THE LAST CAR OF THE LEADER

THE LAST CAR OF THE LEADERExecutive cars, leading descended from the Royal gilded carriage ride with the “power plant” of about a dozen horses in harness, appeared at the beginning of the XX century. And they have become quite reliable and safe -the monarchs, the highest state officials, as well as “owners of factories, Newspapers, steamships” the race began to order entered suddenly in Vogue cars-limousines.

 

In Russia, the limousines were not issued and for the Imperial court purchased cars of foreign production, although in fairness it should be noted that in 1913 the Royal garage still bought two domestic “Russo-Bapta”.
 
After the Civil war, the leaders of the Bolshevik party and the government for a long time used the limousine from the Imperial garage, and then as they wear, to party-state elites were purchased similar cars abroad. Urgent need Executive car of domestic production emerged in the Soviet Union in the early 1930-ies, when the expenses of Soviet-American trading company “Am-the auction” on the purchase not cheap limousine Buick and Packard reached exorbitant values.
Production of the first domestic-made passenger car of the highest class, later called the ZIS-101, was laid at the Plant named after Stalin, which produces freight cars – the famous “three-ton” ZIS-5. The design of the machine was engaged in technical Department that is highly recommended to copy the American car Buick 32-90, however, the head of the technical Department – a talented designer E. I. Vazhinsky proposed to borrow “American” is only the design of the engine and overall layout. The body was not developed, the designers of VMS, and designers of the famous American body company Budd Company. There’s also designed and built tooling and welding jigs for Assembly of the body, special machines and dies for the manufacture of body panels and frame rails. The firm Budd has cost our country $ 1.5 million – a sum at that time a giant! The result is a machine though and unlike the Buick, but had with him a conceptual similarity. Serial production of the first domestic limousine lasted from November 1936 to July 1941, when it was released 8752 car ZIS-101.
 
Executive car limousine ZIS-110 release 1945
Executive car limousine ZIS-110 release 1945
 
Packard 160 issue 1942 - one of the prototypes of the car ZIS-110
Packard 160 issue 1942 – one of the prototypes of the car ZIS-110
 
Geometric scheme of the car ZIS-110
The geometric scheme of the car ZIS-110
 
Work on the creation of the ZIS-110, a new government limousine of the upper class, began at the Automobile plant named after Stalin 19 September 1942, in the midst of the great Patriotic war. According to historians autostructure, Stalin ordered to take a sample of this machine American Packard 180 limousine and Buick Limited 90.
 
Work to create the ZIS-110 was headed by Deputy chief designer of passenger cars A. N. Island-ant. The basis of the domestic luxury designers took the look of the Packard 180, but they did not create a copy. In particular, the designers abandoned the two spare wheels mounted on the front wings – on the ZIS-110 for a single “spare tire” was found in his trunk. The kickstand, located on the “American” outside of the body, the ZIS-110 was placed inside the cabin and the rear part of the machine is extended, making it more attractive. The final development of the contours of the body were made on special models in the wind tunnel of TSAGI.
 
As a result of all of this work, the body of the ZIS-110 was more modern than the Packard 180, the machine as a whole looked more solid and at the same time became more dynamic.
 
September 20, 1944, the state Commission approved the prototype ZIS-110, in the same month, began serial production of the new limousine. In the period from 1944 to 1958 was made 2089 cars of various versions – limousine, cabriolet, Phaeton, taxi and ambulance. Interestingly, especially for the ZIS-110 was begun to produce petrol a-74, because his engine refused to work on then the A-66.
 
The design of the car ZIS-110
 
Although in its design, the car differed little from the model Packard 180 Touring Sedan body release of 1942, historians autostructure nevertheless agree that the ZIS-110 is still independent development of VMS that have significant differences from the American prototype in design, size and shape of the body and only superficially similar to the Packard 180 that was due to the desire to have Stalin in the Kremlin garage “Soviet Packard”.
 
The process of creating the ZIS-110 was carried out in completely different conditions than the ZIS-101. In particular, for the pre-war limousine all tooling and welding jigs, car body dies and other equipment were ordered in the United States, and during the war the country has, there is neither a currency, nor the ability, because at this time even in the US production of civilian automobiles was virtually stopped. So tooling for the manufacture of body panels of the car had to be completely manufactured in the Soviet Union, and the punches and dies made not of steel but cast from zinc-aluminum alloy that has allowed them to reduce the cost and complexity of manufacturing. However, such stamps have survived, only a limited number of cycles, however, the ZIS-110, produced in relatively small series, the use of this snap-in was quite reasonable.
 
Basic dimensions of the car ZIS-110
The principal dimensions of the car ZIS-110
 
The car is equipped inline 8-cylinder 4-stroke nineleven engine with a working volume of 6,002 l; power was 140 HP at 3600 rpm, so he was the most powerful Soviet tank. However, the engine was distinguished by its enormous
 
relatively smooth and quiet operation, including by equipping it gidrotolkatelyami valves and plate Morse chain to drive the camshaft.
 
Transmission – mechanical, three-stage, synchronized. A shift lever located on the steering column. Single main gear, hypoid, gear ratio is 4.36.
 
ZiS-110 was the first Soviet car with independent suspension of the front wheels and sealed cooling system of the engine. The chassis of the car had sway bars front and rear. The brake pads were hydraulic.
 
Electrical equipment on the car was 6-volt, although at the time many domestic machines (even on the truck GAZ-51!) used more modern 12-volt. Battery – type 3CT-1353A, generator -G-16, starter – ST-10. The car has the option of installing backup battery and backup ignition system.
 
The ZIS-110 had two rear tail lights, although the rules allowed you to use one of the left. ZiS-110 was the first Soviet car with the taillights – they were included on the American circuit where a stop signal is simultaneously used as the rear turn indicators. Commutation “turn signals” were made left podrulevymi lever, same as on modern cars. Instead of conventional headlights with separate bulbs, reflectors and russeifa figures limousine used lamp lamp in which the function of all these optical elements were performed by the lamp bulb. Some vehicles were equipped with mod – siren and additional Central headlamp.
 
On the dashboard was installed speedometer, fuel level and water temperature, ammeter, oil pressure gauge and warning lamps left and right turn signal (red), main beam (blue or purple) and ignition (green). The speedometer had the tri-color backlighting switching in dependence on speed: at speeds up to 60 km/h – green from 60 to 120 km/h – yellow, over 120 km/h-red.
The basic model of ZIS-110 was equipped with a closed four-door body type “limousine”. The backs of the front seats formed inside a thick jumper, connecting the Central pillar. From the cofferdam was nominated glass partition that separated the front from the back. In addition, in the niches jumper
 
placed two additional folding seats-strapontin, which allow to increase the total number of seats in the car to seven. The ZIS-110 limousine produced from 1945 to 1958.
 
In a regular equipment, the ZIS-110 was part of pyatidiapazonnogo tube radio-superheterodyne A-695, consuming current up to 4 A.
 
Cars ZIS-110 was used not only as Executive, but also as ambulances. They worked well in a number of taxis and passengers were transported on interurban lines.
 
In June 1946, for the creation of the ZIS-110 designers – A. N. Island cevo, B. M. Fitterman, L. N. Gusev and A. P. The Siegel was awarded the Stalin prize.
 
On the basis of the ZIS-110 was created a few modifications: ZIS-110A – ambulance car (the car had a lantern with a red cross above the windshield, leans up a hatch in the rear of the body, a special kit, pull out the stretcher in the vehicle and seats for medical staff was painted white with the appropriate labels); ZIS-110B – Phaeton with a folding fabric roof, produced
 
from 1949 to 1957-th year; three of cabriolet ZIS-110V, equipped with folding canopy with a mechanical lift and Windows, falls along with their framework; ZIS-110Ш experimental all-wheel drive car designed in four copies (two on the chassis of the Dodge WC51 (“Dodge – three-quarters”) and two domestic lalapipo-Western machinery); ZIS-110 POINTS – four-wheel drive car; ZIS-110Ш staff car ZIS-110И — modification engine and automatic transmission from GAZ-13 and, finally, ZiS-115 – government vehicle with armor protection.
 
The design of the car ZIS-115
 
ZiS-115 was the first Soviet armored car of the highest class, designed for the Soviet party and government elite. The machine was originally called the ZIS-110C was prepared for release in 1946 – 1947.
 
Apparently the ZIS-115 little different from the production of ZIS-110. “Armored” in it has issued, except that the tires increased diameter without the white stripes on the sides, large cutouts in the rear fenders, and powerful fog lights installed in the middle of the front bumper on a special bracket.
 
The design of the car has changed significantly. All of the units in the chassis of the ZIS-115 was upgraded and strengthened in accordance with the weight of the vehicle, amounting to more than seven tons. However, at first the engine on ZIS-115 was standing the same as the ZIS-110, row “eight” power of 140 HP
 
The clutch, gearbox, rear axle, and front and rear suspension has been redesigned in accordance with weight of the car. The brake drums increased in size and hydraulically contain a number of additional parts, increasing their reliability.
 
The body of the car – six (from the ZIS-110 – a seven-seater), armored, bulletproof and ballistic armor and bulletproof glass thickness of 75 mm.
 
ZiS-110 - the driver
ZiS-110 – a workplace of the driver:
 
1 – the lever of inclusion of indexes of turn; 2 – ammeter; 3, 9 – control lamp-hand turn signal; 4 – warning lamp for main beam; 5 – speedometer; 6 – speedometer; 7 – the counter of daily run; 8 – control lamp for operation of the ignition system; 10 – thermometer; 11 – the switch of the radio, volume controls and tone controls; 12 – the switch of a wiper blade; 13 – gear lever; 14 – button selector radio; 15 – wheel radio settings; 16 – decorative speaker grille radio; 17 – latch glove box; 18 – clock; 19 – wheel of daylight; 20 – glove box lid; 21 – the lever of the Parking brake; 22 – foot-headlamp switch; 23 – switch of illumination of devices and the cabin ceiling; a 24 – button starter; 25 – clutch pedal; 26 – switch of lamps of external lighting; 27 – a brake pedal; 28 – the switch of the interior lighting lamps; 29 – fuel level indicator in the tank; 30 – ring of the horn switch; 31 – the gas pedal; 32 – button reset counter of daily run; 33 – the switch of a heater and demisting the windshield; 34 – ignition switch; 35 – lighter; 36 – oil pressure indicator; 37 – steering wheel

 
The layout of the car ZIS-110
The layout of the car ZIS-110
 
The hulls were made on one of the Moscow defense plant where he was known as “No. 100”. All armor panels each car passed military testing and they were subjected to fire testing to ensure the highest protection category. The production of these buildings, it was strictly individual, even in the smallest details of the body were out of the individual number of the car.
 
The side Windows lowered, however their weight was such that to raise the glass had special hydraulic Jack. In addition to the normal door locks, both rear and right front doors were closed and chains, almost no different from those that were installed on apartment doors. It was said that the chains on the doors ZIS-115 appeared at the request of Stalin, who feared accidental opening of the doors on the go.
 
Car ZIS-115 was completed with tube radios until 1953 it was A-695, and then a more modern A5. Some of the ZIS-115 for special order installed air conditioning.
Assembling the “vehicles” were carried out at the Automobile plant named after Stalin in a special section of the Assembly shop cars, which had its own access control system. Argue that out of the gates of the special came about 30 armored ZIS-115.
 
The design of ZIS-110B
 
Differed from basic and car-Phaeton ZIS-110B. When automobile instructed to create on the basis of the ZIS-110 new open car, the designers have offered to make for him a body “Phaeton” with celluloid Windows and a simple, manually skazyvayutsya awning, less complicated construction and easier to operate than a body of type “cabriolet” with electrical or hydraulic drive mechanism for folding the awning. An outdoor version, which later received the name of ZIS-110B, appeared in 1949.
 
The first sample of the Phaeton with chassis number 750 and the body No. 715ФА45 (garage number 77) were transferred from the Assembly Department to the laboratory pilot operation for trials. According to the construction machine ZIS-110B was the same basic ZIS-110 and to the front of their body was exactly the same. However, the “Phaeton” were equipped with special doors with different versions of Windows, front windshield frame with holes for mounting the front beams of the awning and to install the antenna and floodlight. Different from the base and back of the body on the chaise in front of the trunk lid was installed the box awning that folded cover leather case.
 
The technical characteristics representative of the ZIS-110, ZIS-115
Back of a ZIS-110 in the embodiment of the carriage of emergency medical care
The body of the ZIS-110 in the embodiment of the carriage of emergency medical care
 
Front suspension cars ZIS-110 (front right wheel)

Front suspension cars ZIS-110 (front right wheel)
 
Salon main entrance of the car-the Phaeton ZIS-110B
The interior of the front car-the Phaeton ZIS-110B
 
The cabin of ZIS-110B is also different from the cabin of ZIS-110. Depending on the design of Windows and driver and passenger door Windows on them are either not installed (used snap-on celluloid window), or used mechanical lifters). Rear side (sixth) window was not available on all machines – the fact that they overlap a wide arc of the tent, so to see something through them was difficult.
 
Strapontin on ZIS-110B also differed from those that were installed on ZIS-110 – the backrests of the seats consisted of two equal halves. Somewhat different was backless and the rest of the seats.
 
The basis of the tent was a metal frame, which stretched water-repellent fabric. The frame consisted of front, middle and rear arches and front rail, fixed to the frame of the windshield three locks. All frame elements were connected among themselves by special feathers, ensuring correct layout and tension.
Electrical ZIS-110B was almost the same as on the base car. True, the Phaeton radio antenna was fixed on the left side frame of the windshield on teardrop-shaped chrome bracket. On some carriages at the Central part of the bumper mounted optional (fog) lamp. Also two or vehicles with spotlights-spotlights mounted on the right side of the frame of the windshield. On the front carriages ZIS-110B had a special handrail for standing in the officers ‘ car. For the first time military parades on red square began to take on cars only in 1955. However, in earlier years, the ZIS-110B actively used in the conduct of other military and sports parades and many other festivities.
 
In just 15 years, production of cars ZIS-110 was released 2089 units, of which more than 40 cars ZIS-110B with a body “Phaeton”.
 
At the end of 1950-ies the highest party and state officials, it became clear that drive cars of pre-war design representing one of the most powerful world powers undignified. In 1958 the Metropolitan ZIS, renamed by that time, the Likhachev Automobile plant, started production of the new limousine ZIL-111, which became the first domestic car with a push-button control transmission, electric Windows and air conditioning. Unlike the earlier cars-limousines produced in fairly large series, the ZIL-111 was produced for a very narrow range of customers – from ten to twenty cars a year.
Igor EVSTRATOV

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