ROCKET FIGHTER TANKS

ROCKET FIGHTER TANKSIn 1957 the Soviet Union began to develop missiles for army vehicles. In the Kolomna Design office of mechanical engineering B. Shavyrina studied the possibility of equipping tanks missiles as additional weapons to the placement of missile launchers on the tower. In Bureau of the Chelyabinsk tractor plant, headed by P. Isakov, the Leningrad Kirov factory, headed by Zh. Kotin, “Uralvagonzavod” by L. Kartseva was carried out design work and testing of rocket tanks.

This combat vehicle – a tank destroyer with guided missiles ЗМ7 complex “Dragon” was intended, according to the plan of military experts to support tank formations during the breakthrough attacks on enemy fortifications, and also for organizing their own anti-tank defense in hazardous areas, especially on the flanks of the military units. It 1 should have been completed in separate battalions and to act in the composition of the motorized rifle divisions.
 
Like rocket tanks (Raketenjagd-panzer) was issued at the time and in West Germany. With 1967 as part of the Bundeswehr began to receive “Jaguar-1”, created on the basis of tank destroyer Ipz 4-5. Their production was organized by companies “Hanomag” and “Henschel”, which for the period 1967 – 1968 collected 370 machines.
German vehicles were armed with the French anti-tank missile complex SS-11 with manual control and transmission of commands over the wire. The complex range of 500 – 3000 m, the speed of the missile is less than 200 m/s. Its mass is about 30 kg, shaped charge could penetrate armor up to 600 mm thick.
 
Due to the low rate of fire of the complex – only 2 start minute – the designers are placed on the cutting machine from two launchers, which could automatically move through opened hatches. To recharge the installation crew had to manually.
 
Rocket tank the it-1
The rocket tank the it-1
 
Scheme a tank of it 1
 
The scheme of the tank the it-1:
 
1 – idler: 2 – cover of the driver’s hatch; 3 – cover antenna radio command line; 4-ПТУРЗМ7; 5-burnatonce; 6 – bracket rear outer of the tanks; 7 – driving wheel; 8 – support roller; 9 – day sights; 10 – night sight; 11 – cover of the hatch of the gunner-operator; 12 – cover the issuance of CP; 13 – external fuel tank fenders; 14 – bump the starting of the gas jet rocket engine; 15 – exhaust manifold; 16 – cover of the hatch of the tank commander; 17 – observation devices of the driver; 18 – front mudguard; 19 – upper frontal armor plate; 20 – lower frontal armor plate; 21 – embrasure machine gun PKT; 22 – caterpillar; 23 illuminator night sight L-2R; 24 – the aft armor plate; (top, front and back poses. 4 PLANO not shown)
 

Later, on the “Jaguar 2”, has mounted a complex SS-11В1, which had a semi-guided missile.
 
Such jaguars replaced the American M41 “Walker Bulldog” and the M47 “Patton II”, consisting in a fighter-anti-tank companies of mechanized infantry brigades and was considered at the time the most effective means of combating tanks.
 
In the Soviet Union in the early 1960s, it was proposed to convert the serial tanks T-55 and T-62 in a purely missile: shoot cannon armament and in its place to accommodate the launcher. For the first time as the chassis of this tank used the T-55 (“object 166”) simultaneously projecting lower tower. The overall design of the entire missile system and missiles, the government decree of 4 July 1959 instructed the CB-1 of the state Committee of electronic industry, headed by A. Raspletina, and Tula TSKB-14 (instrument design Bureau), led by chief engineer B. Huminski.
 
Case it-1 is only slightly different from the production T-62 and carrying an anti-shell armor thickness up to 100 mm low Profile tower was a cast steel shaped casting hemispherical shape with walls of variable thickness from 60 to 135 mm. the Frontal part of the tower had thick armor 120 – 200 mm.
 
Layout of machines like the T-62 — a classic, with the compartment in the front of the case. When driving a tank driver-mechanic observation used two prismatic observation devices installed in front of his hatch in the roof of the enclosure. Luke closed armor swing lid. In addition, at night the driver can use night device TVN-2.
 
The fighting compartment layout and equipment which was quite different than the T-62, occupied the middle part of the hull and turret. In the center of the tower was launcher (PU) with electrical equipment and the loading mechanism with mechanized rack with 12 missiles. The gunner was located on the right side, the commander on the left. In the tower front mounted guidance station and the rockets peripeteia and reconciliation of sight with the radio station R-123.
 
Before the operator is mounted monocular periscopic day sight 1-OP2 stabilized field of view, electro-optical periscopic night sight 1ПН12 with 7.3-fold magnification, the units develop teams, and to the right of it -control of the operator.
 
Tower tank the it-1
 
Tower tank the it-1:
 
1 – bump the starting gas jet; 2 – launcher; 3 – commander’s observation instrument; 4 – antenna system radio command line; 5 – day sight; 6 night sight

 
In front of the tower on the outside was the antenna control stations, PU – wind sensor.
 
Left in the roof of the tower housed the commander’s turret with a commander’s targeting system, four prismatic observation devices, L-36, a combined device TKN-3, who worked both day and night, and above it was mounted illuminator AW-ZKG.
 
On the right tower there was a hatch gunner in front of him stood prismatic surveillance device, L-36.
 
In the center of the tower was made another door for the lift and exit the launcher.
 
The tower also installed infrared illuminator night sight searchlight L-2G and headlight f-125.
 
In the power compartment in the rear of the tank stood a four-stroke diesel engine V-55A 580 horsepower Fuel was poured into three main tanks with a total capacity of 695 liters in three outside of 285 liters, which was located on the right fender, which allowed to increase the reserve from 485 km to 670 km.
 
The drivetrain and suspension are the same as the T-62.
 
Weapons it 1 consisted of anti-tank missile system 2К4 Dragon (ATGM) with ЗМ7 guided missiles (ATGM) and 7,62 mm PKT machinegun.
 
Caliber missiles – 180 mm, weight – 50 kg -54, length – 1250 mm. Its cumulative warhead weighing 5.8 — 7.0 kg was able to penetrate the armor up to 500 mm thick and provided with a detonator of instant action, which automatically wsodice on the starting phase of flight under the action of occurring overloads. The rocket was performed on the aerodynamic configuration, which is close to the scheme “duck” with a turning rudder; her wings and stabilizers were foldable and located X-shaped with the handlebars. During the flight, the rocket was spinning around its longitudinal axis at a speed of two revolutions per second.
 
The instrument section consisted of stations for receiving control commands of the armed forces And units of the autopilot, nutrition and vostochnoevropejskogo, there were rudders.
 
The rocket engine had a starter and main charges. For the starting time of 0.4 – 0.9 reported her speed to 217 m/s and marching, is a cylindrical piece of gunpowder, RDSI-5K for 12 – 15 supported this speed constant. The maximum range of the missile – 3300 m. In that case, if she were the target, and its warhead did not fire when hitting the ground in 35 – 45 occurs spontaneously undermining and self-destruction.
 
The nozzle of the sustainer engine was surrounded by a ring of block tracers. There were five daytime and two nighttime tracer allows you to track the flight of the rocket at different times of the day.
 
Station sun-A “led” unit of missile autopilot, receiving commands from the gunner, converting them to appropriate voltage low-frequency and sending control signals to the executing bodies of the gyro and rudders. On the very same VS-a and block autopilot electricity with a voltage from 6.3 V to 90 V is supplied from the battery of the T-170M, located in the power supply.
 
The work of the servos was provided by feeding compressed air to vostochnoaziatskij block; it also occurred resurrectione and promotion of the gyroscope.
 
Launcher complex in the initial position was inside of the fighting compartment above the ammo rack. It was a mechanized rack, having the mechanism of moving and feeding missiles from the ammo in the PU. When you click “Load” on the daily sight 1 OP2 is driven automation of the loading system. Upper right rocket in the container rose from the rack, fit the setting and was attached to a special grip. PU was then charged up through the hatch in the tower, occupying the firing position. After starting the installation again went down inside the tower to reload.
 
Automation of loading provided the rate of the complex to 5 RDS./minutes the rack was placed 12 missiles.
 
The turret launcher vertically was – 9° – + 17°. Horizontal aiming was a turret with electric or manual drives.
 
Targeting, launch, tracking the missile was carried out using the remote control scope day 1-OP2, the night time was used podsvetochnogo sight 1ПН12 with infrared light source – searchlight L-2G with infrared filter.
 
Before the start of the gunner was to determine the range to the target and enter that value in sight, and then capture the target in the crosshairs and steadily to keep it before the rocket hit. To ensure accurate capture of the missile if off the installation, she was given a deliberate elevation above the line of sight – a few more than 3°, the tower was also exhibited with the amendment in a cross wind.
Rocket, flying unmanaged after start-up, 0.5 s, speed is about 220 m / s and range of 90 – 150 m were captured in sight of the operator. From this point the coordinates of the rocket were determined automatically installed on the tracer with the help of optical-electronic coordinator. Counting-critical device control station of the complex generates commands corresponding to deviations of the plane from the line of sight, passing them through a phased array antenna on the tower at the receiving antenna of the missile via radio link in the centimeter range. Then they came to the actuators and the actuators of the rudders, keeping the line of sight. Support missile operator was carried out throughout its subsequent flight.
 
The relationship between machines and the command was carried out using a radio station R-123, between the truck – tank intercom R-124.
 
Small-scale production of the tank the it-1 was continued on the “Uralvagonzavod” in 1970, During which time it was released 220 machines. Removed them from service in 1972 and 1973 ЗМ7 Missiles were manufactured at the Izhevsk mechanical plant.
 
The it-1 was in service of separate battalions of tank destroyers (OBIT). For example, in the Belorussian military district was stationed 70th and 96th such battalions. They had four companies consisting of two platoons of three cars each, in addition, the company was still a tank commander. Thus, in the battalion there were 28 cars. Besides the mouth, upholstered consisted of units that included platoons of reconnaissance and communications, and the units of engineering and maintenance control and verification activities, transportation, etc. upholstered Battalions had four military districts.
 
In the 1960s, the country has created several prototypes of missile tanks – “object 287” complex guided weapons “Typhoon”, and “object 775” complex “Rubin”.
 
Missile tank “object 287” was developed by order of the Council of Ministers of the USSR of 17 February 1961, the design Bureau of Leningrad Kirov plant (LKZ) under the leadership of J. Kotin. Base for the machine was the chassis of a medium tank T-64. It established a set of guided weapons “Typhoon”, two semi-automatic 73-mm gun 2А25 “Lightning” and paired them with a 7.62 mm machine gun.
 
Tower the tank was absent, instead, applied the application installed directly on the housing of the rotary platform, on which was placed a cannon. The rocket launcher was located within the housing and in a fighting position protrudes through the hatch located between the barrels of guns.
 
Missiles “Typhoon” was developed in the OKB-16 design Bureau (KB “precision engineering”) under the direction of Alexander Nudelman. It was a 140-mm ЗМ15 with the office of the radio beam and a range of up to 3000 m. the mass of the rocket to 40.5 kg length – 1300 mm, maximum cruise speed of 250 m/s, warhead -shaped-charge fragmentation.
 
The shooting could be as moving and move at speeds up to 30 km/h because the launcher was stabilized in the vertical plane.
 
The crew sostoa of only two people. The management of all weapons was carried out remotely.
 
The height of the tank in the tower was very small – only 1750 mm. and weight of 36.5 tons with capacity of 700-horsepower engine 5ДТФ allowed it to reach speeds of up to 66 km/h.
 
In 1964 two tanks “object 287” delivered to test on Gorokhovetsky landfill near Gorky (now – Nizhny Novgorod). But they failed 50% of the launches were accompanied by failures.
 
 
“Object 775” with a 125 mm gun-launcher missiles D-126 in the Museum in Kubinka
 
Roof tank
 
The roof of the tank “object 287”. On the turntable is equipped with two 73-mm cannon. The launcher was nominated through the Central hatch between them
 
At the same time in the KB Chelyabinsk plant under the supervision of chief designer P. Isakov has designed and produced a prototype of another version of the missile tank “object 775” complex “Rubin”, including anti-tank with the same title. Base for him was also a T-64 tank. The crew of two was housed in an isolated cabin inside the tower. The place of the driver with his monitoring devices were located on separate rotating platform: it would not have turned the tower, he was always the “face in motion”.
 
Designers managed to reduce the height of the tank to 1100 mm (for the roof), install the torsion bar suspension with a stepped clearance. The combat weight of the tank – 30 tons, the engine – diesel 5ДТФ 700 HP
 
The tower was a rifled cannon launcher D-126 for firing guided missiles and unmanageable active-reactive high-explosive shells (nurs) “drill”. The mechanism of loading – semi automatic, shooting – remote controlled of the hull. PU stabilized in two planes and given the opportunity to fire on the move.
 
Missile complex “Rubin”, developed by KBM in Kolomna B. Shavyrina, suggests semi-automatic control system by radio link. The range of missiles – up to 3800 m, range unguided projectiles was 9000 km.
Ammunition of the tank were 14 anti-tank and nurs 17 (according to other sources – 15 – 24 and 22 – 48, respectively).
 
Testing of experimental rocket tanks, “287 sample” and “model 775” live-fire have not been successful because of the unreliability of the action of launchers, but their finishing was not completed due to adopting the it-1.
 
By the early 1970s, the views of the military leadership on the need to have a battle-ready military units of the missile tanks has changed. It 1 had gun arms, so use them in advanced orders at rapprochement with the enemy caused some issues. To support with ATGM could be used as carriers and much less heavy machinery – self-propelled anti-tank missiles ATGM with the rockets through the usual cannon barrels. Thus, the missile tanks had no place in the military ranks…
 
The performance characteristics of the ATGM ЗМ7
 
Caliber, mm – 180
Launch weight, kg – 50 – 54
Length, mm 1250
The scope of the stabilizer, mm – 850
Warhead weight, kg – 5.8 to 7
The mass of the explosive, kg – 2,0 – 2,52
Warhead – cumulative
Firing range, m; maximum day – 3300, 1500, minimum day – 300, 400 m
Flight speed, m/s: maximum – medium-224 – 200 – 217
Flight time at maximum range, 15-20
Armor penetration, mm: 90° – 500 at an angle of 60° – 250
Motor is solid
Control system – semi-automatic, radiolinija, with optical tracking purpose
Weight of control equipment, kg – 520
The dimensions of the rocket in the transport position, mm – 1250x230x230
The manufacturer of the launch of the Izhevsk plant
 
The performance characteristics of the rocket tank the it-1
 
Crew. – 3
Combat weight, t – 35
Length, mm – 6630
Width, mm – 3330
Height, mm – 2200
Ground clearance, mm – 430
Booking, mm: forehead corps – 100 Board connector – 80 forehead towers – up to 200
Engine – diesel, V-type, four-stroke V-55A liquid cooling 580 horsepower
Maximum speed, km/h – 50
Cruising on the highway, km – 500
Specific power, HP/t – 16,8
Armament – anti-tank missile system 2К4 “Dragon”; 7.62-mm machine gun PKT
Missile – antitank ЗМ7
Ammunition:
missiles -15
7.62 mm rounds – 2000
Type of launcher is built into the tower
Transfer time from traveling to the willingness, min -1 — 1,5
A time of transition in the firing position, C – 6
The pace of launches, RDS./min – up to 5
Firing:
day – and on the move
night –
Station guidance – semi-automatic radio command 1S7
Stabilizer – plane 2ЭЗ
The Radio Station R-123
Pyropolymer – GPK-59
A means of smoke-screens – TDA
Fire fighting equipment – automatic, the composition of “3,5”, eight temperature sensors
Standard weapons: automatic AK-47 with 500 rounds of 12 hand grenades f-1 flare gun
Overcoming obstacles in m
trench width – 2,85
wall height – 0,8
Ford – 1,4 (OPVT – 5)
the rise, deg. – 32
The developer tank – Ural KBTM
The Factory “Uralvagonzavod”
Serial edition – 1968 – 1970

 
V. BORZENKO

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