The FIRST post-war TRUCK ZIS-150 and ZIL-164

The FIRST post-war TRUCK ZIS-150 and ZIL-164The FIRST post-war TRUCK ZIS-150 and ZIL-164For many of my peers postwar truck ZIS-150 are associated with the period when in Moscow and other cities turned to mass construction of the famous five-story Khrushchev. Thousands of trucks on the basis of these machines was delivered to the construction site concrete, many truck tractors with a bulky semi — wall panels, and side cars and other cargoes, including people, which at that time was not forbidden by the rules of the road. By the way, in those years truck mixers-mixers we have not been, and to the concrete prematurely seized, the trucks had to navigate city streets with great speed, generously spilling the contents of the body.

We are talking about the most popular trucks of the time — ZIS-150 and ZIL-164, to distinguish who could do that experts Yes, knowing the boys — they knew that “one hundred fifties” grille has a horizontal slot, and the “one hundred and sixty-four” — vertical.
Replace the famous “traitance” ZIS-5, the designers of the Moscow Automobile plant named after Stalin began to prepare before the war, because the machine based on the 1 920-e years became an American truck Autocar, was no longer subject to further upgrades. The country needed a new truck more powerful, more capacity, more durable and more comfortable for the driver.
Prototypes of the new truck called the ZIS-15, was built in 1938. The car had a new frame, other all-metal triple cabin and an upgraded engine capacity of 82 HP, it was Assumed that the basic model of the ZIS-15 will be the basis for a series of vehicles — bus, dumper, all terrain vehicle and many others.
However, mass production of the ZIS-15 was prevented by the Great Patriotic war. However, it also prompted manufacturers to further improve the pre-war “three-ton” — on its basis there was created a triaxial ZIS-6, half-track ZIS-42, ZIS-wheel drive-32 with the wheel formula 4 x 4 and gas ZIS-21.
The prototype of the truck ZIS-15, developed in 1938
The prototype truck ZIS-15, developed in 1938
On-Board truck ZIS-150 the first model years with the cabin of a mixed wood-metal construction and wooden body
Flatbed truck ZIS-150 the first model years with the cabin of a mixed wood-metal construction and wooden body
In 1944, again the question was raised about the production of modern trucks, but to take it, based on the ZIS-15 of 1938 recognized the irrational. Therefore, at the Automobile plant named after Stalin has developed an upgraded truck, in appearance little different from American lend-lease truck International KR-11. By the summer of 1944, prototypes of the new truck was tested on.
The initial batch of ZIS-150 left the factory on 30 October 1947. Machine completely lifting force 4000 kg equipped with a 90-horsepower engine mated to a five-speed (for the first time in domestic science!) gearbox with constant-mesh gears and brakes with pneumatic drive. For car developed the cabin mixed design — due to the shortage of special sheet steel it was manufactured from plywood and faux leather paneling with a partial tin. By the way, this technology was used in the manufacture of many cars in those years — wooden-metal cabin initially produced the GAZ-51 out of wood was going to the back of a pickup on the basis of “Moskvich-401”.
For the first time in the domestic freight car door was equipped with openable Windows. The front glazing is V-shaped, consisting of two angled Windows, and the left, the driver could have wandered up and fixed to any position by a rocker mechanism.
The engine, called the ZIS-120, produced in 1947, was thoroughly run-in on serial “techtonic” (cars with such engines got the name of ZIS-50) issued during the period 1947 — 1948 in the amount of 13 895 copies.
Basic dimensions of the truck ZIL-164
Main sizes of the truck ZIL-164
Chassis ZIL-164
The chassis of the ZIL-164
Development of production of ZIS-150 started in January 1948. Until April 26, was made the installation of a new conveyor without stopping the old one, and on 27 April he started the serial production of ZIS-150. A few days later, it was discontinued production of “techtonik” ZIS-5 and ZIS-50.
Use the ZIS-150 revealed a number of drawbacks, chief of which was a small margin of a long propeller shaft when the vehicle is moving with high speed (usually downhill) shaft speed exceeded, leading to its breakage. As a consequence, Kardan damaged pipeline of a pneumatic actuator of brakes, and in this situation to stop the car was almost impossible.
Had developers to install on the vehicle a special limiter frequency of rotation of the crankshaft of the engine prevented its release in the over 2400 revs per minute.
The first thorough modernization of ZIS-150 was produced in 1950. The car was equipped with all-metal cabin and equipped with more modern carburetor K-80 with the falling mixture stream and a new exhaust manifold, increasing engine power and improved fuel economy.
ZiS-150 with all-metal cab
ZiS-150 with all-metal cabin
Experimental four-wheel drive truck ZIS-150P
Experimental four-wheel drive truck ZIS-150P
On-Board truck ZIL-164 in all-Union agricultural exhibition (now VVC)
Sided truck car ZIL-164 in all-Union agricultural exhibition (now VVC)
Next modernization was made in 1952 — with the accumulated operating experience of the ZIS-150. First of all, the designers got rid of the long and, consequently, fragile driveshaft and replaced it with two shafts with intermediate support on the middle crossmember of the frame. Was also improved suspension — the machine is equipped with extra long springs. The engine is equipped with a floating malopriemlema oil pump and front mounted radiator with driver controlled blinds. Took care of the driver by reducing the height of the seat and the backrest, as well as increased gear ratio of the worm steering gear. The last improvement was particularly relevant as to control the truck GVW of 8 t in the absence of power required truly Herculean efforts.
Before running the upgraded trucks in a series of prototypes were sent in a test run with a length of about 25 thousand km on roads with different coatings, including the coatings.
The latest upgrade to the ZIS-150 was produced in 1956. The car replaced the cast-iron head aluminum engine, which increased the compression ratio to 6.2, installed the new carb, intake manifold and air filter, causing the engine power increased to 96 HP in Addition reinforced the frame and used the rubber mount for the front springs and installed hydraulic shock absorber.
The most recent development on “one hundred fifties” — replacement podshtampovki “VMS” on the hood: instead, there appeared the letters “ZIL” as it was in 1956 after the XX Congress of the CPSU, the plant was renamed in honor of I. A. Likhachev, the former plant Manager and former Minister of road transport and highways of the USSR.
The frame of the car ZIL-164
The frame of the car ZIL-164
ZIL-150 was made not too much — in 1957 instead of the car came off the Assembly line looks very similar to him ZIL-164. All from 1947 to 1957 was released 774 615 truck ZIS-150 and ZIL-150.
In addition, the ZIS-150 at the factory was conducted the work on creation of cars of the raised passableness. So, from mid-1940-ies on the basis of ZIS-150 was designed all-wheel-drive car ZIS-150P wheel formula 4×4. However, the machine proved to be difficult, which is not consistent with the requirements of the Ministry of defense of the USSR, and the plant was proposed to develop a three axis version of “one hundred and fifty.”
In early 1945, the Bureau of the plant began designing a three-axis machine, later called the ZIS-151. The first two samples were built in 1946 — one with a gable of the rear wheels and the other with a pent. In the summer of 1947 began comparative tests, which along with a couple of ZIS-151 and the triaxial part of the lend-lease International and Studebaker. The best patency demonstrated all-wheel drive ZIS-151 with single tires, which the rear wheels followed the trail left front, which required less energy for the laying of track. But the representatives of the Ministry of defence for unknown reasons, were in favour of the production of machines with saddle rear. By the way, in the near future, the factory has launched production of the all-wheel-drive ZIL-157 single scheme.
On the basis of the truck ZIS-150
On the basis of the truck ZIS-150
Dump truck based on ZIL-164
Dump truck based on ZIL-164
Well, the ZIS-151 was, thus, the country’s first three-axle four-wheel drive vehicle wheel formula 6×6. Serial production of this car lasted from 1948 to 1958. On its base was created fighting machine of jet artillery, armored personnel carriers, large floating cars (BAS), tankers and a number of other military and civilian vehicles.
In 1957 instead of the ZIS-150, the plant supplied to the conveyor ZIL-164, which practically did not differ from the predecessor, but had some differences from the “one hundred fifties” — reinforced frame, more powerful engine with modern carb, telescopic dampers, etc.
The design of the ZIL-164
ZIL-164 was a truck with a triple all-metal cabin and wooden platform with three open sides.
Car engine — carburetor, in-line, six-cylinder, four-stroke, Nizhnekamsky, displacement 5,55 liters compression ratio is 6.2. Maksimalna engine power — 100 HP at the engine speed of 2800 rpm./min.
The engine cylinders are arranged in one unit, made of cast iron with sump. The plane of the connector of the crankcase is below the axis of the crankshaft. Around the cylinders in the block has a water jacket. On the engine block is mounted on the gasket a common cylinder head with water jacket, which houses the combustion chamber. The head, made of aluminum alloy, is fixed to the block by bolts and studs.
Pistons with a flat bottom are cast from aluminum alloy. On top of the piston has three compression and one oil control ring.
The crankshaft made of carbon steel, shakes his subjected to surface hardening by high frequency currents. The engine shaft rotates on seven bearings with thin-walled steel liners with babbit pouring.
The flywheel is secured by six bolts on the flange of the rear end of the crankshaft.
The engine of car ZIL-164
The engine of the ZIL-164
Steering ZIL-164А
Steering ZIL-164А

The front shaft is fixed on the steel dowel camshaft gear, oil slinger and the pulley of the fan. From the bottom to the crankcase of the engine attached to the pads pressed steel sump.
The camshaft is made of carbon steel mounted on four steel bushings with Babbitt pouring. In the middle part of the shaft there is a gear drive oil pump and distributor, the rear portion is eccentric to drive the fuel pump, and front cast iron gear meshed with the gear of the crankshaft.
The engine is mounted on a frame on three legs with rubber cushions.
The engine cooling system — forced, closed. Radiator tubular-plate type fixed to the frame through rubber cushions. Thermostat — odnoklapannaya. Shestilopastnye the fan rotates in a housing attached to the radiator. The actuator of the radiator and water pump — single wedge-belt from the crankshaft pulley.
Side car twin ZIS-150 (right) and ZIL-164 (on the left) Side car twin ZIS-150 (right) and ZIL-164 (on the left)
Flatbed car twin ZIS-150 (right) and ZIL-164 (on the left)
The engine lubrication system — combination: pressure lubricated main bearings and the rod bearings crankshaft, bearings, camshaft, camshaft gear and the drive shaft of the dispenser; to the other friction surfaces the oil is fed by gravity and spray. Oil filtration — double.
On car ZIL-164 is installed dry double-disk clutch. In the future when the next upgrade (on ZIL-164А) clutch replaced a single disc with peripheral spaced springs and driven off.
Transmission — five-speed, and fifth gear — accelerating, i.e. when enabled, the secondary shaft of the box rotates faster than the crankshaft of the engine.
The car is dual main gear assembled with the differential in the crankcase is cast from ductile iron. Rear axle beam also cast from ductile iron. In the side of the beam sleeve is pressed and fixed with fixing screws steel pipe, the ends of which serve as bearings for wheel bearings. The rear hole in the beam closed steel stamped cover, fixed to the beam with screws. Gear ratio of a transmission of 7.63.
Basic dimensions of the cab of the ZIL-164
The principal dimensions of the cab of the ZIL-164
The front of the cabin (tail) of the car ZIL-164
The front of the cabin (tail) of the car ZIL-164
The driver of car ZIL-164
The driver of car ZIL-164
Bus ZIS-155 production in 1949 on the basis of the truck ZIS-150
Bus ZIS-155 production in 1949 on the basis of the truck ZIS-150
Fire-fighting vehicle based on ZIS-150
Fire truck on the basis of ZIS-150
The vehicle frame consists of two fabricated steel longerons of channel section of variable profile and cross-beams United by rivets. In the front part of the frame is fixed the bumper and tow hooks, rear tow gear with hook and latch.
Front axle is a steel beam I-beam attached to the frame on two longitudinal semi-elliptic leaf springs. The ends of the springs mounted in the brackets of the frame on rubber pads. In the front suspension included piston shock absorbers (in the future, the ZIL-164А used telescopic hydraulic shock absorbers, double-acting). Front ends of rear springs attached to the brackets of the frame fingers and the back with earrings with two fingers each.
Disc wheel with a flat rim have a removable bead ring with key ring. Rear wheel — gable.
The steering mechanism of the vehicle is a pair of worms techgravy roller, wherein the worm is positioned in the housing on tapered roller bearings and the roller rotates on two bearings.
Brake system of a vehicle comprises a foot brake actuator, acting on all wheels, manual vector-borne and Central brake. Air brakes have a high effectiveness with small effort on the pedals, which greatly facilitates the operation of the vehicle.
Technical characteristics of the car
Technical specifications of cars

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