THE FIRST ARMORED WHITE

THE FIRST ARMORED WHITE

Daimler and Benz invented his machines in the nineteenth century, but reliable and widespread means of transport the vehicle was only in the XX-om. Military immediately expressed interest in the new Samode-joushima the wagons, planning to use them for transportation of goods and staff to use for towing artillery and as the chassis for new type of weapons -armored vehicles.

Before the First world war managed to create a few dozen pilot and small-scale vehicles, however, by the end of 1914 it became clear that no country in the world is not a suitable model for the deployment of serial production of armored vehicles. To design anything again there was no time: the first period of the war was maneuverable, and armored cars needed immediately. Designers immediately watched the fleet, hoping to choose the most suitable chassis for the installation of hulls. Here many and drew attention to the American truck company Motor SAG White. This firm in the mid-nineteenth century created by the famous inventor Thomas white. She was making sewing machines, bicycles, steam engines and cars with steam engines. In 1906, steam car white (White) began to arrive in the U.S. army. In 1909 began the production of cars with 4-cylinder internal combustion engines with capacity from 750 kg up to 5 t, which are also purchased by the military.
 
After the war the chassis “white” in large quantities exported to allied countries of Europe. The most common was a plain chassis, TIVO with 16-valve petrol engine with a capacity of at 28.9 HP and 3-speed transmission. At its base produced light trucks and tractors. In the body, TEVA placed the bench on 9 – 12 people.
 
In 1912, the firm began producing his most famous of the 1.5-ton truck fuel assemblies with a 30-horsepower engine, 4-speed gearbox and cardan drive to the rear dual wheels. The tires were cast. In 1914 the FA entered service with American troops in Mexico, and during the First world war was used expeditionary corps in France. In 1917, the car FA was the prototype of the first American “standard truck” Liberty A. Common was the 2-ton long-baseline variant of the TDC, which became the basis of the first military fire engine.
 
The army used heavy machine vehicle, TAD, TCD and TDC capacity 3 – 5 t, which had a massive frame with a semicircular front cross member, played the role of bumper 4-cylinder engines with a capacity of 40 – 45 HP, chain drives, and wide steel wheels.
In total during the war years the White Motor company of SAG produced 18 thousand cars.
 
In the Russian Imperial army trucks white appeared before the First world war. In 1912 tanker truck made by this company, participated in a test run of the military. In 1915 and 1916, the Russian army received several 76.2 mm anti-aircraft guns Tarnow-sky/unarmored Lender on the chassis
 
5-ton trucks white, forming two anti-aircraft batteries on the automotive course. Since the summer of 1917 they became one of the most combat-ready units. In 1917, one anti-aircraft battery was part of Yudenich’s army, and took part in the attack on Petrograd… In 1919, two anti-aircraft vehicle white was requisitioned in the Estonian army, where they received personal names and Sorts Puuk.
 
White Dodge 4x2 Model 1916
 
White Dodge 4×2 Model 1916
 
Armored
 
Armored “Mgebrov White”

 
On the Romanian front in the 97th Lifland infantry regiment 1916 — 1917 fought cars white TVs mounted winches construction Karmysheva brand “Adsadsa” (a contraction of the words “Admiralty shipyard”, where they produced in 1915). All these machines were released no more than a dozen. They were used for ascent and descent of balloons.
 
USA
 
In 1916, in the workshops of the military Arsenal of the United States in Rock island under the impression of hostilities in Europe was the armored car on a truck chassis White TBC. Next year this machine was used by units of General Pershing in the battle with the rebels of Pancho Villa. In the 1st branimirova-s battery car called the Pershing Tank, although the official name of the White Armored Car 4×2.
In 1917 in the United States on chassis White TBC was set up another armored vehicle at the company the Van Dorn Iron Works in Cleveland. Only made a sample under the number 11508 tested at Fort Sill (Oklahoma) prior to 1918, the Car is quite consistent with the level of armored vehicles in other countries, but in connection with the termination of the war in serial production did not.
 
In 1918, American expeditionary forces (A. E. F.) in Europe was a shortage of wheeled and tracked armored vehicles. A prototype of the armored vehicle decided to create a right in France. For a basis was taken a truck chassis White TAB. It established a wooden “hull” casts two diagonally placed towers. Inside was placed a crew of 4 people. A spoked wheel covered with broadscale.
 
White TBC booked on the project of captain Mgebrov, 1915
 
White TBC booked on the project of captain Mgebrov, 1915
 
Armored car, provisionally referred 4×2, White AEF Dodge, was to serve as a prototype for a real war machine, but for further development of the project no one took. Car layout lasted until 1921, and then was dismantled.
 
 
Russia
 
Another country, which produced armored vehicles on the chassis “white”, was Russia. In November 1914 a retired Colonel of the engineering troops of Ceresin appealed to the war Department with a proposal to create “armored car reconnaissance team” of several vehicles. The Colonel was allocated four cars (3 cars and a 1.5-ton truck “white”), a Reservation of cars was carried out by the merchant Merkulova on the model of French armored cars: brunekreef was absent, and the machine gun armament was mounted behind shields.
 
The selection Committee considered the level of reservation is insufficient. In the end, in the spring of 1915 three of the four armored cars, including white, was sent to the Izhora plant to enhance the booking.
 
Projects re book was developed by staff captain V. A. Mgebrov. By the time the plant has conducted build light armored vehicles “Renault” in his project. Usually Mgebrov booked cars actively used, the location of the plates at large angles of inclination. On the “white” designer managed to place in the aft cylindrical tower with a 37 mm Hotchkiss cannon, based on a light naval gun with a modified wedge lock. Length of the gun barrel was 20 gauge (740 mm). The angle of rotation of the tower was limited to the armor-body (about 270°). Note that in the years to battle the armored vehicles went in reverse, which partly compensated for the inability to fire on-the-go machine. In addition to the gun, the car had two 7.62-mm machine gun “Maxim” model 1910 water-cooled barrel. The armored hull was riveted from 4 – 7 mm leaves rolled chromium-Nickel armor steel Izhora plant.
 
Unlike the armored Renault design Mgebrov, “white” radiator in front of the engine, which is not possible to make reservations engine compartment of the sphenoid. To access the engine on the sides there were small hatches, and the roof of the engine compartment was made hinged on the hinge loops.
 
In the Department of management was placed on the left of the driver’s seat, to the right of the commander. For surveillance of the terrain the driver and commander had two viewing Windows with hinged bro-nakryshki, in their lower part pricipales special branipole to prevent bullets and shrapnel, ricochets from the frontal bronelista. The side bevels for the driver and commander had one recess.
 
Machine-gun Department was crowned with a tower-cutting design Mgebrov had in terms of a complex configuration, which resembled a stylized heart. On the roof of the tower was a cylindrical observation tower with a viewing slit. For embarkation/disembarkation in the car the crew had three doors: one on the starboard side of the compartment, two in the sides of the cylindrical part of the machine-gun Department.
 
The engine of the armored car corresponds to the basic chassis White – carbureted, 4-cylinder, inline, liquid-cooled, displacement 3,672 liters and 35 HP When driving on highway vehicle speeds up to 42 km/h, the lane speed drops to 18 – 20 km/h. fuel tank Capacity was 100 liters, which allowed the car to pass on the highway 230 – 250 km.
 
Suspension — dependent, on semi-elliptical leaf springs. 
 
 
 
Basic data of white armored vehicles with petrol engines liquid cooling
 
Basic data of white armored vehicles with petrol engines liquid cooling
 
The wheels of the front axle – single, rear – gable with cast grassini and armored disks.
 
15 Sep 1915 “Mgebrov white” in the 29th automotive machine-gun platoon was sent to Tiflis at the disposal of the Caucasian army operating against the Turks. However, in the summer of next year the material part of the platoon, including “Mgebrov white”, was returned at the Izhora factory for repair, then white again departed for the front.
 
After the October revolution armored car was on the side of the Reds in 1920 and was used in defensive battles on the Kakhovka bridgehead. Data about his fate there.
 
During the Soviet-Polish war of 1920 – 1921 the Soviet Russia widely used restored armored vehicles of the Royal army. Chassis for the popular Austin from England, of course, is not supplied. Because of the hulls in the repair of coaches would simply be fitted to other suitable chassis. In the course of unsuccessful fighting in the hands of the poles as trophies were two “Austin” 1st series, replaced on the chassis White TBC (apparently they were more base and the specific wheels truck White).
 
France
 
In 1917, the firm Renault has built an armored car by installing body experienced armored car Segur & Lorfeuvre on the chassis of American 2-ton truck White. By the beginning of the First world war, France had 2000 chassis white of two types: TAB manufactured in the United States from 1915 to 1919, and assemblies produced under license by the firm “Reno” from 1915 to 1922. The chassis has different width and weight. In the serial production of armored vehicles, the designation White AMD used and those and others. 25 Aug 1917 armored “white” was adopted by the French army. Just by the Renault company was built 230 armored vehicles of this type, 20 – gathered on the American chassis. Undoubtedly, it was some of the best armored cars of the First world war, but by the beginning of world war II have become obsolete.
 
Fully enclosed armored body of the machine was riveted from sheets of rolled steel with a thickness of 8 mm. the Crew consisted of 4 people: commander (Sergeant), driver, front wheelhouse, the driver of the rear wheelhouse and gunner who served the cannon and machine gun.
 
Access to the engine for maintenance and repair was provided by two removable side sheet on the walls of brancepeth, fastened by bolts to the frame. Front engine compartment was closed armored horizontal blinds with two fixed plates and a movable upper cover that was raised on the hinge loops, providing air flow to the radiator. Behind the engine compartment was the compartment in which the driver (left) and his assistant (right). Review they provide two front Windows lowered Pokryshkina and two round viewing holes in the sides with pokryshki semicircular shape.
 
 
White AMD 1915
 
French armored
 
French armored “white” AMD
 
The armored vehicle was equipped with a second control position for reversing. If necessary, this position was held by the assistant driver. The mechanism of the reversing transmission allowed on all four gears are about the same speed in reverse as forwards. However, the rear control post had all controls. In addition, driving an armored vehicle with the aft control position required some skill, since in this case the control wheels were in the back. To observe the terrain the driver rear post could through the narrow food window pokryshki and two side inspection openings.
 
On the fighting compartment housed riveted symmetrical tower of circular rotation. On its roof there were two hatches through which the commander and the gunner could observe the countryside. In addition to these hatches, for the review was provided peepholes with pokryshki.
 
In the tower opposite each other was equipped with a 37-mm cannon SA 18 model 1916 and 8-mm machine gun “Gocci”. In addition, in the fighting compartment carrying a spare gun, which was used for firing at air targets. If necessary, he mounted a fork lift machine is attached on the left side at the level of the front Windows. The fire of anti-aircraft machine gun was just coming out of a stopped vehicle. In this case, curb tape cartridges submitted to him through the round viewing hole in the Board control Department. To enter a crew in the car both sides had large rectangular doors left open in the side of the stern, right, in the direction of the front of the machine.
On the sides of the rear of the hull was located in large boxes for tools and spare parts. On the left side on special brackets attached staff entrenching tool – a shovel and pickaxe.
 
For driving in dark time of day the vehicle was equipped with a large removable headlight projector, fastened the grille, and a pair of smaller headlights, mounted at the upper corners of the front wall of the engine compartment. The fourth headlight serving to illuminate the road when driving in reverse, was located on the left rear fender.
 
The running gear of the machines used wooden spoked wheel with a cast grassini type “Dockable” (on the rear axle stood wheels).
 
Until the mid-1930s armored “white” was the main striking force of the French cavalry troops in France, Morocco, the middle East and even in Shanghai. By September 1939 in North Africa was still 57 armored vehicles with White “native” of the chassis. The last time they participated in the battle in 1941 in the middle East in the 6th and 7th cavalry regiments. Survived several photos where the Germans surprised considering trophy secovnie armored cars with wooden wheels.
 
In October 1918 in Moscow on the still unfinished plant AMO started coming from the front broken three-ton truck “white”. For 1919, received 250 trentodoc EU and TAD. These cars were considered quite good. But the engines have been a serious drawback often burst the lower connecting rod caps. The Americans made them out of bronze.
Booking of car at Izhora factory. Left -
 
Car booking at the Izhora plant. Left – “Mgebrov White”
 
 
1940, German soldiers examine a captured armored car in White during the First world war secovnie with wooden wheels
 
1940, German soldiers examine a captured armored car in White during the First world war with a wooden secovnie wheels
 
Lost contact with the shaft of the connecting rod caused, as a rule, the complete destruction of the block and the crankcase. Such accidents permanently incapacitate the country needs tens machines. Spare parts for “white” was no more, and therefore, for the repair trucks at the factory AMO was organized casting and machining blocks and crankcases. The fact it was a difficult drawing was not, one had to perform on “nature”. More than 300 cast blocks had to reject at various stages of machining before they were able to get good results. When you restore trucks on AMO from the old engines used only the connecting rods, crankshaft and camshaft parts; production of water and oil pumps, new designed radiator type FIAT more rational design with a good mount to the frame. Even the carburettors of type Zenith for these engines began to produce themselves – at the 4th state automobile plant in Moscow – the former factory Ilyin.
 
Four-cylinder engines “white AMO” with an output of 30 HP at 1400 rpm were produced in Moscow until 1924, They were installed on the repaired trucks and railcars.
 
Simultaneously with the motor, the factory began the second major node of the three-ton – gearbox. It actually had to re-design. Box “white” was distinguished by the complexity of the device: four forward gears, of which third was direct and fourth increase. Copy it failed because amoury made four-speed box with the fourth straight gear.
 
After an overhaul at all 3-ton trucks White TAD has gained so many new uncharacteristic traits, which were called “white AMO”. Was engaged in repair of trucks White and Yaroslavl automobile plant. The concept of his firstborn I-3 were formed under the influence of the White a TAD.
 
13 Aug 1924 Zavod AMO chassis refurbished 1.5 ton White TVs built bus body design F. I. Herman and put into operation in the Moscow communal economy. Military service machine over, began peaceful everyday life.
 
L. KASHCHEEV

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