Soviet passenger car GAZ M-1. The giant car plant in Nizhny Novgorod, was built in a record short time – just three and a half years. Creating it was a result of the signing of the 31 May 1929 agreement between the US by Ford Motor Company and the Government of the USSR. And January 29, 1932 off the assembly line of the Nizhny Novgorod automobile plant (NAZ) came off the first half tons lorries license NAZ-AA (FORD-AA), and in December of the same year – and passenger cars GAZ-A (FORD-A). Let me remind you, the lorry with the acronym NAE released a few months on the radiator: in the same 1932 Nizhny Novgorod was renamed Gorky the city of the company, respectively, received the name of GAS – Gorky Automobile Plant named after Molotov and produce trucks GAZ-AA.
In October 1933, the chief designer of Gas was appointed a talented engineer A. A. Pipart, which together with designers of Gas Kostkina L. V., A. M. Krieger and Y. N. sorochkina began By designing domestic limousine (so called passenger car with a closed metal body) GAZ M-1.
Its prototype was the famous American FORD V8-40, however, the designers creative approach to designing new cars, making its design a lot of improvements. In particular, instead of Ford’s transverse leaf springs they used longitudinal, more reliable in the conditions of Russian roads. The plant failed, however, to recreate the American engine — a /-shaped “eight” power of 65 HP; however, the company Henry Ford was not immediately able to bring the design of such a sophisticated engine to the requirements of mass production. Well, engineers on the Gas first had the basis of the power plant GAZ M-1 to take have already spent 40-HP engine from GAZ-A, which after modernization began to develop a power of 50 HP To do this, designers-minders have changed the timing, raised compression ratio of the working mixture to 4.6 units (GAS-AND this parameter was 4.2), increased by 0.8 mm valve lift, the expanded flow area of the channels in the carb, and upgraded lubrication systems and cooling. The result is enhanced engine began to disperse the car to 105 km/h.
The previous model GAZ-a was open body-Phaeton with folding canopy. New GAZ M-1 was much more comfortable: he had a five-seat all-metal closed body limousine. For the first time in domestic practice on the machine was applied contact-oil air filter, automatic ignition timing, and the adjustable driver’s seat.
Experienced Assembly production cars M-1 (mark transcribed as “Molotove-1”) began on the conveyor of the Gorky automobile plant March 15, 1936. Interestingly, the official name did not stick: the drivers called the car “Emka” or “emochka”.
GAZ M-1 edition of 1936 with a 4-cylinder engine producing 50 HP
The first two cars of 17 March was delivered to the Kremlin — for the “higher” the approval of the leaders of the party and the Soviet government, According to witnesses, the inspection was generally favorable for the “Emka” — the car “blessed” for serial production. However, the people’s Commissar of heavy industry Ordzhonikidze on 8 July 1936 NATI instructed to conduct a formal test of the three serial GAZ M-1: two cars had to go 30 000 km run, and another — to become the object of careful research and constructive improvements when defects are detected during the run of the first two machines. The changes to the design were made during the serial production. “M” could be considered only finally brought to an end in 1937.
The factory produced several versions of “Emka”. After the limousine, the most popular was a pickup truck called GAZ M-415. Its front end, including the grille, the tail and the hood was unchanged borrowed from M-1, it was a used frame, engine and suspension. In the back of a pickup truck, is equipped with a removable tent could accommodate up to 400 kg of cargo, or to sit in the jump seats six passengers in addition to driver and passenger in the cockpit. Interestingly, during the Winter war in Finland, the pickups were widely used for transportation of military cargo.
In addition to civilian GAZ M-1 in 1936 was produced combat version of this car — the light armored car BA-20 with a 7.62 mm machine gun, retaining the family resemblance with the “civilian” as “Emka”.
GAZ M-1 was a great base to develop various options of car. So, in 1938, was tested for gas-options “Emka”. Machine installed instead the “spare tire” stove inflator of cylindrical shape up to 1,600 kg, power of motor is decreased from 50 to 37 S. L. in the Autumn of this year these cars were made a test run with a length of 5000 km. Maximum vehicle speed recorded during the run was 87 km/h, average speed about 60 km/h. However, these are not too high more than compensated by the availability of fuel — the engine required only a birch chock.
In April 1941, at the Gorky automobile plant was produced a pilot batch of five cars, the M-1 engine GAS-45, capable of working both on petrol and on gas. “Fuel tank” for the car served as a steel cylinder with a diameter of 325 mm and a length of 740 mm, which is filled under pressure, the propane-butane-propylene-butylene gas mixture.
Geometric scheme of the GAZ M-1
layout of the chassis of the car GAZ M-1
Car GAZ-11-73 issue of 1940 6-cylinder engine producing 76 HP
four-wheel drive car GAZ-61-40 production in 1941 with a 6-cylindrowym engine producing 76 HP with a body “Phaeton”
Geometric scheme of the car GAZ-11-73
Layout all-wheel drive car GAZ-61-73
In the process of operation of the GAZ M-1 it was found that the capacity of the 50-strong motor still is not enough to machine a mass of 1370 kg. Gas was deployed to work on the development of serial production of American 6-cylinder engine, which received at the car called the GAZ-11. According to its technical characteristics this motor in the end of 1930 years was at the level of the latest achievements of the American automotive equipment — it was lightweight, compact and economical. Designer N. G. Maskin reworked his drawings from inch to metric system of measurement. I must say that the engine GAZ-11 was not an exact copy of the American prototype: Written by N. R. under the guidance of A. A. Lipgart has made many structural changes in the American original.
It is interesting that the engine GAZ-11 had a long life not only on upgraded “emok”, but on the truck GAZ-MM, post-war GAZ-51, GAZ-63 and GAZ-12, buses PAZ-651 and even on light tanks and self-propelled guns. With the engine GAZ-11 was produced army snowmobiles and even airplanes — for the latter has been developed by aviation — induced and light-weight modification of this motor.
Of the engine GAZ-11 for serial production was completed mostly in March 1940. From this time began the release of the upgraded “Emka” GAZ-11-73 (limousine) with the new 6-cylinder engine with a capacity of 76 or 85 HP and a displacement of 3,485 L. Notice that the first value of the power had an engine with cast iron pistons, and the second from aluminum.
The car GAZ-11-73 differed from its predecessor — it had a more modern grille, additional louvers on the hood, an updated instrument panel, polycentrality clutch mechanism and improved shock absorbers. The suspension is equipped with stabilizer bar.
In addition to the limousine was produced and the Phaeton GAS-11-40 — car folding tent, intended mainly for exploitation in the southern parts of the country, as well as pickup GAZ-11-415.
Another well-known veterans, veterans modification of the legendary “Emka” is a comfortable four-wheel drive vehicle-terrain vehicle. Technical specification for design was issued in late July 1938, and already in September under the leadership of chief designer V. A. Grachev began a design study of the car has received an index “61”.
The task was quite complex — in the shortest possible time for the machine was to create a leading front axle and the transfer case. In January 1939 were prepared working drawings, and already on 10 June the same year, the car, called the GAZ-61-40 (Phaeton), were transferred to the test. It should be noted that the running of the machine and, most importantly, its throughput surpassed the wildest expectations of designers. Four-wheel drive, large capacity motor, increased gear ratios in the transmission, tyres with special profile and raised 150 mm frame allowed the vehicle is climbing a slope to 43 degrees, wading depth of 0.82 m, and snow height of about 0.4 m. the Machine is not stuck even on eroded arable land and could tow a trailer weighing up to 700 kg GAZ-61-40 could move through a log with a diameter of 0.37 m, and even to climb up a quite steep staircase.
Serial production of the GAZ-61 was deployed in 1941. It was supposed to produce 500 of these vehicles for command staff of the red Army (mostly of the limousine GAZ-61-73), however, the order was not fully implemented — the war intervened. Leading designer of GAZ-61 V. A. Grachev for the development of vehicle-ATV in 1942 he was awarded the Stalin prize.
In the 1930-ies of the cars door was often opened against the direction of traffic. Was no exception to this rule and “emochka”
the driver of the GAZ M-1
a radiator Grille GAZ M-1
spare wheel Cover GAZ M-1
By the way, the army was required not only “emka”-all-terrain vehicles, but it is a “civilian” M GAZ-1 and GAZ-11, so at the Gorky automobile plant a lot of civilian cars were produced in the protective coating — before the great Patriotic war in the army there were over 10 thousand of these machines.
In late 1941, issue of “emok” Gas was stopped; it resumed only in 1945. Until 1948 the cars were produced in parallel with the “victories”, the serial production of which began in July 1946.
Family car GAZ M-1
The creation at the Gorky automobile plant confortable and very modern (of course, for its time) car GAZ M-1 was the beginning of production on the basis of several modifications: pickups GAZ M-415 and GAZ-11-415, passenger car GAZ-11 (Phaeton with an index of “40” and a limousine with an index of 73) and all-wheel drive car of the raised passableness, the GAZ-61 (also with the codes “40” and “73”). The last three models were equipped with 6-cylinder engine GAZ-11.
All the cars are close both in design and in appearance. They have the same wings, lined with grooved rubber foot pegs, body (except Phaeton GAZ-11-40 truck GAZ-415). The same and enclosed in the metal frame windshields, which are hand-raised forward-upward with the rotary arm above the dashboard.
The middle part of the roof to save metal were sewn leatherette over wood frame. The spare wheel was attached to the rear of the car, outside, in a special metal case.
The only rear red lamp to the left side. The sidelights mounted on front wings, had a glazed white. Window glass was safe — type triplex. The only wiper blade is installed only on the left.
Technical characteristics of cars GAZ M-1
Inner frame Windows and the instrument panel is trimmed with simulated wood valuable species. On the panel on the left is the speedometer, right is the instrument of the ammeter, fuel gauge and pressure gauge indicating the pressure in the lubrication system of the engine. Interior and seats are covered with woolen cloth light brown or gray color.
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