CELLAR HEATED

The construction of the cellars starts with the Foundation. To do this, the perimeter of digging a trench with a depth of 30— 40 cm and a width of 70-80 cm On the outer side of the trenches set the plate of foam with a height of 30-40 cm If only packing foam, its pre-wrapped with roofing material. Installing such plates are pursuing two goals: prevent the freezing floor of the cellar in the winter and penetration of rodents. After the installation of the insulation trench is filled with sand to 10-15 cm above ground level. Then, on the surface, a few larger cellars, on the sand put a waterproofing from two or three layers of plastic film or roofing material. Top waterproofing is also filled with sand and a surface level.

As supports of the basement cellar use side stones, pieces of piles, any of the standard blocks with sufficient strength. Number of supports depends on a beam put in the lower harness of the cellar, but the distance between supports should not exceed 70 cm Gaps between the pillars are filled with foam (Fig. 2).
 
The frame is assembled from wooden boards section 100×50 mm., Three cellar walls do slant, and only the front where the entrance is vertical. The roof are in the form of a truncated pyramid.
 
This form helps to hold snow on the roof of the cellar that makes it easier to keep warm under it (Fig. 6).
 
The walls are double, the distance from the outer to the inner trim panel is 60 cm the Space between them filled with insulation — industrial waste albastru-zechnich plates. The choice of this type of insulation is that it does not infest insects and it retains heat quite well. As insulator can be used and other materials such as foam, glass wool, hardboard and others. In a pinch, you can fill up the cellar walls simple sawdust, pre-treating them from rotting by kreazota, or other suitable means.
The Assembly of the frame begins with laying the lower internal and external connections of the cellar, installation of vertical pillars and the ceiling of the vestibule of a front wall and two technology pillars that support the beam of the ceiling of the cellar (Fig. 3). Then set yourself ceiling beams and inclined struts of exterior and interior walls (Fig. 4).
 
Fig.1. General view and overall dimensions of the cellar
 
Fig.1. General view and overall dimensions of the cellar:
 
1 —covering of a wall, inner; 2 — pipe ventilation cellar; 3 — paneling, exterior; 4 — ventilation pipe of a heater; 5 — heater; 6 — the outer door; 7 — door internal; 8 – vent pipe; 9 — grid flooring; 10 — the Foundation supports; 11 — foam; 12— box for storing potatoes; 13 — shelving, 14 — a tank for collecting condensate.
 
Fig.2. The Foundation and walls

 
Fig.2. The device of the foundations and the walls:
 
1 — support the Foundation; 2 — polystyrene foam; 3 — beam interior walls; 4 — a lining of internal walls; 5 — the case ruberoidny, inner; 6 — sheathing the exterior walls; 7 — beam exterior wall; 8 — the case ruberoidny, exterior; 9 — waterproofing; 10 — sand.
 
Fig.3. The main beams of the frame

 
Fig.3. The main beams of the frame:
 
1 — the frame of the vestibule; 2 —stand technology for the installation of beams of the ceiling (removed after Assembly of the frame); 3 — ceiling beams; 4 — beams external binding of the cellar; 5 — beam interior framing of the cellar.

 
Fig.4. Assembled frame of a cellar without a roof
 
Fig.4. Assembled frame of a cellar without a roof (the rear side).
 

 
The casing frame of the cellar, start with the interior walls. And in all their areas except the facade, you can use the edging planks or old, used Board. On top of the planks lay a roofing felt or pergamina. The lower edge of the insulation stack on the foam installed between the supports, folded up and nailed to the outside wall laths (Fig. 2). Do it to seal the cellar and to ensure that the insulation does not spill through the cracks in the wall. Then boards sheathe the outer wall along the lower edge where the visor nailed to drain the water.
 
The insulation is poured into the space formed by the outer and inner walls, and lightly tamped. And make sure that the layer of insulation on the ceiling was at least 80 cm. This thickness of the filling helps to avoid heat loss.
 
After insulation of the ceiling of the cellar and covering the frame of the roof boards start one of the most critical moments of construction — installation of external ruberoidnoj coverage. It is made of three-layer, gudanova mastic. When cutting the leaves followed, so that they all fit snugly to the roof boards of the cellar. Sheets of roofing material are glued to the boards and to each other with mastic the following composition: two parts tar and one part diesel fuel or kerosene. Boiled so the leaves are well kept, they do not crack in the cold and do not fade in the sun.
For ventilation of the cellar and the removal of condensate from the insulation installed: inlet vent pipe under the door, hood at the back wall of the cellar, through the ceiling and roof and the hood in the roof of the cellar (Fig. 1 and Fig. 7). As the material is used in asbestos-cement pipe with a diameter of 120 mm. In winter, the ventilation channels 2 and 8 plug with straw to prevent heat loss, and under the hood 2 is suspended a tank for collecting the condensate (Fig. 1).
 
Doors to cellars use a ready-made, cutting them in place, but you can do it yourself. On lightweight frame exterior doors on two sides, and the inside with one hand stuffed insulation — foam, felt or foam, and then the whole door is covered with hardboard or plywood. On door jambs nailed or glued seal. For better integrity of the tambour door tightening bolt (Fig. 8).
 
Fig.5. Frame cellar Assembly (front view-side view)
 
Fig.5. Frame cellar Assembly (front view-side view).
 
Fig.6. Installation of roof frame

 
Fig.6. The installation of the roof frame:
 
1 — the roof frame; 2 — roofing material of the inner cover; 3 — Board cladding; 4 — insulation.
 
Fig.7. The ventilation circuit cellar
 
Fig.7. The scheme of ventilation of the cellar.
 
Fig.8. The design of the door seals

 
Fig.8. The design of the door seals:
 
1 — body; 2 — nut M10; 3 — bolt M10; 4 — guide tube; 5 — thrust washer; 6 — door trim, plywood; 7 — foam.

 
 
Shelving in the cellar is installed in the last turn, three at the side and two at the back wall. Lower shelving for storing vegetables made with a high collar and lined with sheet foam. Box for storage of potatoes do with the cover.
 
On the floor of the cellar is placed a wooden lattice so that they would not serve as a heat screen, as in winter the temperature inside the cellar depends on the temperature of the earth.
 
Electrical equipment of the cellar consists of a lamp, a switch, two sockets and battery resistances. For the safety of all switching products installed in a sealed design.
 
Battery resistance is used to maintain the temperature. It is made of ten resistors of PEV-20-1.1 kW, of which the first four connect in series, and six in parallel. This battery, plugged in AC 220V, heats up to a temperature of 50-60°C. as the battery case and simultaneously dielectric material serve as asbestos-cement plate of 8mm thickness.
 
N. GAVRILKIN

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