weapons, and a wide cover of the canopy of the lantern, making it difficult for review (although the overall visibility from the cockpit was good).
 
The first batch 120 units under the designation Vampire F. 1 was signed in may 1944, and a month earlier had approved the name of the fighter “Vampire”. A year later, on may 7, the Ministry of aviation industry increased its initial order of 300 aircraft.
 
Since the serial plant of the company “de Havilland” in Hatfield has been busy manufacturing “mosquito”, the order placed on the company’s “English electric” in Preston, where he ended the four-issue “Halifax”.
 
FB.5
 
FB.5 “Vampire”:
 
1—vertical tail; 2 — left tail boom, right side view; 3 — movable part of the cockpit canopy; 4 — visor the cockpit canopy; 5 — the front landing gear; 6—fold niche cleaning the nose landing gear; 7—main landing gear; 8—caudal heel; 9—the left tail boom, left side; 10—scutellum niche cleaning the main landing gear; 11—Aileron; 12—trimmer Aileron; 13—brake; 14—the flap; 15—nacelle; 16—stabilizer; 17 is the wheel height; 18—air intake

 
On April 20, 1945 the first production F. 1 Vampire podnapise in the sky. By the way, the age of this machine was short-lived. In may — June plane ispitivanja military in Wax Down, and July 23, crashed on takeoff due to the failure of toplivnogo pump. Fortunately, the test pilot of the company “de Havilland” Jeffrey pike was injured.
 
The first 40 cars were equipped engine “Goblin” 1 (production version of the TRD with N.1), the next — the more powerful “Goblin” 2 thrust 1405 kgs. With this powerplant the aircraft reached a speed of 850 km/h at an altitude of 5500 m it was significantly higher than similar indicators serial “meteors”.
 
Starting from the 51st machine the fighters were equipped with a pressurized cabin. However, the previously released “vampires” to finalize this plan did not. And with the 87th machines have eliminated the comments of the military on the visibility from the cockpit, setting a very comfortable and technologically advanced a canopy movable part which moves back. Bulletproof glass visor lamp equipped with de-icing spray system with glycol. In a short time the new lights installed and most of the previously built machines.
 
The following version of the “Vampire” became F. 2 with a more powerful engine “Ning” the company “rolls-Royce”. Three fighters of the first series was equipped with the TRD RВ.41 2040 kgf thrust for testing. For enhanced air flow behind the cab mounted, two additional air intake, nicknamed the “elephant ears”. The Royal air force planned to order 60. but after the construction of two aircraft the order annulled. However, elephant ears did not bother the Australians, which F. 2 liked, and they built 80 fighters for its air force in the factory of the company SAS.
 
Small range and the flight duration was a disadvantage all early jet aircraft, and Vampire is no exception. In June 1945 on a modified F. 1 began testing a new wing with additional fuel tanks. The total fuel capacity was increased to 1500 L. have Been developed and new suspension 909-litre fuel tanks. For ease of maintenance and shorten the preparation time of the aircraft equipped with the system of centralized refueling.
 
The tests revealed an increase in ground instability, which led to the necessary redesign of the tail. Trapezoidal keels have replaced rounded and the horizontal tail was moved to their Foundation. Actually took the tail of the second prototype.
 
So there was a prototype (ТG275) “Vampire” — F. 3 made its first flight on 4 November 1946, Created in response to specification F. 3/47, the aircraft had an increased takeoff weight due to the greater supply of fuel, which of course affected his take-off and manoeuvring characteristics (in fact the engine remained the same — “Goblin” 2). But the military had a fighter with a maximum range of 2200 km against the previous 1167 km.
 
 
Serial production of the new variant began in the spring of 1947 To 1949 at the plant “English electric” built 224 of the car, from them 118 — for the Royal air force. Aircraft of the Royal Navy received six aircraft and the remaining was exported.
 
On 23 March 1948, John Cunningham set a world altitude record flight — 18 040 m. For the record “Vampire” was equipped with high rise cab with a metal hinged part of the lamp and lengthened by 1.2 m wing.
 
In July 1948 six F. S from 54th squadron under the command of squadron leader R. Oxspring made the first in the history of aviation transatlantic flight by jet planes (with stops in Iceland, Greenland and Labrador). Fighters visited Canada and the United States, where it has repeatedly demonstrated its capabilities. In the States one of air force pilots who flew the P-80, took to the air on the “Vampire” and admired his agility.
 
It is difficult to judge why, in 1948, the role of strike aircraft of the Royal air force chose the plane, and not “meteor”, which had great combat load. But the fact remains: despite the best maneuverability and altitude, the “Vampire” in the plans of command was assigned the role of drum machine, designed to replace combat units in “the tempest” company “Hawker”. The “meteors” were functions of the fighter.
 
To meet the requirements of tactical strike aircraft for “de Havilland” modified design of the new version. The wing was strengthened, and its scope was reduced to 0.3 m due to changes in the shape of endings: instead of round they were straight. The engine protect light armor from below the main stand reinforced and extended. The nodes of the outer suspension was calculated for cargo weighing up to 909 kg. as a standard set of weapons (in addition to the four guns with ammunition, 150 rounds per gun) was assumed for two 225-kg bombs on underwing nodes and eight public libraries, calibre 76 mm, suspended in pairs on the four guides located at the base of the tail beam.
 
The prototype FB.5, created based on modification F. S, made its first flight on 23 June 1948 Serial production of new modifications have improved almost in parallel with the tests, so that by the end of the same year the serial began to arrive in the combat units. From 1948 to 1951, a total of 1123 was released (according to others — 1150) plane.
 
Export version of the fighter-bomber for the Swiss air force, fitted with more powerful turbojet engines “Goblin” 3 rod 1520 kgs, received the designation FB.6. Such machines built in the UK 75 and even more hundreds under license in Switzerland factory “Pilatus” in Emmen.
 
France had established licensed production of fighter-bombers under the designation FB.51 at the company “Sud est Avison”. 67 first aircraft was assembled from components supplied by the UK. The first of them rose into the air 27 Jan 1950, followed by 187 (according to others — 183) own-produced cars with engines “Goblin” produced by “Spanish”, the first of which flew on 21 December of the same year.
 
Interestingly, French engineers, in cooperation with the British was able to more efficiently fit into the “Vampire” TRD “NIN”102 than it did previously, the designers of the UK for modifications F. 2. Abandoning the “elephant ears”, they redesigned the intake for more air flow. In addition, the French increased the stock of fuel and made the cabin airtight. Was built four prototypes, designated SE.530 “Mistral”. A new modification took to the air April 1, 1951, piloted by Jacques Lakemom.
 
“Mistral” was the fastest and rate of climb of all production variants, including English. Its vertical speed was 65% higher than that of FB.5, and in horizontal flight it was overclocked to 921 km/h.
 
English the most profound modernization of fighter-bomber became FB.8 with the engine Host and a completely new, thin wing. Two prototypes were built in 1949, by adapting FB.5. The tests showed a significant improvement of performance, and a decision was made to run the car into production, but under the new designation of DH.112 “venom” — so severe were the changes in design.
 
Thus, the next (and final) production version of the fighter-bomber became FB.9 intended for use in the tropics, and air conditioning system company “Godfrey”. Installation of air conditioning resulted in a revision of the right of the air intake, which increased by 20 mm. little known fact, but the intakes of a significant part of FB.5 was modified in a similar way (with the air conditioning system is not installed). In all likelihood, in the case of the massive use of “vampires” in the tropics.
 
The production of FB.9 turned in 1951 and ended in December 1953, building 348 cars. Of these, 332 — for the Royal air force, and 16 for Rhodesia. Some sources claim that FB.9 were equipped with turbojet engines “Goblin” 3, but it applies only to the Rhodesian machines.
 
Separate direction of development of the “Vampire”, though few, were his options shipborne. By order of the British Admiralty research in this area was engaged in one of the units of the Royal aircraft Department at Farnborough. Led at the time by the unit responsible for the marine theme (called “Aerodynamic Flight”), Eric brown is an experienced naval Aviator with combat experience.
 
After flying on the second test F. 1 brown recommended to equip it with a brake hook. The first attempt was not entirely successful: in nine days after the start of test ground simulator GAK tore off and the aircraft returned to the factory for rework. After this test on the ground simulator naval deck continued. Their finals were the first in the world landing and takeoffs from the deck of the aircraft carrier “Ocean” in the heart of the Isle of Wight perpetrated by Eric brown December 3, 1945
 
Despite the fact that the testing went fairly smoothly, the aviation command of the Navy did not dare to take the Vampire into service as the primary naval fighter. Reason — insufficient engine thrust and short range due to small fuel capacity. At the same time the plane podhodit well as training, for retraining pilots for carrier-based jet technology, so on March 21, 1947, ordered a small batch of “sea vampire” E20.
 
First production carrier-based fighter (VV136) was tested on 6 October, 1948 Naval plane pilots liked the fit for the great review and it is on the rise, due to poor acceleration characteristics without using the ejection device.
 
One of the attempts to improve flight data fighter without exaggeration, be called extravagant. So, it was supposed to reduce the weight of the glider, abandoning the reinforced main landing gear and landing on the deck not be implemented in the usual way, and on a kind of mattress made of thick sheets of rubber, fire hoses shifted. To test this idea modificirovat one F. 1, which 29 Dec 1947 Eric brown undertook an unusual fit. The first pancake was lumpy: the landing was very rough, after which the aircraft was written off as scrap metal. Fortunately, the pilot was not injured.
But the command of Navy aviation, this situation is not confused. In 1948 he was ordered two modified for landing “on the belly” of the aircraft, designated F. 21. They have strengthened the lower part of the fuselage, there were some other small differences. The tests were conducted in 1948 — 1949 years aboard the aircraft carrier “warrior”, the results seemed encouraging. But in the early 1950s the Royal Navy from this idea was abandoned.
 
The initiative “de-Havilland” developed a double version of the “Vampire” DH.113. The plane was offered as a night interceptor to replace the piston “mosquito”.
 
The wing and tail feathers borrowed from the modification of the FB.5, and the fuselage is designed again. In a double cab side-by-side housed the pilot (left) and radar operator (right). In the bow was RLS A. I. X (similar to us SCR-720B), and additional navigation equipment. Cannons were no changes. The glider gained 122 kg, therefore, as the power plant decided to use the more powerful “Goblin” 3.
 
The company has built three prototypes of the interceptor, the test of the first of them began on 28 August 1949 (test pilot Geoffrey pike). It turned out that the new machine flies faster than PB.5, but falls short in speed to the “Meteor”. The climb rate was also lower than that of a competitor. In addition, identified problems with stability, causing the tail Assembly had to be refined. The keels have usilili front edge, and the area of the stabilizer is increased due to the additional surfaces, installed with the outer sides of the fins.
 
Royal air force new not interested. It was decided that the car is better to promote exports. Interest in it showed the military out of Egypt, and soon signed the first contract for 12 aircraft with an option for another few dozen. And would serve as interceptors in the Country of the pyramids, but another aggravation of the military-political situation in the region forced the British government to impose an embargo on military supplies to Egypt. The order was transferred to the Royal air force, who in the spring of 1951, took the interceptor into service under the designation NF.10. It was assumed that the aircraft will be used before enrolling later a “Meteor” and the new “venom”.
 
78 was built (according to other sources — 95) within this option. After the termination of their use as a night interceptor in 1954, 36 aircraft were converted for training navigators. Radar dismantled, instead of it installed navigational equipment — station “G. 3”, “Rebecca 3” and ballast. The aircraft were operated until 1959.
 
Per SE.535
 
SE.535 “Mistral” of the French air force. Visible wider air intakes and the aerodynamic ridges on the wing
 
Cabin F. 3 canadian air force, who later was in service with Mexican air force
 
Cabin F. 3 canadian air force, who later was in service with Mexican air force
 
The flight of the second prototype of the prototype of the
 
The flight of the second prototype of the prototype of the “sea Vampire” from the deck of the aircraft carrier “Ocean” 3 Dec 1945
 
Much greater success was expecting a double training aircraft DH.115. Developed it-based interceptor in 1950, November 15 was the first flight of this machine. The Royal air force became interested in the new “spark” like a good addition to the “Meteor” T. 7. In air force aircraft received the designation T 11, “Vampire”, aviation — Etc 22 “sea Vampire.” For the Royal air force built a 526 (other sources — 534) machines, widely used until 1962. some aircraft continued to be used in the auxiliary purposes until 1967.
 
T. 11 built on the basis of NF.10. The main initial difference was the extended cab with dual controls and more convex lantern. The lack of radar in the bow provided a good operational approaches to systems located here. To the delight of the technical staff, the nose had a huge hatch-type hood of the car. The plane was equipped with turbojet engines “Goblin” 3. Gun armament consisted of two guns.
 
The main disadvantages manifested with the start of operation was unsatisfactory review (lantern borrowed from the NF.10) and close the cockpit. And if for a night interceptor visibility from the cab is not represented by the most important feature, for “Sparky” it was critical.
 
Starting with the 144th machine these disadvantages are eliminated. Pilots have at their disposal, and ejection seats MK.THIS company “Martin-Baker”. Due to the increase of size of the lantern worsened directional stability, which required some form of change and the area of the tail. All previously built aircraft eventually modified to this standard.
 
“Vampires” in the ranks
 
The vampire F. 1 entered service with the Royal air force in April 1946, with the beginning of re-247, 54th and 130th squadrons (air wing Odiham). First I replaced your “Tempesta” for new fighter 247 squadron, actively involved in the transfer and accumulation of operating experience. “Sparky” was not, and the pilots were beginning to fly jet technology after a theoretical study and explore the cockpit. Fortunately, that “Vampire” was easier to handle than most piston fighters. However, chassis with nose wheel and the increased landing speed demanded more attention on landing.
 
8 June saw the public debut of the new aircraft during an air parade over London in honor of the anniversary of the victory in world war II. And the fall jet technology have received and two other squadron aircraft, based in Odiham.
 
“Vampires” became the first British jet aircraft for parts, serving in the Royal air force in Germany when in April 1948 began the re-equipping 3 squadron in Wunstorf. The first “vampires” rearming and auxiliary of the Royal air force (605-I, 501-I, 502-I squadron), who used them until the end of 1951 , After the completion of flight operations the aircraft was transferred to technical units, and in the mid-1950s, most of the machines disposed of.
 
The transition modification F. 3 RAF began in late 1947 with the re-wings in Odiham (54-I 247-I and ex-130-I and by this time — the 72nd squadron). It was the pilots of 54 squadron demonstrated the increased capabilities of the fighter during a transatlantic flight in July 1948 by the “Troika” armed squadron auxiliary air force — 601, 604, 608 and 614, where they operated until 1952, In February 1948 the same jets and Central flying school.
 
In the autumn of 1948, the F. 3 was operated at air bases of the Royal air force outside the metropolis. The first new technique was a 73 squadron at TA Kali (Malta), in may 1949- 32-I in Nicosia (Cyprus).
With the advent of FB.5 in 1949 began the re this modification squadrons of the wing in Odiham. In September, units of the wing took part in the annual large-scale air defense exercises “Bulldog”, where together with a couple of French “vampires” from the base of the Dijon and aircraft F. 1 of 605 squadron simulated a RAID on Albion. In the following year on the basis of 54 squadron formed the chief flight team of the Royal air force, consisting of five FB.5. His demonstration performances of pilots of the group caused constant delight of visitors and Farnborough exhibitions in Hindon. In 1952, all three squadrons of Odiham rearmed on the meteor F. 8, and “vampires” left “first line” of fighter command Royal air force.
 
In Europe, the “vampires” of the Royal air force was removed from the first line rather quickly. At the end of 1953 , wings in Wunstorf (11-I, 5-I 266-I squadron) began to rearm the new aircraft venom FB.1, and a year later the same thing happened with the wings in Hassberge (14-I-98-I and 118-I squadron). By mid-1954, after the re wing in Celle (16-I, 94-I 145-I squadron), “vampires” in Germany is almost gone.
 
In the middle East were based, a total of six squadrons fives, two had served in Southeast Asia. The first FB.5 received in October, 1949 6 squadron, based in Deversoir (Egypt). In the subsequent two years, the division has rarely been seen at the airfield because of the frequent “visits of courtesy” in Iran, Jordan and Cyprus. In June 1951, part transferred to Iraq (airbase Washers), and in November — in Habbania (ibid.). To the great delight of the pilots, the following year, the squadron re-equipped on FB.9.
 
“Fives” was also rearmed with 32 squadron in Nicosia (Cyprus, January 1951), 73-I 185-I — in TA Cali (Malta, 1951), and 249-I — there in 1952. 8 squadron, normally stationed in Aden in April 1954 , he participated in the suppression of the uprising, the tribe May May in Kenya. For a 10-day period of hostilities the pilots brought down on the heads of the rebels more than 5 tons of bombs and 12,000 cannon shells.
 
Based in Singapore, 60 squadron received “five” in December 1950, and at the beginning of the following year they were used against guerrillas in Malaya. 28 squadron from Kai tak (Hong Kong) rearmed with the type in January 1951 But soon, in 1952, these squadrons replaced their materiel in rain FB.9, and operated them for four years until replaced “vampire” did not come more perfect “venom”.
 
REACTIVE
 
“Nine” has replaced the “fives” in the Mediterranean in late 1952 G. Three years later, most of the “vampires” FB.9 was forwarded to the metropolis, where they are still served for several years in support of the air force and training units, and then (1956 — 1957) was decommissioned and disposed of. The same fate, and at the same time, suffered a “five”. But not all. Some of them continued to operate as training in almost all flight schools, air force and training centers. Last Vampire 5 was used extensively to improve flight training, at least until 1961
 
Indian vampires also gained combat experience during the second indopakistani war of 1965, however, not very successful.
 
Used “vampires” and the Egyptian air force during the Suez crisis of 1956.
 
Various versions of “Vampire” were armed with military aviation 27 States. Mostly combat modifications was in service at the end of the 1950s, “Sparky” — much longer — until the early 1970s. the Most long-lived steel Swiss machines, officially decommissioned only in 1990, Over the years, series (including license) production was built around 4850 aircraft of all modifications (3453 1127 single and double).

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