HERCULES OF THE STEPPEEvery few minutes the conveyor of the Leningrad production Association “Kirov plant” comes a brand new tractor K-701 “Kirovets”. Thousands of these machines working in the fields of the country. The operators proudly call “Kirova” steppe warriors. And their assessment is fair. K-701 is the most powerful agricultural tractor in the USSR. It features high efficiency, simple operation, comfortable cabin. Kirovets popular abroad. Witness the gold medals of international exhibitions and fairs in Budapest, Plovdiv, Zagreb. These tractors are being exported to Canada, Italy, Australia. More than six thousand of these surefire machines working in socialist countries.

It is symbolic that the release of the K-701 is organized at the Leningrad plant, from the gate which in 1924 came the first Soviet tractor, which became the embodiment of the dreams of Lenin about a hundred thousand tractors for the village. Lenin’s precepts were successfully fulfilled in our days. On the eve of the 65th anniversary of the Great October “Kirov plant” assembled 250 th tractor K-701. This is a labor gift to the Motherland of the workers and engineers of the plant. their contribution to the implementation of the Food program in our country. The staff of the plant has successfully fulfilled its social obligations: on April 22, the birthday of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, the Assembly line will be in surplus tractors “Kirovets”.
To improve the quality of mass-produced machines, the creation of new models of tractors take an active part in the Komsomol enterprises, young innovators. They took patronage over the development of prototypes. Each workshop has compiled a schedule of deliveries of equipment and parts for tractors, which is preparing to begin a enterprise. Thanks to “the Komsomol projector” found and fixed some defects in the design and manufacturing of individual components and assemblies, which allowed to produce in time the prototypes of the tractor 710 and proceed to his trial. For the work of the Komsomol organization of the Association awarded the honorary certificate of the Leningrad regional Committee of Komsomol.
The need to create a powerful wheel tractor was developed in the early sixties, when our country continued successful development of virgin and fallow lands. Then the main arable tractor was DT-54 and DT-75 with capacity of 54 and 75 HP In small fields they worked fine but for the virgin lands, where lands of the state farms accounted for 20-30 thousand hectares, these machines were rather weak. Therefore, before the designers task was to create a fundamentally new tractor, the performance of which would be increased to two, two and a half times. At the same time would in a short time to adjust production. Workers and engineers, our factory has performed this task. Tractor-Hercules K-700 with a capacity of 220 HP, was introduced with 1963. He was replaced by a K-701. His 300 HP is One such machine processes more than two hectares of arable land per hour, which is two to three times more than was able to do a caterpillar tractor old model. One “Kirovets” in the cultivation of the fields replaces the three DT-54. The result saves fuel, labor, increases the productivity of the tractor. “Prairie hero” not Only plow and cultivate the soil, but can be used as a tractor, bulldozer. It is adapted to operate 53 mounted units. Large wheels with low-pressure tyres and tread improve the maneuverability of the cars in the fields. She’s not afraid of off-road, and at highway speeds up to 35 km/h.
“Highlight” design “Kirovtsa” — the original turning unit, consisting of two semiframes connected by a hinge. As a result, it easy to maneuver without turning the front wheels.
Fig. 1. Agricultural wheeled tractor General purpose K-701.
Fig. 1. Agricultural wheeled tractor General purpose K-701.
The K-701 original transmission with constant-mesh gears. Gear shift is on the move, without their separation, using a special mechanism. The result is improved reliability of the gearbox, reduces noise, eliminates the possibility of breakage of the gears.
Developing K-701, our designers paid special attention to improving the working conditions of the tractor. For example, the cabin of “Kirovtsa” sealed and installed at a great height from the ground. This ensures minimal dust. Good review, ventilation and heating create additional convenience for the driver. In the cockpit, “Kirovtsa” it feels no worse than in the cab of the truck. Steering gearbox equipped with hydraulic actuators. The efforts of the driver controlling a powerful tractor, a small.
The design of the K-701 is constantly being improved. This year we began to produce tractors with service life of 8 thousand hours before the first overhaul. This is ka 2 thousands of hours more than the machines manufactured previously. Factory team fights for improving product quality. Thanks to new technology, automation and mechanization of production, systematic design improvements of components and parts quality of the machines, their reliability improves.
Developed and promising models of wheeled tractors. We have created prototypes of machinery with a capacity of 330 HP, work is Underway on the production of tractors up to 500 HP
New cars the cabin of the tractor is provided with air conditioning. The blue color of the glass protects the driver from sunlight. In the cockpit for maximum comfort for high productivity. The new portable tractor rims wheels. This facilitates their replacement. Designers took care and of safety of the driver in emergency situations. The cabin is equipped with frame, protecting it from deformation in case of an accident…
A few words about the engine for future tractors. This 8-cylindromyia diesel, made by the Yaroslavl motor plant. Unlike the 12-cylinder that is installed now on the K-701, it is lighter by 200 kg, smaller in size. Economical and easy to handle the engine’s new “Kirovtsa” is well adapted to work in the field.
K-701 wheel tractor of General purpose. It is designed for ploughing, cultivation, harrowing. In addition, it can be used to transport works with mounted and trailed machines.
The tractor’s original layout scheme, which is called “breaking frame.” It consists of two semiframes — front and rear, connected by horizontal and vertical joints. The first gives the ability to move half-frames when driving on uneven surfaces, while the second provides a “folded” half-frames in the horizontal plane when turning the tractor. This reduces the width (no space between the tire and the frame to rotate the wheels) and the radius of the turn. The front frame is installed: the engine, gearbox, cabin, fuel and oil tanks, front driving axle. On the rear second driving axle and, depending on modifications, different variants of the attachment or special equipment such as bucket loader. Instead of springs the tractor flotation tire with the necessary rigidity.
Steering — hydraulic with two cylinders and dispenser.
The main unit of the tractor — power plant, consisting of combustion engine and of the systems supporting its work. K-701 set the engines of the Yaroslavl motor plant YAMZ-240Б power 220,5 kW (300 HP). This V-shaped twelve-cylinder diesel liquid cooled, with engine speed at rated power 1900 rpm and a cylinder capacity of 22.3 L. this machine has a preheating system to facilitate engine starting in winter.
Tractor engine connected to a transmission consisting of a semi-rigid clutch, gearbox, front and rear axles and driveline.
Fig. 2. The layout of the tractor
Fig. 2. The layout of the tractor:
1 — diesel, 2 — fan heating system, 3 — gear drive of the pump 4 downstream of the humidifier with gear upravlennya turn 5 — steering column 6 — fan-cyclone separator, 7 — driver seat, 8 — cabin, 9 — tank, 10 — hydraulic control valve hydraulic lift systems, 11, 14, 20, 22, 24, 25 — propeller shafts, 12 — coupling the PTO shaft, 13 — hydrocylinder, 15 — hitch, a 16 — single speed gearbox PTO shaft, 17 — rear frame, 18 — wheels 19 — the brake chamber 21 — a hinge device of the frame and an intermediate support, a 23 — transmission, 26 — Parking brake, 27 — axle, 28 — front of the frame, 29 — water pump, 30 — boiler heating, 31 — the radiator of the cooling system of a diesel engine, a 32 — oil cooler diesel gearbox 33 — oil cooler hydraulic steering.
Semi-rigid coupling is ka engine flywheel. It is necessary for the torque transmission to the gearbox and pump drive hydraulic steering and attachment.
Manual transmission, multi-stage, with constant-mesh gears, mechanical drive mode switch and hydraulic control clutch. If the normal box is impossible switch gear on the go, in the presence of friction clutches with hydraulically controlled transfer occurs without stopping the machine.
From the box the power flow goes through the driveline at the front and rear axles. They are interchangeable.
The tractor is an interesting circuit to drive the front axle is switched, and the rear can be switched off. It makes the car more stable when driving, which is especially important for tractors with articulated frame. A large range of tractor speeds from 2.9 km/h to 33.8 km/h — contributes to its widespread use in agriculture.
Of the torque from the engine goes to the PTO. This mechanism is designed to drive the working bodies of agricultural machinery and implements. They are connected to the tractor by a linkage which allows the docking and adjustment when plowing, harrowing, and other agricultural activities.
In addition, the rear frame is installed the bracket to attach to the tractor trailed machines and implements, as well as traction hook for operation with a trailer or semitrailer. Brake system K-701 — pneumatic, which also facilitates the operation of the machine.
All controls located in the cockpit, “Kirovtsa”. The ka-701 it is all-metal, equipped with two seats, with the driver it sprung. In addition, the cab is mounted on rubber shock absorbers. It is sealed, heated and equipped with a ventilation system equipped with pneumatic windshield wipers front and rear window, rearview mirror, a thermos for drinking water, first aid kit.
A. STRAHL, chief designer of the project

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