MAIN BATTLE TANK T-80

MAIN BATTLE TANK T-8019 April 1968 a joint resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU and the USSR Council of Ministers “On creation of gas turbine propulsion for objects of armored vehicles” SKB-2 at the Leningrad Kirov plant (LKZ) was instructed to establish on the basis of tank T-64 a new car with a gas turbine power plant. The development of the engine was entrusted to the Leningrad NPO. Klimova. Gas turbine engine (GTE) with the same amount that diesel has developed a much greater capacity. This would allow the tank to achieve higher speeds and to significantly increase the maneuverability on the battlefield, to improve the management of the machine itself. Experience in the application of GTE Soviet tank builders already had, especially at the Kirov factory. In 1948 here in SKB turbine production under the guidance of A. Starostenko was the project of a heavy tank with this engine, but it remained a draft. When in 1955 LKZ requested the creation of a new heavy tank with engine 1000 HP — weighing up to 55 tons, with 130 mm cannon, began to conduct work in two directions: developed the options and a diesel engine (“object 277”), and GTE (“object 278”). Two prototypes of the GTD was designed under the direction of G. Ogloblina.

In 1957 on the LB was made for two experienced gas turbine unit GTE-1 “object 278”, created on the basis of tanks is-7 and T-10. They had to provide a sample weight of 53.5 tons speed in excess of 57 km/h. But soon all the works relating to heavy tanks, in our country the government stopped. “Object 278” finish and could not. However, the search in this direction at the factory continued. In the 1960s, for example, tested “object 288” on the T-64 helicopter with two turbine engines GTD-350 with a capacity of 350 HP each.
 
In 1963 in the Kharkiv KB No. 60 A. Morozov has developed a pilot version of the T-64Т with helicopter turbine engine-ZTL 700 HP In 1964 on the “Uralvagonzavod” in Nizhny Tagil under the leadership of L. Kartsev was created as “object 167Т” based on the T-62 with the turbine GTE-ZT capacity of 800 HP
In 1969 the first tank of the Leningrad Kirov plant with a gas turbine engine in accordance with the requirements of government decree of 19 April 1968, was made. This pattern known as “object 219” based on the T-64 with GTD-1000 capacity of 1000 HP, developed at the NPO. Klimova. However, the installation of a powerful engine, increased weight of the machine and the requirements for dynamic characteristics is made to introduce major changes in its design, especially in suspension. Had to develop new dampers and torsion bars, guide rails and drive wheels, rollers, caterpillars, even with rubber tracks, optimized the shape of the tower. But kept the weapons, autoloader, ammunition, instruments of guidance and monitoring etc. in a Word, the machine, “while retaining the basic structural and layout characteristics of the predecessors, the fully could be considered new,” though she tried in many ways to unify with tanks T-64 and T-72.
 
In 1976, the tank was accepted into service armored units of the Soviet Army under the designation T-80 (the name “Storm”). Serial production was, of course, on the LB, and then at the Omsk plant of transport engineering.
 
Throughout the period of its long history of tank T-80 has undergone modernization, sometimes minor, and sometimes very serious. So, in the same 1976 he started manufacturing an improved model of the T-80B fitted with 9К112 complex ATGM “Cobra”. Since 1984, the troops began to enter the tank T-80BV with reactive armor.
 
Transportation of tank T-80 tractor KrAZ wheel trailer
Transportation of tank T-80 tractor KrAZ wheel trailer
 
The first T-80 was supplied guards units located in the European part of the Union. In 1984 they began to arm parts 1, 2-th and 8-th guards tank armies stationed in East Germany.
 
First T-80 participated in the may day parade in Moscow in 1989 to 1993, these cars were shown at the international military exhibition IDЕХ in Abu Dhabi.
 
It is believed that the T-80 and T-80B has released a total of 266 units.
 
In “Technical description and operating instructions T-80B” States: “Thanks to powerful weapons and sophisticated surveillance devices, the tank can destroy tanks and other armored vehicles, antitank weapons, artillery and manpower and other purposes. Powerful armor protection allows the tank to carry out combat missions with a strong fire influence of the enemy and in combination with NBC protection system ensures efficient use of the tank in terms of the use of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction. The high mobility of the tank provides good maneuverability in battle.”
 
THE DESIGN OF THE TANK T-80B
 
Tank inherited the layout of their famous predecessors, including T-64, with the compartment in the front of the case. Here placed the seat of the driver, in front of which on the bottom are the levers of the turn, the pedal fuel supply and management launchers apparatus, a head sheet is a shield control devices. Left and right of the seat — fuel tanks and tank-rack, behind the conveyor of the loading mechanism of the gun. Above the shield three prismatic surveillance device, TNPO-160; the Central instrument for driving at night were replaced with night vision TVNE-4B.
 
The instrumentation system of protection against weapons of mass destruction (WMD) with sensor, metering panel, power supply unit installed in the alcove to the right of the tank. The bilge pump is under the control shield. Four batteries in the rack behind the left tank.
 
Above the seat of the driver in the turret sheet is an escape hatch. To the right are the air intake device of the device of radiation and chemical reconnaissance (PRHR) and the apparatus A-3 TPU. In addition, in the bottom behind the seat there is an emergency hatch.
 
At the bottom of the case are the torsion bars suspension, side — thrust actuators.
 
In the middle part of the tank — fighting compartment in the turret of which a cannon with a loading mechanism (M3). M3 provides the feeding and chambering of the rounds, catches and places the extracted casings.
 
To the right of the gun commander, on the left — the gunner. In front of the commander’s seat, the apparatus A-1, TPU, radio, remote control M3, reservoir stopper of a cannon, sensor linear acceleration of the stabilizer arms, control panel with toggle mechanism stops the engine (MOD), fire-fighting equipment (PPO), etc. In the commander’s turret mounted prismatic observation devices two TNPO-160 and two TNLA-65, commander’s observation device TKN-3, switches the infrared floodlight Oh, tower lights and dimensions.
 
Near the back wall of the office in the middle of the fuel tank.
 
The gunner has a sight-distance-room, night sight, azimuth pointer, remote gunner, the mechanical arm lowering and cocking the gun, the stopper tower, control system start-up smoke grenades, the apparatus A-2 TPU. Under his seat is a control unit of the stabilizer, on the bottom — collector tower. In the hatch of the gunner is another device TNLA-65.
 
Tanks the initial series of rifle scopes and instruments were similar to the T-64A.
 
The walls of the office of management and combat is covered inside with a lining layer made of polymer materials. It protects the crew from shrapnel in the event of penetration of projectiles, important — weakens the impact of gamma radiation, due to the specific chemical composition of the coating.
 
View T-80 front. In the foreground blocks of dynamic protection, the sheet on the turret — driver's hatch with the instruments of the observer. Hatches commander and gunner are open
 
View T-80 front. In the foreground blocks of dynamic protection, the sheet on the turret — driver’s hatch with the instruments of the observer. Hatches commander and gunner are open
 
Mount T-80 during transport on the trailer. Visible pipe, OPVT grille exhaust logs for self-recovery
 
Mount the T-80 during transport on the trailer. Visible pipe, OPVT grille exhaust logs for self-recovery
 
Power pack compartment is at the back of the tank. Here is the monoblock engine and servicing systems and equipment are actuators engine control and transmission, sensors and spray systems PPO, control and metering devices, pumping unit thermodynamic equipment (TDA).
 
Monoblock greatly shortens the installation time of the power unit in the tank or dismantling.
 
The tank put a three-shaft gas turbine engine GTD-1000T capacity of 1000 HP From 1981 on the T-80B began to use boosted to 1,100 HP GTD-1000TF. This multi-fuel engine runs on diesel fuel, benzine A-72 and A-76, the fuel TS-1 and TS-2. The volume of fuel tanks: inner — 1100 l, outer — 700 l, two additional barrels of 400 L.
 
Power on the shafts of airborne transmission (BKP) is transmitted from both ends of the output gear of the engine. Each of them is mounted in the block coaxially with the planetary side gear engaged at its leading wheel.
An important distinction in motor control — a variable nozzle device (PCA), essentially replacing the clutch in a conventional engine.
 
Of significant importance is the cleaning system with large air flow — up to 4 kg/s and high flow rates. GTE is highly sensitive to the presence of dust in the incoming air. The engine has a block air cleaner, two-fan suction dust, air filters nozzle turbine, two air ejection of cooling air and dust and additionally, the system of blowing the dust from the inter-blade channels of impellers of the compressors when operating in conditions of contamination and dust (desert, sand storm, sandstorm, etc.). System Vozduha isdi works in two modes: when driving on land and APVT under water.
 
GTE with the same diesel engine occupied volume has significantly more power, easier maintenance, less Shumen. In addition, telltale has little effect in the IR range as heat of a diesel engine is several times higher. This, along with roof insulation and exhaust louvers, ventilation of engine compartment, the use of side screens, the lack of large heated surfaces of radiators of cooling system, ensures a low level of thermal radiation of the tank. Engine starts at low temperatures without additional heating.
 
However, since GTD has 1.5 — 2 times more consumption of fuel tanks occupied a larger volume motorostroitelnoe office (MTO), than, say, T-64, so the machine body is extended.
 
To the left of the monoblock installed in MTO supply fuel tank, the right — rear next to the fuel and oil tank of the transmission, behind — aft
 
In the front of the roof compartment are input blinds, covered top-metal grids. The back part can be opened and even removed when performing routine maintenance or repair of the engine.
 
Housing tank welded from armor plates. Its nasal part is formed by sloping the top and bottom sheets welded not only among themselves but also with the front sheet of the roof, sides and bottom. Windshield details — armor plate composite composed of rolled steel of medium hardness, high hardness steel and fiberglass. In “steel” equivalent (in terms of the thickness of the armor plates) with thickness equal to 400 mm shell book differentiated in accordance with probabilistic laws of fire and destruction.
 
T-80BV
 
T-80BV
 
T-80BV:
 
1—the trunk of the 125-mm gun D-81; 2—anti-aircraft 12.7-mm machine gun NSVT; 3—outer aft fuel tank; 4—sprocket; 5—support roller; 6—side protective screen; 7—guide wheel; 8—the elements of the package housing; 9 — the commander’s cupola; 10—pipe of OPVT; 11—the top deck; 12—grid exhaust device of gas turbine engines; 13 — antenna; 14—wind sensor; 15—a box of clothing and equipment; 16 — smoke grenades; 17—Luke gunner; 18 — elements of ASM on the tower; 19—driver’s hatch; 20 — ejector guns; 21—surveillance device commander; 22 — IR spotlight; 23—sight-rangefinder gunner; 24 night sight; 25—viewing device of the driver; 26—the bottom sheet of the bottom; a 27—track; 28—front mudguard; 29—paired 7.62-mm machine gun PKT
 

Placing the T-80 equipment of the fire control system FCS 1А33
 
Accommodation in T-80 equipment of the fire control system FCS 1А33:
 
1 —block resolution of the shot; 2— sight-range-finder; 3 —sensor linear acceleration; 4—tank ballistic computer; 5—cosine potentiometer; 6—wind sensor; 7—gauge roll; 8—long sight-rangefinder; 9—control unit; 10—feed unit; 11—block hydrothermal; 12—stop corners; 13 — device cast; 14—the gauge of speed

 
To the nasal hull plates welded strap attachment anti-mine trawl and brackets for installation of equipment for self-entrenching. On the top sheet there are tow hooks with latches, brackets headlamps with their enclosures, brackets mounting and stowing the towline, protective shields of observation devices of the driver. At the junction of the front and side sheets welded brackets idler.
 
The side plates of the hull — vertical, rolled, thickness 80 mm. To them outside of the welded brackets and the lugs of the beams, supporting wheels, axle hydraulic shock-absorbers. Along the sides are stretched a protective shelf with external fuel tanks, boxes for spare parts, as well as the vertical side flaps.
 
The aft part consists of welded together the upper and lower feed sheets; a thickness of 80 mm. they have tow hooks, brackets, tail lights and extra barrels of fuel, bonok fastening spare tracks; a duct outlet louvers with locks-latches and stopper.
 
The roof of the Cabinet is of welded armor plates, the part on the power compartment — removable.
 
The bottom of the tank is composed of three sheets, it is u-shaped with longitudinal and transverse punch to ensure the rigidity and placement of the torsion bars. There are hatches of maintenance.
 
The thickness of the roof sheets and the bottom is 30 mm or less.
 
Tower — shaped armored casting; its upper part is welded to a roof with a protective head sight-rangefinder. The front of the tower is the recess of the gun, which is a complex maze of two pairs of protective cheeks and groove that protects the crew against penetration of fragments and from the effects of the blast wave. The recess coaxial machine gun to the right of the cannon. Then welded the bracket illuminator night sights.
 
The left and right of the cannon there are Bonki fastening system start-up smoke grenades.
 
The commander’s cupola with the hatch located in the right half of the roof, the hatch of the gunner on the left. Around him is a flange the installation of a night sight, mine surveillance device.
 
In the rear of the turret has the rear lights and Parking light, flange mount antenna, mounting brackets removable equipment, OPVT and levers reset it, Bonk of attachment of the wind sensor.
 
Towards the bottom of the tower is welded to bottom sheet with holes for bolts to the upper tower ring. Tower leg — ball.
 
In the initial series of tower T-80 is unified with the tanks T-64A; the tank T-80B — s Т64Б.
 
The chassis of the T-80B — six dual road wheels on Board, five rubber support rollers. Guide wheel with tensioner — front, composed of two welded cast wheels.
 
The driving wheel has a removable ring gears. Track rollers — lightweight aluminum alloy frame, with a removable drives.
 
The tank tracks — 80 tracks with rubber-metal hinges, formed of two parts each. The connection of the trucks with the ridges and the boots on the bolts. On the treadmill caterpillars have rubber pads to reduce stress on suspension. Optionally, for traffic on the highway to avoid its destruction — on its outer surface it is possible to wear rubber rubber “boots”.
 
Suspension of the tank — individual. Torsion bars, commensurate in length and width of the body, providing a more dynamic course of rollers. On the 1st, 2nd and 6th nodes are equipped with hydraulic telescopic shock absorbers.
 
Suspension T-80 ensures smooth running, low noise and high dynamic performance. Experts believe its the best available in our tanks.
 
In the transmission with hydraulic servo control and T-64, two boxes of on-Board gear assy with the side gears, three planetary series and five friction on Board.
 
High speed characteristics of the tank combined with the ease of management, low impact vibration overloads and improved conditions of habitability of the crew provide the possibility of making long marches.
 
The armament of the tank T-80B: 125-mm smoothbore gun 2A46M-1 (D-81 TM), 7.62 mm PKT coaxial machine gun, 12.7 mm machine gun NSVT “Utes”, the complex ATGM 9К112. The tank is equipped with a fire control system (FCS) 1АЗЗ. With its help, you can maintain fire on the tanks and armored targets, moving at speeds up to 75 km/h, on small targets, and manpower when shooting and on the move at speeds up to 30 km/h as on the line of sight and closed positions. It includes sight-rangefinder 1Г42, 2Э26М stabilizer arms, a set of input sensors of the wind, roll, tank speed, yaw rate, block resolution shot 1Г43, tank ballistic computer 1В517 (SBM).
 
SBM it produces data for the angles of sight and the angular lead of the gun for automatically input information sensors and rangefinder. The stabilizer arms — a two-axis gyro with electro-hydraulic actuators.
 
When driving the tank on the battlefield gyro stabilizer maintains unchanged its position in space, ensures the immobility of the field of view of the sight. However, the gun is on the dynamic causes (friction in the axles, hydrocortisone in the Executive cylinder) behind the required stable position. Block resolution of the shot gives the command to fire only if a specified minimum angle of misalignment between the stabilised line of sight and the actual gun position.
 
Gun loading is done automatically by the loading mechanism (M3). After each made shot from the barrel ejected the tray, which is placed in the mechanism of trapping M3. Pressing the selection button of the type of equipment the remote control, first, the stabilizer automatically removes the gun at a certain angle of loading, and second, driven conveyor, outputting the selected shot to the breech. The feed mechanism moves the tray with a shot to the chambering mechanism, which “charges” the gun — then the shutter closes it at the same time the previous pan of the trap is shifted into the newly vacated bin. A loaded gun is removed from the stopper and the stabilizer appears on the line of sight. After opening fire the cycle repeats.
 
Gas turbine engine GTD-1000 service systems
 
Gas turbine engine GTD-1000 with shared systems
 
Tank T-80 in the winter military exercise
 
Tank T-80 in the winter military exercises
 
The minimum duration of loading one shot — when you turn the conveyor on one step, which is 7.1 C. the capacity of the conveyor 28 shots. It was in full download the crew only 13 — 15 min.
 
The ammunition of the T-80B is composed of 38 shots; 28 of them are armor-piercing, high-explosive, cumulative, and also managed are placed in a conveyor belt loading mechanism. The other five of the seven shells and charges are in the compartment in the tank-rack; two shells and two charges at the walls of engine compartment, between the fuel tanks, finally, one shell is placed vertically in the fighting compartment behind the back seat of the commander, and the charge laid on the floor.
 
For 7.62 mm ammunition rounds is 1250 pieces and placed in stores in the fighting compartment, as well as on the most machine-gun installation one store. For 12.7 mm machine guns — 500 rounds — in the shops on the right side of the tower and one also to the machine-gun installation.
 
The fire from the gun D-81, it is possible to conduct high-explosive shells ЗОФ19 shot ЗВОФ22 and ЗОФ26 shot ЗВОФЗ6 designed to defeat manpower, various military equipment and shelters of field type. They put a fuse IN-429Е that provides three functions: high-explosive, fragmentation and retardation of the projectile. Maximum firing range of 14 000 m at an angle of elevation of the gun 140.
 
To fire direct fire at the tanks, self-propelled artillery installations, other armored vehicles in ammunition are heat shells ЗБК12М shots ЗВКБ7 and ЗБК14М shots ЗВБК10; they are effective at ranges up to 1500 m. the Shells provided with discarding sabot stabilizer, tracer running 6 — 7 p. the shaped charge located in the center of their body.
 
Except for tanks and armored vehicles, firing more and embrasures of permanent fortifications and armored covers armor-piercing projectiles ЗБМ9, ЗБМ12, ЗБМ15, ЗБМ17 shots SUBS, ЗВБМ6, ЗВБМ7, ЗВБМ8 respectively. The projectile has a ballistic tip, but in the back of a tracer with burning time of 2 — 3.
 
When firing all types of tank shells use the same charge 4Ж40 consisting of a partially combustible shell casings and the combat powder charge with the means of ignition, plamegate and other items placed in the pocket. When firing the body shells, pressed into the pan, burns, actual metal tray is ejected from the bolt of the gun for trap loading mechanism.
All the ammunition of the T-80 is unified with the T-64 and T-72.
 
MBT allows for effective firing of the gun is also a drone 9М112М complex 9К112 “Cobra” at a distance of 4000 m for armored targets, subject to line of sight. You can maintain fire on helicopters at the same distance if its speed is not more than 300 km/h and height up to 500 m Control the projectile in flight being a gunner on a radio link, constantly holding the aiming mark on the target.
 
The production of smoke screens provides a thermal flue apparatus (TDA). Smoke-forming substance — the fuel of the engine.
 
The tank is provided with a semi-automatic system of collective protection of the crew and internal equipment against the impact of the shock wave, radioactive and toxic substances, with the device of radiation and chemical reconnaissance, filtering system, a mechanism stopping the engine, closing the seals.
 
Thanks to the rational distribution of the thickness of the tank’s hull and turret, application of lining and over-the-combat — anti shaped-charge flaps of reinforced rubber with armor plates installed across the Board, — is achieved “a high rate of attenuation of penetrating radiation in nuclear explosions and during combat action on terrain contaminated radioactive substances.”
 
There is also a fire equipment — automatic system of three actions of the PPO. It consists of 15 temperature sensors scattered throughout the body of the tank, three cylinders of extinguishing liquid with a freon 114B2.
 
Communication of the tank is unified with all types of tanks and other military vehicles. Transceiver radio R-123М (operating frequency range 20 — 51,5 MHz) allows you to communicate with similar stations on moderate terrain at a distance of not less than 20 km, even when moving with a speed of 40 km/h.
 
T-80 is fitted with equipment, OPVT to overcome water obstacles depth up to 5 m at the bottom. To install it on the intake louvers put fixing housings, air intake pipe, through which air is sucked going to the air cleaner of the engine, and exhaust pipe.
 
For digging out the trenches and shelters of the tank can be equipped with bulldozer equipment, which is mounted on the lower front hull. In addition, the setting of mine action trawl for breaching minefields.
 
BASIC DATA OF THE T-80B
 
Combat weight, kg……………….. ………….42 500
Crew…………………….. ………………….3
Specific power, HP/t… ……………..25,8
Overall dimensions, mm:
length with gun forward….. …………….9651
the length of the body……………….. …………….6982
width…………………………. …………….3384
the height of the roof of the tower… …………….2219
track width………………… …………….2800
clearance…………………………. ………………451
Body armor……………..cannon-proof
Weapons:…………………smoothbore
D 25-mm gun 2A46M-1
paired 7.62-mm machine gun PKT
anti-aircraft 12.7-mm machine gun NSVT “Utes”
7.62-mm machine gun AKMS
f-1 grenades
Ammunition…………38 rounds for the gun
cartridges for PKT…………….. …………….1250
cnsvt…………………………. ………………300
to AKMS………………………… ………………300
garnet……………………………. ………………..10
Engine:……………………….. GTD-WOODF
with a capacity of 1100 HP.
Speed, km/h:
on the highway……………………….. 60-65
on a dirt road………. ………..40-45
Maximum speed, km/h……………..70
Fuel capacity, l……………….. …………….2200
Overcome obstacles, m:
the height of the wall……………….. ………………….1
the width of the pit……………………. ……………..2,85
fording depth…………..1,2 (5—with OPVT)
the maximum angle, deg, rise…..32
roll…………………………….. ………………..30
 
Atideo:
 

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