A five-inch SHELL William McLean

Five-inch SHELL William McLeanThe German engineers before the Second world war began the development of guided air missiles “air — air”. Brought to flying condition samples and technical documentation “wonder weapons” were killed under the ruins of factories, prepared for their serial production, after the RAID of allied bombers in early 1945.

To the design of unguided missiles (nurs) the American experts have begun in 1940, in contrast to the Soviet Union and Germany, the US air force was considered by Nursi as a means to engage ground, surface targets and jamming radar. The creation of nurs of class “air — air” in the United States drew attention at the end of the Second world war. To enhance the combat effectiveness of the action at air targets with high-explosive warhead (IBC) Nursi was equipped with radio controlled fuses (PB). In 1945 a specialist from the National Bureau of standards 1 (NBS 1) noncontact RV — physics William Burdette Macklin sent on the Artillery proving ground of the U.S. Navy (NOTS) in China lake.
William McLean, a native of England, in 1939 he finished doctoral studies at Caltech University. During the work in NBS 1, he distinguished himself as one of the best engineers of RV anti-aircraft artillery. William McLean thought that the trip will take no more than two months, but he worked in China lake for 23 years. In 1954 he was appointed technical Director, emphasizing its leading role in shaping the programs and policies of this major laboratory of the U.S. Navy. At this time, NOTS, and today the weapons (RWS) United States Navy, was engaged in studying and summarizing the experience of war from the point of view of science and technology. NOTS was a multi-institution, has implemented the ideas into full-scale projects and transferring finished product to the customer “turnkey”.
Thirty-one McLean headed the Department of aviation and artillery of the NOTS. In 1946 he independently started to work on the aiming system for the rockets of class “air — air”. After analyzing the related system factors, such as altitude, speed, acceleration and maneuvering of the aircraft, he made a conclusion about the impossibility of creating in those years sighting systems for Nursi, ensuring the defeat vigorously maneuvering air target. Weapons must be controlled after start-up. In my experience of working on radar guidance system glide bombs ASM2 “Beth” McLean understood that such a device is not suitable for small missiles “air — air” — it is too heavy and bulky. From this position, the photoresistance (FS), stable trapping of thermal radiation of the target aircraft, will be comparable in size to a dime, so the control system, based on it, will be quite compact and efficient. During world war II, this small head with gyro-stabilized FS was developed by order of the US Navy-controlled bomb project Before the experts of the Corporation “Polaroid” Dianna Leonard and Ruth Sweet control system in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
In 1947, he started to develop a thermal homing (TGSN). The key idea used in its creation, was the gyroscopic stabilization of the rotor magnet, the axis of rotation of which is attached to a sensitive FS. The axis of rotation of the gyroscope coincides with the longitudinal axis of the rocket. The displacement of the thermal radiation source relative to the axis of rotation of the gyroscope resulted in a deviation of the reflected from the spherical mirror head heat ray from the center of FS. It generated a signal in the coil surrounding the magnet, forcing the spin axis to move towards the heat source. This meant continuous monitoring of the direction of the aircraft target. Drive used the amplified error signal to deflect rudder, accelerating the reversal of the rocket in the direction of the target.
For the realization of this idea was considered five options TGSN. As a result, for the further development chose the option in which the gyroscope is almost depended on the speed of rotation of the missile around its longitudinal axis. He is better than others has maintained the trajectory, and the rudders had to turn the missile to the rendezvous point with the target. At first this option was considered as a secondary and remembered when talking about the proportionate targeting.
In 1949 William B. McLean has provided leadership NOTS “Proposals for the development of missiles with a thermal guidance system”. The word “missile” meant approved in the United States terminology, McLean conceived the product as an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), and artillery ammunition — rocket. The UAV provides for careful handling and regular checks in the process of operation, unlike shell with simplified rules of storage and use. This approach to the creation of the rocket meant that it will be more durable, simple and reliable. William McLean was assumed that the price of his missiles will not exceed several hundred dollars, which was especially attractive on the background of guided missiles, created by well-known companies that cost ten times more expensive.
Due to the lack of full funding McLean started working out its concept with a small team. The first two years he used internal funds NOTS and the money allocated to the Navy for the establishment of the PB. At this time, the inventor has performed work on the theme of “Local Fuze project 602”, with the justification that TGSN will actually fuse linking the purpose of missiles to its operation. A later report about the new direction of research called “research Opportunities 567”.
American SD — class
American SD — class
American missile of class “air — air” Sidewinder AIM-9M:
1 — glass lens IR-homing; 2 — compartment guidance and control; 3 — wheel; 4 — hole for discharge of waste gas; 5 — window laser proximity Fuze; 6 — high-explosive warhead WDU-17/B; 7 — front support bracket; 8 — solid-fuel rocket engine with reduced smoke Mk36. Mod.9; 9 — rear bracket; 10 — clamp secondary yoke; 11 — side connector; 12 — rotor rollerena; 13 — wing; a 14 — compartment laser proximity Fuze DSU-15; 15 — cover of the hatch operational; 16 — connecting clamp flange joints of compartments; 17 — rolleron; 18 — gauge dial cooling system photoshoprecovery; 19 — screw; 20 — stopper rollerena; 21 — engine nozzle
The funds allocated to the Navy to develop guided missiles, reduced, and NOTS are faced with the problem of funding the development of rockets, called NOTS — AAM (the missile “air — air”). At this time, the Navy Bureau of Aeronautics created a guided missile “Sparrow” UAV concept. William McLean knew how to inspire their ideas of volunteers of scientists and technicians NOTS.
McLean believed that with good management system will not only fly the missile, but even a barn door. These arguments with embarrassment close to my heart took his aerodynamicist Whether Ajillo: the first model “Sidewinder” were actually rectangular wings and rudders, and flew with them quite well. In the end, Agilo won, and the final version of the wings and rudders guided missile had swept front edge.
Problem counteract uncontrolled rapid rotation of the missile relative to the longitudinal axis decided technician Sydney Crockett. He proposed a narrow solid flywheel — rotor gyro in each of the four ailerons attached to the wings. His device was called rollerons. Flywheels had the teeth at the outer contour, protruding into the air flow which rotates with angular velocity. If after liftoff the rocket began to roll, rolleron automatically reacted, forcing the ailerons to deflect the air flow in the direction against the rotation, limiting the angular velocity of the roll.
Another wonderful design solution was a balance gas drive rudders “Sidewinder” with swivel point on them. The proposed McLean drive solved this complex problem created by the hinge moment on the rudder. At high speeds or low altitudes, when the aerodynamic hinge moment on the rudder the maximum rudder deviated by a small angle and at low speeds or high altitudes the aerodynamic hinge moment allowed the steering wheel to deflect at a greater angle.
For the further development of the guided missile needed significant resources, and the team MacLean has developed a number of strategies that help to convince the officials, on which depended the funding. One of the most successful techniques was to demonstrate the ability THSN to accompany not only the movement of aircraft in the sky, but a spark of the cigarette in the office.
In 1951, Admiral William S. Parsons, the Deputy chief of the Artillery Bureau, visited NOTS, McLean introduced him to the results of the work of his team. Parsons supported the inventor: “You make a weapon system”. Shortly after this visit, the team received the first investment of three million dollars. Shell received the official name of XAAM-N-7 and brand — “Sidewinder”, Maclean suggested his colleague Gilbert Playdom. A rattlesnake (Sidewinder), as TGSN, responds to thermal radiation production.
McLean himself designed the control system, but testing of other systems also required a serious approach. “Sidwinder” used “hot” gas drive. Gas was produced by a small solid propellant gas generator (GG), from which it is partially cooled and filtered is supplied to the turbine of an electric generator and servos, rudders deflected the missiles. Receiving hot gas with given properties and testing of a “hot” drive was a very difficult technical problem. Not immediately able to provide reliable operation of system in flight after tuning it on a laboratory bench.
Another successful design solution was the choice of the aerodynamic scheme “duck”, which allowed to place in one compartment TGSN, the drive wheel and the power unit.
This allowed to abandon the strip electrocute the body of the rocket, shrunk her midsection and increased reliability of the control system.
After ground testing, the team of William B. McLean approached the stage of flight tests. The first launch of the “Sidwinder” executed a participant of the war in Korea, Lieutenant of the Navy test pilot Walter A. Schirra. He later became world famous as one of the first American astronauts performed three space flight: October 3, 1962 on the spacecraft (SC)”, Mekuri-8″, 15 December 1965, aboard “Gemini-6” and 11 -22 October 1968 spacecraft “Apollo-7”.
Family of missiles AIM-9
Rocket family of AIM-9
Team William McLean worked with great enthusiasm: constantly you could see a small cluster of cars in the Parking NOTS — it was a machine the developers “Sidwinder”. In the laboratory constant light Windows and didn’t close the door, and McLean has always been with those who worked, often stopping until two in the morning. Bill McLean worked on weekends in a home workshop in your garage. Obviously, there was born another original design solution, implemented in TGSN. The mirror is attached to a magnet-rotor, and when current is passed through the stator windings, the magnet is drawn to emerging magnetic field and the mirror began to rotate along with the rotor. At this time the very same rotating magnet, the rotor is switched by the collector electric current was applied to the next coil — and so spinning and the magnet is connected the current to the next winding. Coil was located in the body of the rocket, forming the stator of the motor, such switch used in synchronous motors popular before the Second world war electroputere. Obviously, the use of simple and original solutions have contributed to the birth of legends about a talented physics William B. McLean, who invented THSN from parts of a washing machine for his wife Paulie and what was at hand.
Physicist Warren Legler spoke about the workflow of the team “not on days, and on hours”. McLean was not a dictator, but did not approve of delay, and always remembered his instructions. He encouraged the improvement of the equipment, allows to obtain quick answer to questions that arose. Together with engineer Bob hammer, they made a device that displays information transmitted by 24 telemetry channels, aboard the flying missiles. The image on the “Hammergren” is not quite consistent with reality, but useful data were obtained a few hours after the flight. So often the characteristics of new nodes “Sidwinder” created in one day, was known for using “Hameraglim” next.
In 1953, more than two hundred employees NOTS participated in the project, together they worked in other government laboratories, and industrial corporations. The next problem was eliminated, but works on shell not fewer. In September, more than a dozen launches were unsuccessful.
Deputy McLean Howard Wilcox ordered carefully prepare two identical “Sidwinder”. After the launch of the first “Hameraglim” showed that the target signal was suddenly lost after turning off the gunpowder engine. This pointed to the fact that the axis of the detent gyro collapsed at the acceleration of the rocket. The second missile mounted detent with reinforced axle. This rocket was launched on 11 September 1953 and she held six inches from the plane of the target, and Howard Wilcox sent a letter to the Bureau of ordnance Washington with a message about the virtual hit. At two o’clock Maclean phoned Admiral P. D. Stroop, founder and military leader NOTS: he wanted to be the first to congratulate William.
Soon lose targets have become commonplace. Some experts argued that the proportional guidance system “Sidewinder” will be unstable at the end of a missile. They were convinced of fraud. But the rocket steadily locked on to the tiny heat source mounted on the end of the wing of the target. Wilcox estimated the average value of slip “Sidwinder” point target 1 — 2 inches.
The USAF funded development of the rocket “Falcon” and did not suspect about existence of “Sidewinder”. Howard Wilcox, who led at the time the project knew that the air force is in dire need of managed missiles to protect the United States. He repeatedly tried to draw the attention of the BBC “Sidewinder”. In the end, he was able to organize an informal meeting with a Professor at the California Institute of technology Charles Lauritsen and assistant Secretary of the air force Trevor Gardner. During a meeting in Pasadena McLean and Wilcox details introduced them with “Sidewinders”. Summing up, Gardner promised that he will instruct the experts of the air force to study the proposals and make the necessary conclusions and interlocutors to be ready for the duel between the “Sidewinder” and GAR-2 “Falcon”.
Five months later came the promised findings about what the BBC need a “Sidewinder”, and for making the final decision it is necessary to conduct a comparative test launches for radio-controlled aircraft target. To test a proposed air force base Holloman air force in new Mexico.
12 June 1955, a group of developers “Sidwinder” two jet fighters, transport aircraft and truck telemetry equipment arrived at Holloman. Each fighter was equipped with two launchers (PU) for the “Sidwinder”. Representatives of the air force’s eyes widened when four hours “sidwinder” prepared to use, which was an incredible result during the standard preparation delicate “Falcon”. The curator, air force Colonel, his eyes widened even more when he saw the application of two strings — a flashlight and a small tester to test equipment “Sidwinder”.
The curator invited the developers “Sidewinder” to see the monitoring equipment CHusovskogo “Falcon” variant of GAR-2 with TGSN: the abundance of dials and scales on dvenadtsatiminutke the wall struts validation. Falcon with dozens of tubes moving the cart along the stands on the rails and stayed at each position. An impressive view of the equipment suggests that GAR-2 is very capricious rocket.
The first launched “Saunder” inert OFBC went straight into the nozzle of the target and destroyed it to pieces. The Commission has proposed the launch of “Sidewinder” to perform smoothly dive targets over the scorching Sands of the desert. “Sidewinder” again hit the target. Test Glen Tierney was so elated that delayed the dive and went supersonic.
The air force is still looked down on XAAM-N-7, intending to put in place the developers of the NOTS, after additional testing for operational use at altitudes above 15 km. the Navy accepted the challenge, and all six high-altitude missile target was shot down, “sidwinder”. Test pilots reported that the missiles were directed on a target.
In 1955, the Corporation General electric has released the first of 240 missiles under the designation AAM-N-7 “Sidewinder 1”. In 1956 their peredaj aircraft of the U.S. Navy for use. This year, to full-scale production of missiles joined the company, “Ford aerospace”. The missiles, produced since 1956, got the code AAM-N-7 “Sidewinder 1A”. After changing the designation system in the missiles in 1963, these modifications have received new codes: AIM-9A “, 1 Sidewinder” and AIM-9B “Sidewinder 1A”, respectively. In the United States air force “Sidewinder 1A” were operated under the designation GAR-8. Until 1962 it was made more than 80,000 missiles AIM-9B.
In combat “Sidewinder 1A” was first used two years after their acceptance into service. At this time, relations between China and Taiwan escalated. Periodically clashes with weapons. Put the United States air force Taiwan a batch of F-86F sabre, armed with the GAR-8, allowing to use them in a combat situation. 4 Sep 1958, the squadron Taiwanese F-86F met in the area of Wenzhou (Zhejiang province) a group of 30 MiG-17 Chinese air force “MiGs” attacked “sabres”, the answer is four F-86F gave the pilots of the people’s Republic surprise, came in behind them and released eight “Sidewinder 1A”.
Four “MiG”, according to pilots aircraft, they shot down missiles, six onboard weapons. According to official statements, the Chinese comrades, they have lost 24 of September, one fighter and one MiG-17 returned to their base with unexploded missile stuck in the glider. After this fight NOTS conducted emergency test “1 sidwinders A”, delivered to the air force of Taiwan, to clarify the reasons for the refusal. The wreckage of the missiles picked up on the Chinese territory, handed over to the Soviet experts, which they are very carefully studied.
In the next several decades, “Sidewinder” is actively used in numerous local armed conflicts and had a significant impact on the shape of the rockets of class “air — air” in many countries of the world. About their combat effectiveness there is a rich and contradictory statistics.
Total produced more than 150,000 “segundera” 20 major modifications in the U.S., where the developer tried to eliminate identified during the years of operation disadvantages. Another 50,000 “segundera” built on pictsie in other countries.
TGSN А1М-9V have a low noise immunity, and because of this poorly captured targets on a background of clouds and the earth’s surface. Start at an angle less than 20 degrees from the direction of the Sun was impossible. Maximum overload is media when the launch was limited to 2D, because of the great length of the rocket was quite inert, allowing the pilot to keep your plane in a timely energetic maneuver to disrupt the guidance. The use of missiles during the Vietnam war showed low efficiency. In 1965 — 1968, the pilots of the F-4C/D USAF released 175 AL-9V, knocking at least 28 MiG-17.
In the 1960s missiles AIM-9B under the designation AIM-9B FGW.Mod.2 proizvoditi under license from a West German firm “Bodenseewerk Gerecnik” (BGT), which has improved TGSN. The improvement was to use carbon monoxide to cool the FS. 85 cm3 cylinder cooling system placed in the instrument compartment. Necessary amount found in the system restore, going from vacuum tubes to semiconductors. The operating time of the cooling system was reached 2.5 h at ambient temperature +20°C. It is possible to increase the sensitivity TGSN and reduce the dead zone in the direction of the sun to 5 degrees. At the same time improved noise immunity TGSN, increased the probability of selection targets on a background of clouds lit by the sun and adverse weather conditions.
One of AIM-9B FGW.Mod.2 was taken during the night of 24 October 1967 from the warehouse at the airbase in Neuburg citizens of Germany and sold by the Soviet security services. On the morning of 16 November the rocket was taken to the airport “Sheremetyevo” in the baggage compartment of the airliner “Lufthansa”. The loss of missiles at the air base discovered the next day after the abduction, and Soviet experts once again were able to get acquainted with the work of their Western colleagues in this class.
For combat use in bad weather carrier-based fighter F-8 “Crusader” and the impossibility of placing it on radar AN/APQ-72 for guidance of missiles “Sparrow” was developed by order of the Navy modification “of Sidwinder” with semi-active radar homing AIM-9C and more powerful steering actuator. Unlike the AIM-9B new modification for easy transportation and suspension on a carrier equipped with a quick-release steering wheels a larger area. Hundreds of missiles AIM-9C was used in anti-radar option in developing missiles AGM-122A SideARM (Sidewinder AntiRadiation Missile — anti-radar missiles on the basis of “Sidewinder”) for the aircraft of the marine Corps of the United States. The company “Motorola” in 1965-1967 he has released about 1,000 AIM-9C, most of which was subsequently converted into AGM-122A.
AGM-122A was introduced a radically redesigned with Center arms Navy United States Navy in China lake, together with the company “Motorola” modification of the AIM-9C and fitted with a passive radar guidance system and active PB DSU-15. Engine MK.17 and HF WDU-17 retained from the AIM-9C. Modified the control system was given at the launch of the missile at low altitude the command “slides”. Missile AGM-122A was intended to suppress tactical air defense systems ZSU-23-4 “Shilka” SAM “OSA” and “Roland”.
Another modification of the AIM-9D was created on the basis of AL-9V,replacing OFBC rod. For improved maneuverability, a more powerful steering. To increase the sensitivity TGSN matrix FS was cooled with liquid nitrogen. For easy transportation and suspension on the carrier rocket was equipped with a quick-release steering wheels. In 1965 — 1969 gg “Motorola” and “Raytheon” has produced about 1000 AIM-9D.
A missile AIM-9M
The missile AIM-9M
At the end of the 1960s adopted adopted the missile AIM-9E, specially designed for the U.S. air force. It was created on the basis of the AIM-9B. A new version of the missile was heavier than 4 pounds and is longer than 170 mm. IN TGSN introduced to improve its sensitivity, thermoelectric cooling, FS, increased angular velocity tracking THSN for the purpose to 16.5 deg./with and maximum angle deviation. Noise immunity is increased by reducing the field of view TGSN. The rocket equipped with easily removable wheels. Externally, this version differed a conical form TGSN. About 5,000 AIM-9B modified in AIM-9E. A variation of this modification was the missile AIM-9E-2, ukomplektovana engine with less smoke.
AM-9G was developed on the basis of AM-90. In TGSN introduced a device that provides faster target acquisition. All other units of the rocket remains as AIM-9D.
Further development of missiles AIM-9G was the modification AM-9H. The onboard equipment was completed on a new element base: tubes replaced chips. It is possible to increase the reliability of the missile and reduce its mass to 84 kg and to abandon GG and use a thermal battery. The speed was increased tracking THSN for the purpose, increased the power of the drive wheels, resulting in increased maneuverability of the missile. It was equipped with a new engine MK.36 mod.9. Solid piece made with a channel three-beam cross section. The nozzle with a significant degree of expansion of the cast of stekloizola. Engine block — aluminum alloy. Firing range missiles AM-AM and 9G-9H remained the same as in the base rocket.
In 1977 the US air force took the missile AIM-9J. It was an improved version of AM-9TH. In its instrument tubes partially replaced chips. Increased the power of the drive wheel and up to 40 work time GG. The handlebars have a kink on the leading edge. OFBC and RV — like AM-9TH. The maximum permissible overload of the carrier at start-up — 7g.
Another modification according to the conclusions from the Vietnam war was in development since 1971 rocket AIM-9L. Matrix FS from of lead sulfide was replaced by a more sensitive antimony India. This allowed us to capture aerial targets not only from their rear, but the front hemisphere. Once again has increased the maximum angles of deviation and speed tracking TGSN.
In TGSN AM-9L mounted Autonomous, argon cryogenic cooling system photoshoprecovery. A balloon with argon was placed in the body of the rocket, allowing to hang it on the existing starter. Earlier variants of “Sidewinder” cooling system was in PU.
The onboard equipment performed on-chip. As the source of electricity used to heat battery. The world’s first rocket of this class equipped with a laser fuse with radiant photodiode gallium arsenide and silicon receiving.
In new OFBC fragments formed of steel rods with pre-cut, stacked in two layers. To generate a stream of fragments initiating detonation was carried out from both ends of the explosive charge (BB). Launch range increased to 18 km. the Missile AIM-9L was adopted in 1976 and Production began in 1978, the company “filko Ford”, “Raytheon”, BGT and Mitsubishi produced more than 16,000 EM-9L. She is very well used British aircraft in the Falklands war in 1982
In the spring of 1979 began flight test version of the missile AIM-9M — modernization AIM-9L. It is manned engine with reduced opacity. Self-contained cooling system TGSN became closed, does not require recharge of refrigerant. Increased resilience TGSN thermal interference and improved selection of air targets on the background of the earth. Adopted AIM-9M was adopted in 1983.
Missile production began in 1982 and today the company “Raytheon” is made of over 7,000 pieces. The rocket was made in the sub-options from AIM-9M-1 to AIM-9M-10. The main current production version are AIM-9M-8 (US Navy) and AIM-9M-9 (USAF).
Rocket AIM-9P — a more modern version AIM-9J, with improved maneuvering characteristics and a greater range. On-Board equipment to semiconductors. Adopted AM-9P adopted in 1978 Known sub-variants of this modification.
AIM-9P-1 has completed an active optical fuse is a passive infrared. On AM-9P-2 installed the engine with a little smokiness. AIM-9P-3 is equipped with an active optical fuse, an engine with less smoke and enhanced IBC with the new EXPLOSIVES and shrapnel. New BB was less sensitive to high temperatures and had a long shelf life. The actuators of the rudders were replaced by more powerful. AIM-9P-4 — modified AIM-9P-3 all-recurses TGSN similar TGSN AM-9L. Compared to AIM-9L tactical and technical characteristics of the missile AIM-9P-3 (launch range 11 km), but the combat effectiveness of the same order. On AM-9P-5 planned improvements to increase noise immunity TGSN.
The development of missiles AIM-9R was carried out CV US Navy as a modification AIM-9M. New interference-seeker WGU-19 uses stabilized in three planes platform with an optical sensor in the visible range. The sensor consists of an array of 256×256 sensitive elements of antimony India or having greater resolution silicate silicon. The sensor is placed in a container cooled with ammonia, to ensure the stable operation in the range of 4 microns. The video signal issued by the sensor is digitized and is processed by a digital image processor that tracks the target and generates the necessary commands to the new control unit, all other elements and characteristics of the rocket remained unchanged.
One of the latest version of “Sidewinder” — AIM-9X. The main objective of this modernization is the creation of the United States the missile with all-aspect error-correcting THSN the next generation for close highly maneuverable air combat, competitive with similar missiles R-73, K-74, AM-132 on the world market. A rocket engine has a device for deflection of the thrust vector.
Except for the rocket “Sidewinder” William Burdett McLean participated in the late 1950s in a secret program NOTSNIC, providing for the creation of mobile aeronautical system US Navy to launch reconnaissance satellites and space-based interceptors. As a launch platform for launching a multistage rocket was used carrier-based fighter F-4D-1 “Skayrey”. Booster with a length of 4.38 m diameter 0.76 m and a weight of 950 kg, was launched from F-4D-1 at a height of 12.5 km. Even with the weight of the aircraft carrier NOTSNIC is the smallest of all known systems for launching its satellites. Space interceptor was used THSN from “Sidewinder”. After six failed launches in the summer of 1958, the program was closed. It marked the beginning of American space programs with the air start. Other work performed by McLean for the jobs of the US Navy, was a double submarine and equipment for working with live dolphins. Died William McLean in 1976. In 2008, the US Navy has a new support vessel with a displacement of 42,000 tons, which was named in memory of the famous inventor “William McLean”.
The main characteristics of the missiles Sidewinder AIM-9M
Launch weight, kg ……………………77,8
Firing range, km………………….18
The maximum height
defeats the purpose, km……………………….20
The speed of the rocket, m/s…………………….900
Maximum speed
Max. overload media
when you run, g…………………………7
Lots of OFBC, kg……………………………….8,4
Type………………………………….Mk.36 Mod.9
The total momentum, ………………3700
The motor is running, …………..>2

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