HALF A CENTURY IN A COMBAT PATROL

HALF A CENTURY IN COMBAT PATROLCombat reconnaissance patrol vehicle BRDM-2. This year marks half a century of adopting the Soviet Army armored reconnaissance-patrol car BRDM-2, continues his military service today. The design of the BRDM-2 was started in 1959 in SLE engineering and experimental Department of the Gorky automobile plant. At this time there already have considerable experience in the creation of armored vehicles of light class: in the early 1950s was designed BTR-40 (factory index GAS-40), and in a few years – armored reconnaissance and patrol vehicle BRDM (factory index GAS-40П, letter “P” stands for floating). The latter, in accordance with the new operational-tactical views on the ways of warfare, could without training to overcome water obstacles and trenches, ditches and trenches on the battlefield. This contributed to a sealed wodospadu reinforces the case and additional pull-out rollers.

With the start of series production in 1957. The BRDM was used by reconnaissance units, comparing favorably to the APC-40 its operational mobility. However, during the operation revealed and its weaknesses. In the first place – lack agowarren-ness, amounting to a total of 16 HP/ton, while the military wanted to have a 20 HP/ton But at the time at the disposal of designers there was only a 90-horsepower 6-cylinder engine GAS-40 received a boost in the speed of the GAS-engine 6З, which, in turn, led descended from pre-war engine GAZ-11 (76 HP). To squeeze out of this old motor more power is not possible. Was not entirely successful, and a structural diagram of BRDM inherited from the BTR-40, a direct descendant of whom it was (initially the car was conceived as a floating variant of the BTR-40, as indicated by its factory index – BTR-40П). A layout with a front fire of the carbureted engine made the car vulnerable from frontal fire. Besides, to ensure the required distribution of displacement along the length of the machine the front part had to perform a larger, significantly worsened the review ahead – as the driver and the crew. Weak was recognized and armament – one 7,62-mm machine gun SGMB; fire from him the arrow had to, half leaning out of the armored cabin.

Attempts to upgrade the BRDM due to the installation of machine gun turrets from Transporter-tractor MT-LB or a heavy machine gun PKV in an open turret special failed – possible further improvement of the machine, as already mentioned, was limited to a weak engine and the selected layout.
 
New opportunities to create a more perfect BRDM appeared when on the Gas works started on a new model truck terrain GAZ-66, the famous later the truck with engine capacity of 120 HP Initially, this V-twin engine was designed for the government’s “Chaika” (GAZ-13) by “fusion” of two 4-cylinder blocks “volgovskoe” engine GAZ-21, and then on its basis created a simplified version of the GAZ-66. So, the designers of the Gorky automobile plant the basis is the “heart” to create a new armored vehicle. It went and the other nodes “shishiga” – bridges, transmission, etc. the Use of the design of wheeled armored cars units, standardized with the serial cars is common practice and allowed to reduce significantly the cost of production.
 
Armored reconnaissance and patrol vehicle BRDM. Produced in 1962 - 1965
 
Armored reconnaissance and patrol vehicle BRDM. Produced in 1962 – 1965
 
February 10, 1959 the Main armored Directorate of the army (gbtu) issued tacticities requirements for the development of BRDM-2 that can act together with a new BTR-60, advanced tanks and infantry combat vehicles (BMP). Compared with the predecessor, it should have more firepower, better driving characteristics and a high level of protection; in addition, be equipped with an anti-nuclear protection and radio communication system for transmitting and receiving radio commands and intelligence information.
 
The project has received factory designation “article 41”, or “GAZ-41”. The team was the same that created and BRDM. Project management was carried out by the chief designer of Gas V. A. Dedkov, the leading cars were A. N. Lebedev, questions on security vodorodnoi supervised -Vladimir Lazarev.
 
Naturally, the designers used the new machine a number of constructive solutions has been tested in BRDM. However, the “GAZ-41” have a totally different scheme of the overall layout – with a front compartment and a rear location of the powerplant. This scheme has improved the view of the area and the driver and commander. The fighting compartment was shifted forward, it became more spacious. Increased vodorodnoe the quality of the machine: engine mounting at the rear of the hull provides stable trim by the stern. For self-defense machine armed with a machine gun KPVT, mounted on an open turret, similar to that used on a heavy tank T-10. The crew of the “GAZ-41” consisted of five people – two crew members and three paratroopers.
 
Hulls for the first two prototypes made by July 1960, which could not be said about the other units. If the new engine GAZ-66 were available, then the powertrain for it yet, only tested. The desire to stay within the given time the first prototype had to be equipped with drivetrain and suspension old BRDM. It did not fail to affect during the sea trials. The old transmission is frankly not withstand the increased engine power – not just burned the clutch, crumbling teeth gearbox.
 
After improvements in November of the same year, the prototype was transferred to the military to conduct field tests, held at Netpoolone in Kubin. Comments the military was a lot. Pointed out the poor performance of transmission, which does not provide for the transfer of the full torque developed by the motor. Criticized the use of bridges and suspension components from the GAZ-66. On the one hand, the military was interested in the unification of chassis “GAZ-41” already produced by the plant by the BTR-60, with the other narrow gauge inherited from the “shishiga”, difficult to driving on a tank track and created instability on bends and slopes. The placement of weapons in the open turret did not provide sufficient protection to the shooter when firing, moreover, broke the seal body and negate the work of anti-nuclear protection system, which directly prescribes the technical specifications. Against this background, already looked small comments about what the commander had the circular review (review to the right was closed by the driver, and ago – the body of the machine) and the fact that the crew had to work in very cramped conditions.
 
After regular adjustments and partial elimination of the revealed drawbacks of machine intelligence is still the order of the Minister of defence of the USSR dated may 22, 1962, was accepted into service with the Soviet Army under the designation BRDM-2. But in mass production, as it usually happened after such a decision, the BRDM-2 is not launched. The reason for this was not fully resolved the question of its weapons. The military does not suit the placement of the KPVT machine gun on the open turret, so the BRDM-2 has tried to equip the tower with a spark KPVT and PKT, which was developed for installation on another modification of the Gorky armored personnel carrier – BTR-60PB.
 
Prototype rearmed option prepared by early 1963, Quite heavy tower installation placed almost in the middle of the machine housing. It didn’t disturb her vodorodnoe qualities, however, had a beneficial impact on accuracy of fire. Now the shooter could conduct a circular firing from inside the hull without disturbing the operation of the system of anti-nuclear protection. However, due to the reduction of the internal volume of the crew had to decrease up to four people.
 
In General, the machine satisfied customer – thanks to more powerful engine had demonstrated the parameters on the cross and vodorodnoi beyond BRDM increased speed and range. The disadvantages attributed that the designers did not provide the conditions for a covert from the enemy crew egress from the car. Landing-landing is provided only through two hatches in the front part of the roof, and this forced the crew to climb on the machine through its Board.
 
In April 1963, experienced the BTR-60PB and BRDM-2 with turret installation of weapons had demonstrated to the Minister of Defence of the USSR Marshal of OC. Malinowski. The results of the screening conducted refinement to improve visibility BRDM-2 for the scouts on the sides mounted with additional observation devices.
 
However, the fine-tuning BRDM-2 was slow and difficult: in this period all the power plant was thrown into preparing for serial production of the BTR-60PB, and finally to bring the BRDM-2 was only towards the end of 1964
 
The first five pre-production cars left the Assembly hall in December 1964, but the wheels of production spin slowly for 1965 were built only 80 BRDM-2, and the following year instead of the planned 600 vehicles – a total of 440. Despite a protracted start, BRDM-2, showing the wonders of longevity, stayed in production for 25 years – until 1989.
 
BRDM-2
 
BRDM-2
 
BRDM-2:
 
1 – balneotreatment shield; 2 – front hook for towing afloat; 3 – headlight; 4 – mirror; 5 – the illuminator of the night vision device; 6 – machine gun KPVT; 7 – surveillance device commander; 8 – niche observations; 9 – hook; 10 – tower; 11 – saw; 12 – filter-ventilation installation; 13 – coil wire; 14 – muffler; 15 – rear hook for towing afloat; 16 – valve water jets; 17 – rear hook for towing by land; 18 – trundle wheel; 19 – the balance wheel of the additional wheel; 20 – a cover of the brake drum of the wheel; 21 – bracket suspension spring front wheel; 22 – front hook for towing on land

 
The first prototype of the BRDM-2. On the roof of the car open installed KVPT machine gun for anti-aircraft turret of the heavy tank T-10
 
The first prototype of the BRDM-2. On the roof of the car open installed KVPT machine gun for anti-aircraft turret of the heavy tank T-10
 
Before 1967 Gaza was necessary to release parallel to the old BRDM (as a chassis for special vehicles), and from 1982 production of the BRDM-2 has started at the Arzamas machine-building plant. Over the years we have built about 9400 units, however, nearly half of them served as a chassis for specialist vehicles.
 
The first public demonstration of the BRDM-2 was held in 1966, during the military parade on red square in Moscow.
 
In the production process in the design of the BRDM-2 have been made various changes. The most noticeable external difference by which the BRDM-2 can be divided into machine early, medium and late production series, was the who-duhovita on the roof of the engine compartment. Previously, the two of them hatch had a trapezoidal shape and were covered with lids opened from the back (like the BTR-60). On machines of average series vazduhoplov were rectangular in shape and were covered by blinds. Recent version, launched in the 1970s had over vozdukhoplavanie six convex mushroom caps-caps, the same design is installed on the BTR-70. They prevent ingress into the motor compartment ricochet bullets, shrapnel and leaking Napalm. In addition, these machines were equipped with a tower with a surveillance device in the roof. This variant of the BRDM-2 even got in the West, a separate designation BRDM-3, but in the USSR it is a special index not allocated.
 
BRDM-2 was received in the intelligence and military staff, army units, army communications and chemical troops. They were used in the interior troops, border troops and the marine corps of the Navy. Across the state, each Soviet motorized infantry or Panzer division relied of 28 BRDM-2: 12 in the reconnaissance battalion and 4 in each shelf.
 
This technique is widely supplied to Warsaw Pact countries, there was sent about 6 thousand cars. In some countries they introduced their own symbols. For example, in the German Democratic Republic BRDM-2 was known as SPW-40Р2 and BRDM – SPW-40P.
 
The design of the BRDM-2
 
Although the BRDM-2 is a further development of the BRDM, which is reflected in the designation, but a common node of them is perhaps the only genuine candidates for overcoming obstacles, drive rollers. BRDM-2 is made by Assembly scheme with a rear-mounted compartment of the power plant, respectively its branch office is located in the front of the hull and the fighting compartment in the middle.
 
In the Department of management hosted machine controls, monitoring devices, radio navigation equipment, heater that provides warm air blowing windshields, seat of the commander and driver, as well as the winch and its motor.
 
The placement of observation devices commander machine
 
The placement of observation devices commander of the machine:
 
1 – the handle for opening and closing the armored cover manhole; 2, 6 – devices TNP-B; 3 – a windscreen; 4 – device TPKU-2B; 5 – device TNPO-115; 7 – block BT-6-26 power supply TVNO-2B

 
The placement of observation devices of the driver
The placement of observation devices of the driver:
 
1 – devices TNP-B (3). 2 – device TNPO-115; 3 – the Central device TNPO-115, which is installed device TVNO-2B; 4 – the right device TNP-B; 5 – the handle for opening and closing the armored cover of the inspection hatch; 6 – windscreen in the viewing hatch; 7 – high voltage cable Assembly installation

 
Turret machine gun mount
The turret machine gun mount:
 
1 – the stopper of the tower; 2 – fuse box of the tower; 3 – strap retainer of the cradle; 4 – latch corallodiscus; 5 – gilolensis; 6 – pin strap retainer of the cradle; 7 – the electric trigger button of the FCT; 8 – the handle of a flywheel turret; 9 – button electric trigger KPVT; 10 – sight PP-61 AM; 11 – lever of the brake of the lifting mechanism; 12-arm overcharge KPVT; 13 – the handle of the handwheel lifting mechanism; 14 – arm wiper; 15 – the handle of the brake tower

 
In the fighting compartment are the turret machine gun mount, the ammunition, the hydraulic RAM of the additional wheels, the two single seats for the crew. In its middle part on the bottom, placed the transfer case Assembly with gear boxes and power take-on additional wheels and winch.
 
In the engine compartment are the engine Assembly with clutch, gearbox and transmission power take-off on water cannon, water and oil radiators and heat exchangers, pre-heater, bilge pump, compressor, water-jet propulsion with a gearbox and a cardan shaft of the PTO, gasoline tanks, battery and air tank. It is isolated from the rest of the body by a sealed partition, which has on the left side mounted filter-ventilation installation. For access to the engine bulkhead has a hinged door.
 
Totally enclosed sealed housing of the machine has a welded construction and manufactured from rolled steel armor plates. The thickness of the armor in the frontal part is 6-10 mm, the front part of the welded conical tower made of armor plates with a thickness of 6 mm. Armor only protects from bullets and shrapnel of artillery shells and mines of small caliber.
 
To the crew of the BRDM-2 is composed of the commander, driver and two scouts: one of them performs the duties of an arrow machine gun. Jobs of the driver and the commander (his place is at the right side) equipped in the Department of management. Their seats are the same design and are mounted on brackets welded to the bottom. The height of the seat lifting mechanism can be set and locked in three positions; the backrest is adjusted using threaded couplings.
Outside of the battlefield, the crew is monitored through the large viewing Windows, self closing, if necessary, the armor covers. The commander uses a periscope surveillance device TPKU-2B with a five-fold increase and four prismatic devices (three TNP-B, and one of TNPO-115). At the disposal of the driver, there are six prismatic devices (four TNP-B and two TNPO-115) which are arranged in such a way as to increase the angle forward and to the left. At night it can be mounted night vision device TVN-2B (TVNO-2B), and the commander – night TKN-1C. The kit night vision devices include an infrared spotlight illuminator OU-ZGA-2M, which is attached on the flap of the surveillance device commander, and two lights FG-125 installed on sloped frontal hull plates.
 
In the roof installed two large semicircular hatch through them are the entrance and exit of the crew from the car. To facilitate opening of the hatch covers are installed on the torsion cylinders. In the closed position of the lid can be locked with special locks, and in the open – held stoppers.
 
Thanks to the power steering and vacuum brake booster, the driver of BRDM-2 provided more comfortable working conditions than the BRDM. To the left of his seat at the side of the casing unit of the tire air valves and the reducer of the system of regulation of air pressure in the tires and the wheel housing niche – crane arm hydraulic dampers to the intake and balneotreatment, and a crane hydraulic issuance of additional wheels. The right and left of the seat are the levers of the transmission, transmission power take-off on water cannon, incorporating the front axle, Parking brake and winch. In front of the driver on the hull reinforced flap instrumentation.
 
In the fighting compartment and an armored tower circular rotation with a very powerful armament: 14.5 mm machine gun KPVT and coaxial with it 7.62-mm machine gun PKT. Both are mounted in a rigid welded cradle on which is fixed the shock absorbers, coronadite, hillsongunited and hillsoboro. Machine gun mount has a periscopic sight PP-61 A.
 
The tower rotates to the pursuit, drives turret rotation and weapon guidance systems – mechanical. Angles of attack: vertical – from -5° to +30° horizontal – 180°. During firing the gunner is placed on the special suspended seat, rotating together with the tower. Due to the small dimensions in the roof of the tower there’s no emergency hatch, and gunner-the scout leaves the car through hatches in the roof located over the seats of the mechanic-driver and commander.
 
Machine gun KPVT, designed by S. V. Vladimirov in the years of the great Patriotic war as anti-tank, has an effective range of 2000 m, the rate of fire is 600 RDS./min range 500 m armor-piercing bullet passes through the vertically installed armor thickness of 32 mm.
 
7.62-mm PKT machine-gun is intended for defeat of manpower of the opponent. Its effective range is 1500 m, the rate of fire of 650 to 700 RDS./min. Both machine gun -band power, the capacity of a cartridge tape fine – 50 rounds, PKT – 500. Ammunition is 500 and 2,000 rounds respectively.
 
In the stowed position, the two scouts from the crew took places on a single semi-rigid seats, the backs of which can recline forward. Seats located at the sides of the fighting compartment. Here to improve the conditions of observation on each side welded to the niche observations, with three prismatic device TNP-B. This significantly increases the visibility on the horizon. Near the inclined side armor plates made hatches for firing of personal weapons (one on each side), closed the armoured covers.
 
In the engine compartment placed V-shaped 8-cylinder carburetor engine liquid-cooled GAZ-41. At 3200 rpm it develops a maximum power of 140 HP To power the motor gasoline with octane number 76 (A-76), allowed the use of gasoline with lower octane — grade A-72. Fuel is stored in two tanks with a capacity of 140 liters each, which makes the machine a power reserve of land, equal to 750 km.
 
The engine cooling system – liquid, closed type, with forced circulation. For access of air, which are sucked by the fan into the housing, and remove it from the car after blowing off the radiators and heated units in the roof of the Cabinet there are special hatches. Two fluid cooler located in the power compartment behind the engine. To the left of them are mounted three radiators for oil cooling. To create a flow of air in the cooling system for each radiator in a special covers set at the shestilopastnye axial fan that provides obrashenie from the motor shaft through the belt transmission. To ensure engine cooling afloat in the system of tubular heat exchangers. They have the same design as for the coolant, and oil.
 
Heating system – thermosiphon type, designed to increase the temperature of the coolant, oil and basic engine parts to facilitate its start-up at low temperatures. The fluid in the system circulates under the influence of different densities of the heated and cooled liquid. The oil in the sump of the engine is heated by the gas heater P-100, which consists of a boiler and air fan. Hot gases passing through the flues of the boiler increase the temperature of the liquid in the shirts and through the exhaust pipe routed to the sump of the engine, heating it oil.
 
Transmission BRDM-2 – the mechanical composition of components and assemblies is not fundamentally different from the transmission BRDM. The torque from the engine is transmitted through the gearbox and transfer case to front and rear leading axles, and actuators water cannon, winch and extra wheels. The jet and drive to the drive wheels if necessary can work simultaneously. The drive clutch control is hydraulic. Transmission – manual, four-speed; the third and fourth transmission is equipped with synchronizers. The drive control transmission interlocked with the clutch at first, second and reverse gear -this greatly facilitates the driver to control the car. The Cam self-locking differentials of both bridges on a device similar to the same nodes of the truck GAS-66.
 
The chassis of the BRDM-2 is in principle identical to the chassis of the BRDM. Also features two leading bridge, which when driving on rough terrain can connect two pairs of wheels, lowered hydraulically. This ensures a very high throughput machine. On the axle with telescopic dampers.
 
The machine has a system of centralized control of air pressure in the tires. To change the pressure on Parking and traffic. Normal tire pressure. 2.7 ATM. On soils with low bearing capacity or when driving on snow cover depth more than 0,3 m pressure decreases, thereby increasing bearing area. In other circumstances, for example when driving on sand when you need to keep track ahead of the car, the tire pressure can be increased. Snow cover depth of 0.3 m BRDM-2 to move, without lowering the tire pressure, the wheels push the snow to the frozen ground and a good mesh with him.
 
For self-recovery winch in the front of the case mounted winch with a pulling force of 3.9 tons and a cable length of 50 m.
 
BRDM-2 has high speed characteristics. Maximum speed on highway – 95 – 100 km/h, specific power is 14,7 kW/t Machine overcomes a vertical wall height of 0.4 m and a trench width of 1.22 m.
 
The movement of the BRDM-2 on water is carried out using water jets with hydraulic actuators, flap and balneotreatment flap installed in the rear. Four-bladed propeller sucks water through the suction inlet located in the bottom, and throws it through the hole in the aft hull. During movement on land, this hole is closed with a special armored plate.
 
Back on the water is ensured by changing the direction of rotation of the screw. To rotate afloat is the water rudders, located in the exhaust nozzle of the water jets. The drive to them is interlocked with the drive wheels. Maximum speed afloat 10 km/h.
 
The equipment BRDM-2 is part of the radio station R-123 (later R-123М) with a range of stable radio microphone-dimensional mode to 20 km, as well as navigation equipment TNA-2, including sensors of the course and the path coordinate counting resolver, transducer and course pointer. Equipment, TNA-2 automatically generates the coordinates of the machine’s position and indicates the course (directional) angle of its movement.
 
BRDM-2 late releases. Over vozdukhoplavanie — six caps, roof mounted tower with a machine gun KPVT
 
BRDM-2 late releases. Over vozdukhoplavanie — six caps, roof mounted tower with a machine gun KPVT
 
BRDM-2M tower МА4 equipped with 23-mm cannon, 7.62 mm machine gun and 30-mm automatic grenade launcher. One of the options of modernization of the BRDM-2, the company
 
BRDM-2M tower МА4 equipped with 23-mm cannon, 7.62 mm machine gun and 30-mm automatic grenade launcher. One of the options of modernization of the BRDM-2, the company “muromteplovoz”, 2005
 
BRDM-2 of the Ukrainian peacekeeping contingent. Iraq, Wasit province, 2005.
 
BRDM-2 of the Ukrainian peacekeeping contingent. Iraq, Wasit province, 2005
 
There are also roentgenometer DP-ZB, military chemical detection device VPHR, a supercharger to create the inside of the machine overpressure, firefighting, cooling system windshields, bilge heater and the device.
 
All electrical equipment of the machine is energised by the onboard power supply DC voltage of 24 V. power Sources are generator G-290 and battery 12СТ-70.
 
Part BRDM-2 in combat
 
BRDM-2 entered service with the Soviet Army, interior troops, border troops of the KGB and the Navy marine corps. In the Russian Army in 1995, there were (according to Western sources) about 2400 BRDM-2, not much less – 2000 units – still had them in 2010
 
Due to the wide exports, BRDM-2 and cars based on them were in service with the armies of Algeria (115 units in 1995), Angola, Afghanistan, Benin (12), Bulgaria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Hungary, Guinea-Bissau, East Germany, Vietnam, Egypt, Zambia, Israel (captured Egyptian), Iraq, Yemen, Cape Verde (4), Congo, Latvia (2), Libya (242), Lithuania (10), Madagascar (26), Mali (20), Mozambique, Mongolia, Namibia, Nicaragua (70) Peru (15), Poland, Romania (121), the Seychelles (6), Syria (600), Slovakia, Somalia, Sudan (30), Tanzania (24), Croatia, Central African Republic (4), Equatorial Guinea (6), Estonia (3), Ethiopia, Yugoslavia.
 
In the Soviet Army BRDM-2 participated in military action during operation “Danube” — the invasion of the Warsaw Contract in Czechoslovakia in 1968 the GDR introduced here 1st guards tank and 20th guards army. As a rule, there were units of scouts on the BRDM. Here’s one of them who served in the reconnaissance 249 guards motorized rifle regiment 1st guards tank army: “the Command “Forward!” was received at 23.15. Everyone already knew that our ultimate goal is Prague. To it is 128 kilometers, half way on the mountain roads. At 3.00 regiment was to support the landing of paratroopers in Prague’s Ruzyne airport. Regimental convoy pulled up to the border. Ahead of our BRDM was only three Ganka T-55, equipped with a dozer blade, mine-sweepers and the device for laying wire entanglements. From the border the road soon went down. The first town on the way was Usti. Night passers-by walked the streets, with interest and bewilderment looking at the advance of our column. About halfway the road out on the plain. Now in some areas we were going at a speed of 70 km/h From the command of the regiment all the time came the command: “Increase speed!”. Through the roar of tanks going ahead in the sky was heard the growing rumble of heavy aircraft, and soon we saw them side lights. In 3.10 the convoy stopped near the international airport Ruzyne…
 
“Operation Danube” was almost bloodless. The 200-strong Czechoslovak army did not resist: on the eve of the invasion of Marshal A. A. Grechko informed the Minister of defence of Czechoslovakia of the impending action and warned against resistance.
 
After ten years of the Soviet BRDM-2 had to fight in Afghanistan, where in contrast to European Czechoslovakia, their share fell really hard tests. Machines passed the entire Afghan war from 1979 to 1989 it Should be noted that they were armed with not only the Soviet Army but also the Afghan government troops. Deliveries in this country of various weapons from the Soviet Union began in 1956, during the reign of Mohammed Zahir Shah, and in the 1960s, BRDM-2 the Afghan army often took part in military parades held in Kabul.
 
In the special atmosphere of the Afghan war, with severe climatic and physico-geographical conditions of theater of military operations, appeared some drawbacks BRDM-2. In the hot Alpine climate, its petrol engine was losing power and overheating, insufficient was the protection of the machine, particularly from the cumulative ammunition, and a limited elevation of the armament – only + 300 – making it impossible to fire at targets high on the slopes of mountain gorges where they were ambushed by the Mujahideen.
 
For its intended purpose BRDM-2 was used in Afghanistan by the units of the military intelligence. A typical assignment was, for example, exploration of the village. She began with preliminary observations of the terrain the patrol BRDM-2. Special attention was paid to observation of the “green” gardens, orchards and private buildings where there could be ambushes of the enemy. After examination and report to the commander of the patrol BRDM-2 was moved to the other side of the village and from the shelter examined the terrain lying ahead. The movement occurs at high speed, without stopping, in the first place, attention was drawn to the roof and upper Windows of the houses.
 
But mostly BRDM-2 was used for patrolling, escort and support columns. Unfortunately, in the case of a well-organized attack on the convoy of cars was the most vulnerable of all Soviet armored vehicles. The design of the BRDM-2 though and was designed for combat use, but in practice, the armor had little saved and from various types of roadside bombs, and protivobortovyh min. a Very big problem of steel RPG, with a cumulative grenade which pierced the armor of the BRDM-2 through. “Spooks” was first immobilize a military vehicle, and then shot it from all types of small arms.
 
Numerous cases defeat lightly armored vehicles, accompanied by a large literami of personnel, caused a negative psychological reaction from the soldiers. The paratroopers, even on the March tried to be on the outside of armored vehicles. It was thought that the explosion of mines or the firing of rocket-propelled grenades, the probability of death inside the BRDM-2 is much higher than when placed on the roof, despite the fact that in this case there was a high probability of loss from ordinary missile fire of the enemy.
 
In the second half of the 1980s, armored vehicles, including the BRDM-2, are increasingly beginning to appear on the streets of Soviet cities. As the emergence of new ethnic conflicts and other armored vehicles have tried to use to stabilize the situation, which, however, did not always lead to the desired result. Often appeared in the conflict zone combat vehicles stirred up passions even more and was used by the warring parties to various provocations. The first acute inter-ethnic clash that occurred in the USSR in the 1980s, was the conflict around Nagorno-Karabakh between Armenia and Azerbaijan; and then in 1992 between Moldova and the Transnistrian Moldovan Republic.
During the first and second Chechen wars BRDM-2 was used by both parties -both the Russian army and Chechen rebels.
 
It is well known that armed regular units of the army Dudayev had a large number of armored vehicles. Only in Grozny, when in June 1992 the Russian troops left the territory of Ichkeria, was left 108 units of armored vehicles, including 30 BRDM-2 and BTR-70.
 
In the composition of foreign armed forces BRDM-2 combat vehicles on their base the most widely used during the Arab-Israeli conflict in the middle East. In Egypt and Syria BRDM-2 began to arrive after the third Arab-Israeli war of 1967 and the “Yom Kippur War”, which began on 6 October 1973, participated already in the first hours. At 15.00 the Egyptian troops crossed the Suez canal in the first assault wave were battalions “commandos”, planted on the BRDM. They captured and held the bridgehead until the main forces, and then, having armed with a large number of anti-tank weapons, broke through the defensive lines and arranged on the tank hazardous areas of ambush, destroying Israeli tanks and preventing reinforcements.
 
Although the Israelis initially were stunned, but as soon as Egyptian infantry began to move from the channel, it counterattacked the tanks 252nd division. However, the Israeli tanks were advancing in the “best” traditions of war in 1967 – without intelligence, without infantry support, what is called “on hurrah”. For which he paid. Time fit here with the infantry of BRDM-2 armed with ATGM “baby”, until the end of the day destroyed from 100 to 200 Israeli tanks.
 
Comparative characteristics of the BRDM-2, BRDM-2ЛД, BRDM-2МБ1 and BRDM-2A
 
Comparative characteristics of the BRDM-2, BRDM-2ЛД, BRDM-2МБ1 and BRDM-2A
 
Soviet anti-tank guided missiles (ATGM) Malyutka on the basis of BRDM-2 is actively used by Egyptian and Syrian forces throughout “Yom Kippur War”. According to some reports, over half of Israeli tanks were destroyed; according to another report, the share of missiles “baby” had affected 800 Israeli tanks (total, according to Western reports, in the war of 1973, Israel lost their 2500 units). The sandy plains of the Middle East was the ideal place for the use of ATGM, despite the fact that the smoke and dust greatly complicated and guidance. After the “Yom Kippur War” the delivery of Soviet weapons to Syria continued; according to some reports, Syria has received 600 BRDM-2 combat vehicles based on them.
 
In played out in Lebanon in 1982, the military operations again played a significant role ATGM, especially during the fighting in the Bekaa valley and Damascus area. Here in southern Lebanon, in the Bekaa valley in 1982, first used in the fighting anti-aircraft missile systems (SAMS) “Strela-1” based on the BRDM-2. In December 1983 they had downed the American-made aircraft A-6E and A-7E.
 
“Mark” BRDM and in the jungles of South Vietnam where, by the way, came to their high permeability.
 
Quite widely used BRDM-2 during lasted more than ten years of war in Angola. In Africa, they have become popular due to its cheapness and ease of maintenance.
 
In 1983 the people’s revolutionary army (NRA) of Grenada resisted the American paratroopers. From the armor she was armed with only the BTR-60PB and a few BRDM-2 (in all likelihood, handed over by Cuba).
 
A significant number of BRDM-2 and SAM “Strela-1” was delivered to Iraq. These machines were used during the Iran-Iraq war 1980 – 1988, as well as during the first (1991) and second (2003) “the Gulf War”.
 
Quite often BRDM-2 used in various UN peacekeeping missions, as happened, for example, on the territory of the former Yugoslavia. In 1999, 20 of the upgraded BRDM-2М96 got a Polish 18th disantostefano battalion under the command of Lieutenant Colonel Roman Polk, which was sent to participate in the UN peacekeeping mission in Kosovo. The battalion was stationed in the American sector in the South-Eastern part of the province. All the cars had special notations with elements of rapid recognition of NATO troops in Kosovo, so they can be easily distinguished from the identical equipment used by the conflicting parties.
 
In the framework of the international peacekeeping mission in Iraq BRDM-2 was operated by the Polish and Ukrainian contingents, who was here in 2003 – 2005 the Ukrainians used the standard BRDM-2, and poles – specially upgraded BRDM-2 М96ІК a war with diesel engine and air conditioning.
 
In all military actions BRDM-2 was necessary and required for the solution of urgent military missions.
 
Modernization of BRDM-2
 
The production of the BRDM-2 was discontinued many years ago, however, a large number of them remain armed with not only the Russian army but also the armies of various countries of the world. For decades of service these machines have demonstrated high reliability and efficiency. However, we must admit that to date, most of the original components, and equipment BRDM-2 are outdated and do not correspond to modern requirements. However, the respective modernization efforts of the BRDM-2 still may for some time to perform as its principal function razvedyvatelnoye and to serve as a base for various specialized combat vehicles.
 
So, one of the first Russian version of the modernization of the BRDM-2 was shown at the IV International exhibition of military equipment “0мск-2001”. The main difference shown from the original prototype machine was to install a new diesel engine – 4-cylinder D-245.9 136 HP with an improved transmission, allowing increased maximum speed, increased range.
 
To date, the Russian company “muromteplovoz” offers several variants of modernization of the machine, greatly improving its basic characteristics, including increased firepower. In the power plant BRDM-2M using a more efficient diesel engine YAMZ-Е534.10 160 HP With minor reduction of the maximum speed possible to gain the range of the vehicle, equal to 1000 km, greatly enhance its dynamic performance. However, to install a new engine and its components had to lift the roof of the engine compartment relative to the previous position.
 
From additional lowering of the wheels refused. The result freed up internal volume and the opportunity to increase the number of Marines. For them in the sides made two landing doors that open to the outside. Now six people of the crew (on the original machine it was four people) can leave the car through the hatches of the driver and commander, placed in the front part of the roof, but through the side door.
 
Anti-tank complex 9П122 on the basis of BRDM-2 in full camouflage
Anti-tank complex 9П122 on the basis of BRDM-2 in the parade camouflage
 
The Bulgarian BRDM-2 of the international forces to stabilize the situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1998.
 
Bulgarian BRDM-2 of the international forces to stabilize the situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1998
 
BRDM-2 of the internal troops of the Russian Federation. Stavropol Krai, 1995.
 
BRDM-2 of the internal troops of the Russian Federation. Stavropol Krai, 1995
 
Modernized BRDM-2M to equip a new tower MA1 armed with a 14.5 mm machine gun KWB and 7.62-mm machine gun PKTM. The maximum elevation of the weapons is increased to +60° (in the old tower setup, he was only a +30°). Additionally, on the outer side of the left side of the tower for a 30-mm automatic grenade launcher AG-17, it allows to conduct aimed fire at ranges up to 1700 m, and very effective against lightly armored vehicles and infantry operating on foot.
 
Also available for installation: tower MA2, equipped with 23-mm cannon and coaxial machine gun 7.62-mm; the tower МА4 with 23-mm cannon, 7.62 mm machine gun and 30-mm automatic grenade launcher.
 
The standard equipment BRDM-2M includes: protection from weapons of mass destruction, Central inflating system that allows the driver to adjust the tyre pressure when driving, given the nature of the terrain, the winch with a maximum capacity of 4400 kg mounted at the front of the machine.
 
BRDM-2M retained its amphibious characteristics – maximum speed on water is 8-10 km/h.
 
The package of proposals on modernization suggested and Arzamas machine-building plant – manufacturer of armored personnel carriers BTR-80. Its ideology – the maximum unification with the products manufactured today, the application of the components and assemblies of the proven BTR-80. A modernized car plant – BRDM-2A gets a new tower and a diesel engine, the chassis of the BTR-80, protective armor.
 
The machine base is made easier by the elimination of additional retractable wheels. Instead of the spring suspension on the basis of units and units of the GAZ-66 is a suspension of the BTR-80. Having a wider track, the car became more stable; if before cornering with high speeds BRDM-2 could tip over – it was her “congenital” flaw, now it has the ability to move on the roads and over rough terrain with much greater speeds.
 
Gasoline engine GAZ-41 replaced by a diesel engine YAMZ-236 (“cropped” version of the regular YAMZ-238, BTR-80), which significantly increases the range and reduces the fire hazard.
 
In the sides of the trapezoid are set (BTR-70) doors-hatches for the landing crew.
 
Changes were made and weapons. BRDM-2A got a new tower similar to the tower BTR-80, with the elevation angle of the armament to +60° and a modern sighting equipment. It can also accommodate smoke launchers.
 
In addition, the machine is fitted with additional passive reservation and navigation equipment “Gamma 1 or Gamma 2”, the radio station R-168-35U or R-173, new bulletproof tires, efficient firefighting system, the new jet engine from BTR-80.
 
In the last few years Arzamas engineering upgrades for 30 -40 units BRDM per year.
 
Sergei SHUMILIN

Noticed mistape? Highlight it and press Ctrl+Enter, to inform us.

Recommend to read

  • “DRAGON” TANK DESTROYER“DRAGON” TANK DESTROYER
    Designers Uralvagonzavod im. Dzerzhinsky, overcoming many difficulties, has created an entirely new fighting machine of the it-1 was the first domestic tank with high-precision weapons....
  • “LYNX” FOR THE BUNDESWEHR“LYNX” FOR THE BUNDESWEHR
    During the Second world war, Germany was the leader in the development of heavy armored vehicles with wheel formula 8x8. After a good armored car Sd.Kfz.231(8 Rad), which was a frame...

Spelling error report

The following text will be sent to our editors: