In the late 1950’s — early 1960-ies there has been a backlog of the USSR from Western countries in the creation of heavy tracked armored personnel carriers. During this period in the armies of NATO were adopted by M113 armored personnel carriers (USA), “Trojan” (UK), VТТ M56 (France) S-30 (Germany) did Not depart from them, and neutrals — the Swedes took his PbV302, and the Austrians — 4K3F. All these machines have a completely closed enclosure and powerful enough weapons — up to 20-mm automatic guns. Heavy tracked armored personnel carrier there were in the Soviet Army — BTR-50P (in the roof — BTR-50PCS). However, this machine, compared to its Western counterparts, had too large dimensions and very bad layout with a front of the troop compartment.
Apparently, for this reason, a serious upgrade (mainly to strengthen the arms), felt hopeless and went towards the creation of a completely new sample, a New car was to have it more suitable for APC layout with a rear troop compartment and the most important is to be adapted for warfare in a nuclear war, that is to have sealed hulls with a GROOVE system (anti-nuclear protection). In terms of weapons focused on the most powerful Western models, but then came the hitch. The fact that during the reign of N. With Khrushchev’s no work on the creation of small-caliber automatic guns for the army was conducted, and equip a new car was simply nothing, there was only one gun suitable for this purpose, — 73-mm recoilless smoothbore gun 2A28 “Thunder”, which allowed at ranges up to 1000 meters to hit armored vehicles, including tanks of the period.
It and set it on the car, which was adopted in 1966 under the designation BMP-1, proudly calling it “the ancestor of a new class of military equipment — infantry fighting vehicles”. Thus any coherent concept of their operational use completely absent and most of the military were of the view that the BMP, as the APC is just a vehicle that allows under the guise of armor to deliver the infantry to the battlefield behind the tanks and then use it for classes site. However, against more powerful than the then Russian armored vehicles, weapons, no one objected, though it also clearly has not been defined clearly, that the armament of the BMP-1 had a pronounced anti-trend: in gun ammunition “Thunder” were only anti-cumulative shells, and as additional weapons in the car were placed ATGM “baby”. For support of infantry from the BMP was only a 7.62 mm machine gun PKT, which was not enough (for comparison: the BTR-60PB were two of them. 14.5-mm and 7.62-mm). Fragmentation grenade introduced in ammunition only in 1973, but she didn’t give the infantry due to the grazing trajectory. In addition, it should be noted that BMP-1 was absent stabilizer arms, and focus fire with all types of ammunition was impossible.
As a result, in military-industrial circles turned a long discussion about how to be armed IFV. Within this discussion was created prototypes of future vehicles with two directions of development of weapons. The first is the increasing firepower of the gun “Thunder” by lengthening the barrel, which led to the creation of 73-mm gun “summer lightning” installed on the experimental objects 768 and 681, made in 1974 and 1977. Second — go to created by the time automatic 30-mm cannon, installed on the objects 680 and 769 in 1972 and 1974 in this case, the object 680 gun and a machine gun was mounted on the remote rotating carriage, which had a standard turret BMP-1 and a second machine gun on the hatch of the commander. The object had 769 twin tower and an elongated body (the number of rollers was increased to seven).
BMP-2 on parade
It should be noted that these prototypes were created as in Chelyabinsk, and Kurgan. The fact that serial production of the BMP-1 was organized at Kurgan machine building plant (Kurganmashzavod) Is a company built in 1954, is specialized the production artillery tractor ATS-59 and its modifications ATS-59G. Since 1967 Kurganmashzavod has become a leading enterprise producing infantry fighting vehicles Chief designer of the factory was A. A. Blagonravov.
Competition between 73 mm and 30 mm cannon over almost nothing. Kurganmashzavod defended its object 675, armed with 30-mm gun 2A42 Tula KBM (lead designer VP Gryazev). In this he was supported by the General designer of KB G Shipunov and then chief of hbtu chief Marshal of tank troops A. Babajanyan. However, the 30-mm gun for a long time not perceived by the leadership of GRAU as a serious weapon. And this despite the fact that extensive testing of the 30 mm gun showed enough flexibility when shooting a variety of targets including tanks. Were carried out comparative tests of the upgraded guns “Thunder-M” with a gun 2A42 when using the comparable part of the ammunition, however, at the insistence of GRAU, with twice for “Thunder”. After the fire of the 73-mm gun tank was shelled militant. After shelling out 2A42 on it there is no attachments (anti-aircraft gun, for example, flew 15 m), and the fuel tanks ignited. After inspection it became clear that the tower and tank gun jammed, mask gun has a through hole, and all vision devices, and sight is broken.
Despite such convincing results, doubts continued to sharpen the leadership of the Ministry of defence. In the system of public procurement, for example, production of a new car was planned in the amount of about 10% of the production of the BMP-1. The final point in her life has put Afghanistan.
The disposal of the government for the urgent development of series production of an object 675 was transferred to the plant on the phone one night in April 1980. The order was categorical in two weeks the first batch of cars should be sent to Afghanistan! This decision was influenced by the General of the army M. M. Zaitsev, who, while in Afghanistan, called the CPSU Central Committee and explained that under local conditions the new car Kurgan indispensable. Zaitsev knew the car when he was still commander of the Belarusian military district, where vehicles passed military tests. The next day, the production of Kurganmashzavod was transferred to the wartime regime. In April, the first 25 machines sent to Afghanistan. The resolution of Council of Ministers of the USSR on the adoption of object 675 into service under the designation BMP-2 followed in August, and the order of the Minister of defense in October 1980. At this time, several dozens of BMP-2 fighting in Afghanistan.
In their design and performance characteristics of the BMP-2 is largely similar to its predecessor — the BMP-1. In the left front of the machine housing compartment control. It placed; the seat of the driver, controls, measuring devices, four surveillance device, TNPO-170A, geropotamos GPK-59, unit A-3, TPU etc. Behind the seat of the driver is seat of the paratrooper. It is equipped with a recess for the firing of personal weapons (in the left side of the hull), observation devices TNP-165А and TNPO-170A, and the apparatus A-3 TPU.
To the right of the compartment is MTO, separated from the whole machine heat and sound insulating partition. In MTO, the engine and gearbox combined in a power unit and a radiator of the cooling system, lubrication system the engine lubrication system and hydroproline power transmission, ejector and air — cooling unit and air cleaning.
The fighting compartment is located in the middle part of the machine frame directly behind MTO. It includes the tower and part of the body bounded by the partition MTO and front rails of the seat landing back In the tower in a mask swinging a cannon 2A42 and coaxial machine gun PKT. On a rotating floor mounted store PKT and a system that provides a belt feeding the gun, armour-piercing tracer and high-explosive shells. The commander is located to the right of the gun, the gunner on the left.
In the rear part of the vehicle body in the troop compartment face to the sides are six shooters. At each location the arrow is a device of TNPO-170A for surveillance of the terrain when moving the “in combat”, the recess with the spherical installation of the firing of a machine gun PK or PKM (front) and AKM or AK-74 (the rest). For input and output of the shooters in the rear of the machine there are two doors. Each installed device TNPO-170A, on the left side of the door and even the recess for the firing of an AK-74. In the roof above the seats there are hatches to exit the shooters when the machine is afloat, firing at air targets, surveillance of the terrain on the March, emergency evacuation, etc. the troop compartment is divided into two parts (right and left) secondary fuel tank and container equipment in which two battery units and electrical heater of the passenger compartment. In the troop compartment for internal communication are used machines A-3 and A-4 TPU. In the alcove right door placed radio R-126.
The housing and the conical tower of the BMP-2 are welded from rolled steel armor plates with thickness from 5 to 19 mm. the So-called “ribbed sheet” covering the trapezoidal hatch in the top front of the compartment, made of aluminum alloy and has a thickness of 10 to 15 mm Forehead tower was protected by armor thickness 23 mm. On the roof of the hull in the troop compartment and all hatch covers with internal side-mounted anti-radiation liner. In General, the armor protects from bullets of conventional caliber and small fragments. The frontal armor hull and turret can withstand the bombardment of large-caliber bullets.
Installed in the tower in a mask swinging a 30-mm 2A42 automatic gun has dvuhletie power Fire from it being armor-piercing, high-hugenottenhalle and fragmentation tracer shells. The gun has two rate of fire — small (200 — 300 RDS./min) and high (at least 550 RDS./min). Sighting range of fire at ground targets is 2000 for piercing and 4000 m for other types of shells. Given the area of damage okolicznosciowe of the projectile is 25 — 30 m2, high-explosive — 50 — 70 m2.
Can marvel at aerial targets flying with subsonic speeds for distances up to 2000 — 2500 m ammunition for the gun — 500 rounds, 160 of which are armor-piercing-tracer shells. With gun paired 7.62-mm machine gun PKT with highest sighting range of 2,000 m and ammunition load of 2,000 rounds. The cannon and coaxial machine gun stabilized in two planes by means of Electromechanical stabilizer 2Э36-1. Pointing at the target is carried out from the control of the operator-gunner and commander. The stabilizer has two main modes — automatic and semi-automatic. The first is designed for firing from space and ground targets. At an elevation angle of about 35° automatically switches the stabilizer on semi-automatic mode, which is the main when firing at air targets, In this case, also produced stable guidance in both planes, but with lower accuracy, but increases perebrosa speed is Provided, and a sub-routine of targeting, intended for rotation of the tower in the direction of the target selected by the commander, with a speed of 30 deg /s by the shortest distance.
Gunner uses combined (day and active-passive channels night) periscope sight. When operating in active mode using the illuminator OU-5 the vision range of the target type “tank” is 800 m. in addition to sight BOD-1-2 workplace gunner has three periscopic viewing device ТНГ10-170A with electric heating and one device TNPT-1. The commander of the machine mounted monocular periscopic day sight 1ПЗ-3, two observation device TNPO-170A and one TNP-1. In addition, the commander has a combined (day and night active) binocular periscopic device TKN-3B ground targets shooting can be carried out with the move, and on air targets — from space.
To fight against tanks and other heavily armored vehicles of the enemy designed ATGM “Fagot-M” or “Competition”, which can be used as the vehicle or a ground (the translation of complex into position for firing from the ground is carried out by two crew members). On the turret roof between the hatches commander and gunner placed the launcher 9П135М (9П135М-1). Inside the machine carried four ATGM. three on the right side of the machine and one in the fighting compartment.
In addition, the troop compartment are two 9К32 9К34 MANPADS or Strela (instead of one MANPADS can be placed RPG-7) and 12 grenades f-1.
The arc of fire of the machine-gun loopholes of the troop compartment — 35 — 40°, machine gun — 23°. Each recess is equipped with exhaust ventilation system for removal of powder gases, machine-gun — hillsoboro, and automatic — hilisohtustel. However, the conduct aimed fire the landing of the machine is impossible due to the poor review and lack of the stabilizing arms.
Infantry fighting vehicle BMP-2:
1 — 30-mm 2A42 gun; 2 — valve of the loopholes for firing from a machine gun; 3 — smoke grenade launcher system 902В “Cloud”, 4 — launcher ATGM “Fagot-M”, 5 — valve loopholes for firing the automatic; a 6 — wing, 7 — guide wheel; 8 — support roller; 9 — hydraulic shock absorbers; 10 — driving wheel, 11 — ribbed sheet 12 has a hatch cover to access the engine; 13 — mesh over louvers; 14 — the grid above the valves of the ejector, 15 — a device TNPT-1; 16 — a cover of the hatch of the commander; 17 — chamber cover to the intake pipe, 18 — hatches of the troop compartment; 19 — cover of the operator; 20 — cover for access to the filter-absorber; 21 — cover of the paratrooper; 22 — cover of the driver’s hatch; 23 — IR illuminator OU-5, 24 — protective cover sight 1ПЗ-3; 25 — device TKN-3B; 26 — IR illuminator OU-3ГА2; 27 — protective cover sight BPK-1-42, 28 light FG-126; 29 — headlight FG-127; 30 — antenna input; 31 — right door-tank, 32 — left door-tank; 33 — damper loopholes day of the shooting machine; 34 — inlet guide vane; 35 — balneotreatment panel, 36 — hole to drain the water from the housing; 37 — the draining plug of the fuel; 38 — valve to drain the cooling system; 39 tube drain oil from the oil tank; 40 — tube drain oil from the crankcase 41 has a hatch cover to access the engine; the 42 — tube drain water and oil from the sump.
Masking system includes thermodynami instrument multiple actions, providing installation of smoke screen width of 100 — 150 m, and the system 902В “Cloud”, six 81-mm smoke grenade launchers that are installed on the sides of the tower With smoke grenades ЗД6 is a smoke screen at a range of 200 — 300 m.
The machine is equipped 6-cylinder diesel natural pressure liquid cooling UTD-20С1 capacity of 285 — 300 HP (210 — 221 kW). Location of cylinders — V-shaped, at an angle of 120° Total capacity of fuel tanks 462 liters. The main method — starting the engine with compressed air, additional — electric start. Valve provides an automatic mechanism to protect the engine from water.
The drivetrain consists of a multi-disc main clutch dry friction, five-speed gearbox with constant Zatsepina gears and synchromesh on second, third, fourth and fifth gear, two-stage planetary mechanisms of rotation, a tape stopping brakes and on-Board single-stage planetary gearboxes. Actuators: the main clutch is hydraulic (at the idle engine — air), gear — mechanical with hydraulic servo in 2,3,4 and 5th gears; PMP — hydraulic with servo-effect on the clutch and brake PMP; stopping brakes — hydraulic servo of the action (at the idle engine — air).
Caterpillar BMP-2 — 300 mm wide, cycloid gear with rubber-metal hinges. Driven wheels — front location, with a removable ring gear. The guide wheels are mounted aft on the crank mechanism for track tensioning. Track rollers and support rollers — welded, with rubber rims. Suspension — independent, torsion bar with hydraulic telescopic double acting shock absorbers on the first, second and sixth suspension units On the second and fourth nodes are made of rubber, and on the first and sixth — the spring stops-travel stops rollers.
Engine, transmission and chassis provide a 14-ton car driving on the highway with a maximum speed of at least 65 km/h, on a dry dirt road with an average speed of 40 — 50 km/h. cruising on fuel on the highway is 550 — 600 km.
Maximum speed afloat — at least 7 km/h. the Movement afloat at the expense of the fast tracks, which at their lower Truckee create a stream of water directed backwards with this car moves forward. To reduce the harmful effects of water flow generated by the upper branch of the caterpillars and increasing the speed of movement of the machine upper branch is closed by the wings. These wings are designed in such a way that the flow of water created by the upper branch of the caterpillar, is partly sent back through the flap at the front of the wings and guide vanes (guide vane) in the aft. Each wing consists of three parts of box type, made of aluminum alloy sheets, and the float of the steel sheets. To preserve the buoyancy of the machine in case of damage or break of the leaves of the wings, the inner cavity of the wings and floats filled vodonapornoy material.
Here we must make a little explanation. The thing is, what is acceptable for BMP-2 angles of entry and exit from water range from 15° to 30° depending on the soil. In most cases, this circumstance dictates the necessity of engineering training terminal, and both banks Without this, even with a small flow rate (more than 0.2 m/s) forcing cannot grip the inclined portion of the tracks with the shore is too little and the car will deploy, if it does not affect the bearing surfaces of the tracks of the bottom.
Serial production of BMP-2 continued until the end of 1980-x years, and unfortunately, the author does not have data on the number released over the years machines According contained in the documents of the Contract on restriction of armed forces and armaments in Europe, the European part of the USSR in 1990, there were 5996 BMP-2.
During serial production in the machine was constantly modified, for example, since March 1986, instead of sight BPK-1-42 mounted sight BPK-2-42 with a somewhat higher performance. The stabilizer arms included gyrotools with air dampers, which are less sensitive to changes in ambient temperature.
Given the “Afghan” experience upgraded suspension reinforced rails and drive wheels, changed the oil seals rocker rollers and bushings idler, improved protection from dust and facilitate the replacement of parts of hydraulic shock absorbers. Design RMS was improved with the aim of extending its service life. In addition, it introduced a steel needle for removing electrostatic charges, nakalivanija at joints and create interference. Was introduced the Shoe with the grouser Chevron type, light weight alignment rods and control linkages, supplemented by the indication on the dashboard of the driver. Radio station R-123М TPU and R-12 had replaced the radio stations R-173 and TPU R-174. In 1981, he developed a set of optional mounted body armor for the BMP-2. Machine equipped with this set and received the designation BMP-2D (D—airborne) and was widely used in Afghanistan air assault brigades airborne, where they replaced the combat vehicle BMD-1.
In service with the Russian Army BMP-2 remain to this day. For these machines developed a variety of programs of modernization, mostly involving strengthening the arms and improving the fire control system and improve the intelligence capabilities sighting and observation systems. True security and the conditions of combat flight, first landing, remain unchanged.
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