The German engineers before the Second world war began the development of guided air missiles “air — air”. Brought to flying condition samples and technical documentation “wonder weapons” were killed under the ruins of factories, prepared for their serial production, after the RAID of allied bombers in early 1945.
To the design of unguided missiles (nurs) the American experts have begun in 1940, in contrast to the Soviet Union and Germany, the US air force was considered by Nursi as a means to engage ground, surface targets and jamming radar. The creation of nurs of class “air — air” in the United States drew attention at the end of the Second world war. To enhance the combat effectiveness of the action at air targets with high-explosive warhead (IBC) Nursi was equipped with radio controlled fuses (PB). In 1945 a specialist from the National Bureau of standards 1 (NBS 1) noncontact RV — physics William Burdette Macklin sent on the Artillery proving ground of the U.S. Navy (NOTS) in China lake.
William McLean, a native of England, in 1939 he finished doctoral studies at Caltech University. During the work in NBS 1, he distinguished himself as one of the best engineers of RV anti-aircraft artillery. William McLean thought that the trip will take no more than two months, but he worked in China lake for 23 years. In 1954 he was appointed technical Director, emphasizing its leading role in shaping the programs and policies of this major laboratory of the U.S. Navy. At this time, NOTS, and today the weapons (RWS) United States Navy, was engaged in studying and summarizing the experience of war from the point of view of science and technology. NOTS was a multi-institution, has implemented the ideas into full-scale projects and transferring finished product to the customer “turnkey”.
Thirty-one McLean headed the Department of aviation and artillery of the NOTS. In 1946 he independently started to work on the aiming system for the rockets of class “air — air”. After analyzing the related system factors, such as altitude, speed, acceleration and maneuvering of the aircraft, he made a conclusion about the impossibility of creating in those years sighting systems for Nursi, ensuring the defeat vigorously maneuvering air target. Weapons must be controlled after start-up. In my experience of working on radar guidance system glide bombs ASM2 “Beth” McLean understood that such a device is not suitable for small missiles “air — air” — it is too heavy and bulky. From this position, the photoresistance (FS), stable trapping of thermal radiation of the target aircraft, will be comparable in size to a dime, so the control system, based on it, will be quite compact and efficient. During world war II, this small head with gyro-stabilized FS was developed by order of the US Navy-controlled bomb project Before the experts of the Corporation “Polaroid” Dianna Leonard and Ruth Sweet control system in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
In 1947, he started to develop a thermal homing (TGSN). The key idea used in its creation, was the gyroscopic stabilization of the rotor magnet, the axis of rotation of which is attached to a sensitive FS. The axis of rotation of the gyroscope coincides with the longitudinal axis of the rocket. The displacement of the thermal radiation source relative to the axis of rotation of the gyroscope resulted in a deviation of the reflected from the spherical mirror head heat ray from the center of FS. It generated a signal in the coil surrounding the magnet, forcing the spin axis to move towards the heat source. This meant continuous monitoring of the direction of the aircraft target. Drive used the amplified error signal to deflect rudder, accelerating the reversal of the rocket in the direction of the target.
For the realization of this idea was considered five options TGSN. As a result, for the further development chose the option in which the gyroscope is almost depended on the speed of rotation of the missile around its longitudinal axis. He is better than others has maintained the trajectory, and the rudders had to turn the missile to the rendezvous point with the target. At first this option was considered as a secondary and remembered when talking about the proportionate targeting.