“PECHORA”, KLADUSA WAR

“My plane was struck so suddenly that the system alert about the attack even failed to develop. I don’t remember how jerked the lever of the catapult…” So how on 27 March 1999 he hit him with the “invisible” F-117 And the area of the village Budjanovci near Belgrade, recalled captain Ken Dili.

 
The first anti-aircraft missile system s-25, s-75, developed in the Soviet Union, and the American “Nike-Ajax” and “Nike-Hercules” successfully solved the task of destroying high-speed targets at high altitudes, the minimum height their action was not below 3-5 km, what did invincible strike aircraft at low altitudes. It resulted in the creation of other anti-aircraft missiles, able to withstand low-flying targets.
 
Work on the first low-altitude anti-aircraft missile system (ADMS) was launched in the autumn of 1955 the Head of KB-1 has set his staff the task of creating a transportable single-channel complex with increased capability against low-altitude air targets and organized to solve a special laboratory.
 
Officially, however, the development of the s-125 “Neva” missile b-625 was given by a decree of the USSR Council of Ministers dated 19 March 1956, New SAM was designed to intercept targets flying at speeds up to 1500 km/h at altitudes from 100 to 5000 meters at a distance of 12 km. the Subsequent decree of 8 may 1957, it was clarified the timing of the phasing of works on the C-125
 
The development of anti-aircraft guided missile (AAGM)-625 was assigned to the OKB one of the factories of defense industry. This work was the first for the design team, established in July 1956 OKB plant proposed two-stage version of the missile with solid fuel engines. To reduce the aerodynamic drag of the hull sustainer stage had a large elongation. New was and aerodynamic configuration “rotary wing” which In-625 is used for the first time among domestic missiles Launcher (PU) for missiles, the SM-78 was developed in Leningrad.
 
The first launch of In-625 were made may 14, 1958 and passed without comment But the second launch on 17 may, the third second of the flight collapsed stabilizer accelerator — as it turned out, due to its improper installation at the factory. In the fourth start of the stabilizer rockets were again destroyed, and again due to a manufacturing defect. The fifth launch, on November 21, has added another issue, busted main engine due to a defective thermal barrier coating. The destruction it ended and the 8th the start, in January 1959.
 
In General, by July 1959, completed 23 of start-625, but only seven of them have no serious objections to the rocket Most of the identified deficiencies were treated to production defects and was not inherent in its design. However, in the current by the summer of 1959 atmosphere, they become crucial
 
Creating S-125 KB-1 was carried out almost in parallel with the work at NII-10 naval SAM system M-1 (“Wave”), launched on 17 August 1956 In the composition of this complex was assumed In the SAM-600, is designed to engage targets with similar characteristics. The development of the rocket was carried out by OKB-2, and more productive.
 
From the beginning design-600 specialists of OKB-2 had to face almost the same problems that a few years earlier, when the first rocket-750: the presence of a combination of a number of mutually exclusive demands to the rocket, and therefore is a reasonable technical compromise.
 
Rocket 5В27
 
Rocket 5В27
 
Rocket 5В27:
 
1 — radio controlled fuses with antennas; 2 — aerodynamic handlebars; 3 — drives aerodynamic rudders; 4 — warhead with safety-Executive mechanism; 5— the Central distributor and Converter; 6—ball-cylinder; 7 — autopilot, 8 being the unit of instrumentation control;9 — actuator Aileron; 10 — thrust engine; 11 — supplementary fuel block; 12 — wing; 13 — drive of the aerodynamic brake booster; 14— loose fuel block of the accelerator; 15 — the stabilizer; 16 — starter motor: 17 — a device for controlling critical section of the nozzle (pear); 18 — drive rod of the Aileron; 19 — operating rod of the wing

 
The main controversy was as follows. To engage low-flying high-speed targets, the missile must have a high average speed (up to 600 m/s) and high-maneuverability when hovering over a target. Providing the possibility of firing missiles at low-flying targets and hitting them on the small (certainly for that time) the distance from the ship (up to 2 km) required to maximum reduce the distance of the withdrawal of missiles on a trajectory of guidance and high precision keeping its direction of flight at the launch site.
 
These demands were hardly compatible with the need to ensure the lowest possible starting weight and dimensions of the rocket. Besides the b-600 was to start with extremely short guides — one of the conditions of the ship exploitation.
 
When it seemed extremely difficult to provide, as the predetermined dimensions of the missile, the necessary stability of its flight at the launch site. Planners and designers had to come up with something that would allow the rocket to take her allotted on the ship, and the flight from the first meters of the way to use stabilizers. Rocketeer, created their products for vehicles, has repeatedly faced this problem. By the mid-1950s, one of its most original solutions steel drop-down wings — they have equipped their cruise missiles V. N. Chelomei. For anti-aircraft missiles, which the stabilizers had to work for a few seconds until they are dropped along with the accelerator, such a decision seemed too difficult.
 
The answer in this rocket-engineering task unexpectedly. Each of the four rectangular stabilizers accelerator is pivotally fixed at a point located in one of its corners. The stabilizer was pressed against his broad side to the accelerator in the process of moving, finding a rocket in the cellar of the ship and the Poo. From premature disclosure of this node was fixed with wire around the accelerator. Immediately after the start of motion of the rocket along the guide rail PU this wire was installed on the PU cut with a special knife. Stabilizers due to the inertial forces unfolded and was recorded in the new position, pressing against the accelerator of his short side. The range of stabilizers increased by almost half, increasing the resistance of the rocket in the first second of its flight.
 
Choosing a layout scheme of the rocket, the designers have considered only two-stage options in the single-stage rocket does not provide the necessary range and speed of flight. While starting the booster could only be solid. Only he could satisfy the requirements of inclined launch of the short rails. But those engines in those years was unstable characteristics at different ambient temperatures: in the cold season they worked two to three times longer than the roast. Respectively, several times changed and developed them pull.
 
Loading launcher 5П73
 
Loading the launcher 5П73
 
Rocket 5В27
 
Rocket 5В27
 
SAM SAM
 
SAM “Pechora-2A” at the air show in Zhukovsky
 
Aerodynamic control surfaces
 
Aerodynamic control surfaces
 
Large values of starting thrust required to lay in the design of the rocket and its instruments appropriate reserves of strength. At low same magnitude of thrust rocket “sags” after vanishing from the guide and could not go in to put the time in managing the radar beam is pointing.
 
However, there were solutions for this problem. The required stability characteristics of the accelerator was obtained by a special device that workers OKB-2 was immediately called “the pear”. Installed engine nozzle, it is possible to adjust the area of its critical section directly on the launch pad and in full compliance with all physical laws to set the time of its work and develop thrust. No sverhskorostey in the size of the critical section was not — “pear” ended with the line coated all the necessary values. It remained only to approach the rocket and in the right place “tighten up” the nut.
 
Before the start of flight testing in the winter of 1958, on the instructions of the military-industrial complex, the OKB-2 was considered the possibility of using In-600 in the-125. To guide the Military-industrial Commission under the Council of Ministers (MIC) this was of considerable importance: indeed, in this case opened the way for creating the country’s first unified sample anti-aircraft missiles. But to make any conclusions before the trials did not.
 
Tested In-600, and 625, were planned in several stages — ballistic (throwing), Autonomous and closed-loop control. For throwing test In-600 was prepared stand-the layout of the superstructure part of the ship PU ZIF-101. The first launch of the b-600 was held on 25 April 1958, and by July the program throwing test was fully implemented.
 
Initially, the transition to a self-test of 600 planned by the end of 1958. But in August, after two consecutive unsuccessful throwing triggers In-625, P. D. Grushin came out with a proposal to conduct modifications-600 so that it can be used in the composition of the s-125.
 
With the aim of accelerating the work on V-600 P. D. Grushin made the decision on the beginning of Autonomous tests in September at the test site in Kapustin Yar. In those days-600, and 625, demonstrated a number of leaders of the country headed N. With.Khrushchev, who arrived in Kapustin Yar to show new types of missile technology.
 
The first Autonomous start-600 took place on 25 September. In the next two weeks was followed by three similar start-up, during which the rudders of the missile is deflected in accordance with the commands from those on-Board software mechanism. All launches were no significant comments. The final series of independent tests of the b-600 was held on the stand-the layout PU ZIF-101 and ended in December 1958, without substantive comments to the rocket. Thus, the proposal of P. D. Grushina about using In-600 in the composition of the s-125 was backed up with very real results.
 
Of course, creating a unified missile entrusted the specialists of OKB-2 is extremely complex tasks. First of all, it was necessary to ensure the compatibility of the missile with a significantly different ground-based and naval systems, guidance and control, equipment and assistive technology.
 
Several different and the requirements of the air defense Forces and Navy. For the s-125 was considered a sufficient minimum height of defeats the purpose of the order of 100 m, which at the beginning of the development of the SAM was consistent with the expected lower limit of use of combat aircraft. For the Navy they needed to create a missile, ensuring the defeat aircraft and anti-ship missiles flying over relatively flat sea surface at altitudes of 50 m. the Associated decision to use when pointing missiles at the target from different trajectories approaching target altitude from below, and by low-altitude top demanded placement on the rocket two receiving antennas of radio controlled fuses. Fundamentally different was the consolidation of the missiles before launch. Due to the significant restrictions on the sizes of the zones of location of the rocket ship in the PU, they were suspended under the rails on the clip is located on the starting stage. On land-based PU, on the contrary, the missile relied on a clip rail. There were differences in the placement of antennas on the aerodynamic surfaces.
 
During the winter and spring of 1959, the OKB-2 was prepared by version of the rocket-600 (conventionally called V-601) compatible with the guidance systems s-125. This rocket on geometric, mass and aerodynamic characteristics were similar In the ship-600. Its main difference consisted in the installation of radio control unit and sight, designed to work with ground guidance station C-125.
 
The sustainer and booster engines, wings, air brakes and stabilizers
 
The sustainer and booster engines, wings, air brakes and stabilizers
 
The sustainer and booster engines, wings, air brakes and stabilizers
 
The first test of V-601 was held on 17 June 1959 on the same day on 20-th In the start-625, once again “retired” from the direction of the start, and not included in the sector review of the guidance station C-125. Two successful start-601, held on 30 June and 2 July, has finally drawn a line under the question of the choice of missile for s-125. July 4, 1959 by the country’s leadership adopted a resolution where it was stated that the missiles for the s-125 was adopted-601. (Later, after studying the issues of increasing the range through the use of the passive trajectory, she received the designation IN-600L). V-601 was supposed to appear at a joint flight tests in early 1960 With large energy capacity missiles V-600 before the OKB-2 at the same time set the task to increase the affected area of the complex, including altitude interception targets up to 10 km, the same resolution works on the missile b-625 has been discontinued.
 
Given the fact that engineered design Bureau of factory No. 82 rocket-625 have already been developed PU CM-78 and transport-charging machine (TZM) PR-14, design teams CDB-34, and KB-203 had to make a number of improvements to ensure their use in conjunction with the rocket-600L. Modified PU CM-78 received the designation SM-78A. In GSKB was designed TZM PR-14A, which was used in conjunction with an experienced PU CM-78A, and later with the serial double PU SM-78А1 (5П71).
 
Despite the fact that the quality of execution of works has increased significantly, further testing IN-600L was not without difficulties. From June 1959 to February 1960 on the landfill was carried out 30 launches of missiles, including 23 in a closed control loop. 12 of them failed, mostly due to problems with control equipment. Not all meet the requirements specified by the decree of 4 July 1959 and characteristics of the missile.
 
But by March 1961, the majority of the problems were solved, allowing to complete the state tests. By the time there were reports carried out in the US experiment, during which in October 1959, the bomber B-58 “Hustler” with a full bomb load, rising in the East USA in the area of Fort Warton, flew across North America to Edwards air force base. At the same time B-58 broke about 2300 km at an altitude of 100— 150 m with an average speed of 1100 km/h and produced a “successful bombing”. System identification “friend or foe” was off and on the whole route the car remained not detected well equipped with American radar stations of air defense.
 
This flight has once again demonstrated how great the need for low-altitude air defense systems. Therefore, even in the presence of a number of shortcomings of the S-125 missile-600L (5В24) on June 21, 1961 was adopted.
 
In 1963, the creation of the C-125 was marked by the Lenin prize. The deployment of the first anti-aircraft missile regiments armed with s-125, began in 1961 in the Moscow air defense district. Along with this anti-aircraft missile and technical divisions of s-125 and s-75 and later C-200, organizationally merged into air defense brigade, as a rule, the mixed composition of the complexes. The first time the C-125 is used and the air defense units of the Land forces. However, with much smaller the affected area and use a much lighter rocket ground-based systems for complex N125 at the mass-dimensional indicators and the level of mobility was close to the previously adopted adopted s-75. Therefore, even before the completion of works on creation of s-125 specifically for the army initiated the development of a self-propelled air defense system “Cube”, with the affected area almost the same as the s-125.
 
Before the statement of the s-125 into service, March 31, 1961 it was decided MIC on the modernization of the missile and its equipment. It was based on the proposals of the g cat and GCAT on the creation of missiles with increased range and the upper boundary of the affected area having a higher average speed. It was also suggested to thoroughly alter the launcher by hosting her four missiles. According to one version, the last challenge was delivered personally Ustinov.
 
A decree of 1961, along with adopting rocket-600L, approved a task to develop a more perfect specimen, the designation V-601 P. was conducted in Parallel and work on improving naval version missiles V-601 (4К91).
 
Since in this case did not aim to create new anti-aircraft missile systems, modernization of s-125 was charged to the design team of plant No. 304, while maintaining a General guide for KB-1. In addition, for new missiles was enlarged and modified part of the apparatus of the station of guidance. In a modified version of the complex used new chetyrehbalnoy PU 5П73, which provided the possibility of using missiles IN-600L and 601 N, as well as training settlement. Was created and modernized versions of TZM: PR-14, PR-14 MA, based on the chassis of the ZIL-131.
 
Starting the engine with the transitional cone
 
Starting the engine with a transition cone
 
Air brakes, start the engine
 
Air brakes starting the engine
 
Nozzle start the engine
 
The nozzle starter motor
 
The main focus of work on the new missile b-601 P was the construction of new radio controlled fuses, warhead, safety-actuating mechanism and the main engine on a completely new mixed fuel. A higher specific impulse and higher density of this fuel, while maintaining the dimensions of the rocket was to increase the energy characteristics of the engine and to increase the coverage area of the complex.
 
Factory testing of V-601 P was launched on 15 August 1962, in the course of their had made 28 starts, including six missiles in combat configuration, which was shot down two targets, the MiG-17.
 
May 29, 1964 IN a rocket-601 P (5В27) was adopted. She was capable of hitting targets flying at speeds up to 2000 km/hour at altitudes of 200-14, 000 m at a distance of 17 km. While passive jamming, the maximum height of the lesion was reduced to 8000 m, distance—to 13.2—13.6 km. low-altitude (100-200 m) of the target were amazed at the radius of 10 km Range of transonic aircraft reached 22 km.
 
In externally-601 N are easily recognised by two aerodynamic surfaces that were installed in the transition connecting the compartment behind the upper right and lower left consoles. They provided for a decrease in flight range of the accelerator after its separation. After stage separation the surfaces unfolded, leading to intense rotation and deceleration of the accelerator with the destruction of all or several of the stabilizer brackets and, consequently, to its chaotic downfall.
 
Simultaneously with adopting In-601 N the Ministry of defence was given the task to carry out works to expand the combat capabilities of s-125: to engage targets flying at speeds up to 2,500 km/h; transonic — at altitudes up to 18 km, increasing the overall probability of target destruction and the increase to overcome interference.
 
In the early 1970s, there have been quite a few upgrades C-125M in terms of improving the electronic equipment, enhanced noise immunity channels sighting target and missile control. In addition, we created a new modification of the rocket — 5В27Д with increased speed of flight, which allowed us to enter the regime shelling targets “in pursuit”. Missile length increased, weight increased to 980 kg For heavier 5В27Д has been possible loading only three missiles in the PU 5П73 when placed on any beams.
 
Export versions of the s-125 received the designation of “Pechora” and exported to dozens of countries, has been used in several armed conflicts and local wars. Finest hour C-125 struck in the spring of 1970, when the decision of the Soviet leadership in the process of the operation “Kavkaz” in Egypt were sent to a large group of our missile. They had to provide air defense of this country in the efforts of Israeli air raids, carried out during the so-called “war of attrition” 1968-1970 the Fighting took place mainly in the zone of the Suez canal, East Bank which Israel occupied after the “six day war” of 1967.
 
For the delivery of weapons from the Soviet Union to Egypt were used about a dozen bulk carriers (“Rosa Luxemburg”, “Dmitriy Poluyan”, etc.).
 
The battalions of s-125 with the Soviet staff in the division air defense, stepped up the Egyptian air defense group, equipped with s-75. The main advantage of Soviet rocket scientists, along with their higher level of training, was the opportunity to work With-125 in a different frequency range compared to the C-75 has already been examined by the Israelis and their supporters Americans. Therefore, at first, Israeli aircraft had no effective means to counter the complex s-125.
 
However, the first pancake turned out lumpy. The intercession on combat duty in the night from 14 to 15 March 1970 Soviet missile troops said that brought down a volley duracetal Egyptian Il-28, entered the kill zone C-125 at an altitude of 200 m with a dead defendant “friend or foe”. While a number of Soviet officers were the Egyptian military, oath attesting to our rocket scientists that their aircraft in the zone of fire can not be.
 
A few weeks later it came to shooting at the real enemy. At first, they were to no avail. Israeli pilots tried to avoid the affected area air defense system, placed in permanent positions with protective structures. Shooting enemy planes, located at the far boundary of the start, was completed by the fact that the Israeli pilots had time to turn around and walk away from the rocket.
 
Had to adjust the tactics of SAM. Complexes were removed from equipped safe houses in areas of permanent deployment on the “ambush” from which no missiles had been fired at targets at ranges of up to 12-15 km. Perfecting fighting skills in a real threat from the enemy, a Soviet missile brought the clotting time of the complex to 1 h 20 min instead of the standard 2 h 10 min.
 
The characteristics of the missiles that were part of the s-125
 
Characteristics of the missiles that were part of the s-125
 
As a result, 30 Jun division captain V. P. Malayi managed to down the first “Phantom”, and five days later the division S. K. Saveznichko filled up and the second F-4E. Was followed by retaliatory strikes by the Israelis. During a fierce fight on 18 July in division V. Tolokonnikova killed eight Soviet soldiers, but the Israelis missed the four “Phantoms”. Three Israeli aircraft were shot down by division N. M.Kuchinawa 3 Aug.
 
A few days later, with the mediation of third countries, was reached on the cessation of hostilities in the Suez canal zone.
 
After 1973 the s-125 was used by the Iraqis in the 1980— 1988 war with Iran, and in 1991 — in repelling the raids of the multinational coalition; the Syrians against the Israelis during the Lebanese crisis of 1982; the Libyans by U.S. aircraft in 1986; during the war in Angola; the Yugoslavs against the Americans and their allies in 1999
 
According to the Yugoslav military, it is the complex C-125 March 27, 1999 in the skies over Yugoslavia was shot down by a P-117A, photographs of the fragments which is repeatedly published in the media.
 
Description of the design 5В24
 
5В24 rocket — the first Russian solid-fuel missiles. Her marching step performed on the aerodynamic configuration “duck”, equipped with aerodynamic control surfaces for control in pitch and yaw; roll stabilization was carried out by two ailerons, located on the consoles of wings in one plane.
 
The first stage of the launch start-up accelerator with solid engine PRD-36, developed in the KB-2 plant number 81 under the leadership of I. I. Kartukov. DWP-36 was equipped with 14 single-channel solid cylindrical checkers. The engine was completed igniter. The nozzle starter motor was equipped with a “pear” allows you to adjust the area of the critical section depending on the ambient temperature. The rear bottom of the housing and the nozzle of the engine was covered by the tail section in the shape of a truncated inverted cone.
 
Each console of the stabilizer of rectangular shape are fixed in the hinge device on the front bulkhead of the tail section. During ground operation of the longer side of the stabilizer against the cylindrical surface of the housing of the starting motor.
 
Screed, fixing the console of the stabilizer, cut with a special knife at the gathering of rockets with PU. Under the action of inertial forces, the stabilizers are unfolded more than 90°, adhering to the short side to the outer surface of the tail section starting stage. The slowing of the rotation of the console stabilizer before contact with the surface of the tail section provided the use of the brake piston device, as well as crushed pin mounted on the console of the stabilizer. Rearward flight the location of the consoles provides a high degree of static stability of spent accelerator after its separation from the sustainer stage, which led to undesirable expansion of his fall. Therefore subsequent versions of the rocket were taken to address this shortcoming.
 
Housing a different stage of the rocket — marching — divided into two zones: the tail was a solid-fuel engine, four compartments, front zone — equipment and warhead.
 
In front of the conical compartment of the sustainer stage under a radio-transparent elements of the fairing housed the radio controlled fuses. In the steering compartment were two servos involved in the joint deviation is located in the same plane as aerodynamic control surfaces required efficiency which a wide range of altitudes and flight speeds provide spring mechanisms.
 
Next is a compartment of the warhead, before which was placed a safety-Executive mechanism, ensuring the safety of ground operation missiles and excluding unauthorized detonation of the warhead.
 
For the military part there was a compartment with on-Board equipment. In the upper part was installed Central valve, the Converter and the onboard power source. The drive servos and turbine generator is carried out by compressed air held in the balloon-the balloon under pressure of 300 atmospheres. Next, set the autopilot, a block of radio control equipment and servos channel Bank. Roll control was implemented by the ailerons, located on the upper right and lower left consoles of the wing. The desire to concentrate almost all the control devices and elements of the steering gear, including the steering of the ailerons, in the same area, before the sustainer engine led to the implementation of unusual constructive solutions — open location of the hard rods of the ailerons along the body of the main engine.
 
The engine was made with a split steel casing had been filled with independent charge in the form of a monoblock solid checkers with a cylindrical channel. The top conical transition compartment is box-shaped unit with the device launch. The start the main engine was carried out at the end of starting of the engine, a drop in pressure.
 
To the body of the sustainer stage is attached to the wing is a trapezoidal shape. Two consoles in one of the planes was placed ailerons. The connection of the drive servos with the ailerons were carried out, as already mentioned, by means of long rods, laid outside the motor housing without cover garrote — on the bottom left and over the right upper consoles. Two boxes onboard cable network passed from the front end of the compartment of the warhead to the tail section of the sustainer stage on the left and right sides of the rocket. In addition, short box held above the compartment of the warhead.
 
Carried double PU 5П71 (CM-78A-1) with a variable angle of launch was operated in part of the missile battery RB-125. PU equipped with electric synchronology for guidance in azimuth and elevation in a given direction. When deploying to the starting position with allowable deviation area up to 2 degrees of its laying was performed with the help of screw jacks.
 
For loading PU and transporting missiles 5В24 in KB-203 was developed TZM PR-14A (hereinafter — PR-14АМ, PR-14B) using the chassis of ZIL-157. Pairing guide with PU provides accommodation on the ground approaching the jetty, and the application of stoppers on LT and PU fixing the position of TZM. Regulatory transfer of missiles with LT on PU — 45 seconds.
 
Carried chetyrehbalnoy PU 5П73 (CM-106 designation TSKB-34) designed under the leadership of chief designer B. S. Korobov. PU without gototraining and running gear was transported by car yaz-214.
 
To prevent touch the rocket lands or local items when “sagging” in the initial uncontrolled phase of flight when firing at low-altitude targets established minimum angle of firing missiles — 9 degrees. To prevent erosion of the pound for missile launches around NY lay special rubber-to-metal coating multi-section circular.
 
Loading of PU was carried out sequentially in two TZM appropriate to right or left pair of beams. Allowed loading PU at the same time missiles 5В24 and 5В27 the earliest versions.
 
V. KOROVIN

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