One of the most popular Soviet postwar trucks became the GAZ-51 or, as it was called drivers, is “lawn”. Released in 1946, this 2.5-ton vehicle became the basis for many specialized vehicles — trucks, tractors, vans, tankers, cranes and buses. However, as time went on, and won the national love the truck gradually handed over their positions — the country needed a more powerful, higher gross weight and higher speed machine.
First of all, for a new truck it took a modern engine. The one that was fitted with “turf” — in-line, six-cylinder 70-horsepower, GAS-11 release 1940 could no longer meet the requirements for 4-ton trucks decades to come. The most promising way to increase its power and improve efficiency could be to increase the degree of compression of the combustible mixture in the cylinders of the engine, but the lack of a high-octane gasoline is not allowed to use this method.
Designers of Gas, taking advantage of the opening of the experts of the Institute of chemical physics, USSR Academy of Sciences, created the engine with torch-ignition the GAZ-51 F. the cylinders of the engine is supplied a lean mixture, which ignited a powerful torch that occurs during the combustion in the settling chamber of a small quantity of rich mixture. The emission into the combustion chamber of the cylinder of the hot gases has led to the creation of a particular turbulence structure, which was the avalanche activation of combustion. This process has helped to shift the threshold of detonation of gasoline A-66 and increase the compression ratio in the cylinders from 6.2 to 6.8, respectively, raising the horsepower from 70 to 85 HP With significantly improved dynamics of the truck and its efficiency.
Engine GAZ-51, f was produced from 1961 to 1966 and was discontinued because of an archaic pre-war concept of nizhnekayancha inline six-cylinder engine GAZ-11.
Change row “six” factory specialists began to design the V-shaped eight-cylinder engine similar to the one that was equipped with passenger GAZ-13 “Chaika” edition of 1959. However, for the new truck was created motor with a slightly smaller displacement (4,254 liters) and power (115 HP) in compliance with the terms of reference to develop the car. Interestingly, many of the components of the “eight” was the same as the engine “Volga” GAZ-21 — in particular, the “wet” cylinder liners and heads, pistons, connecting rods and many more. By the way, in the domestic science it was the first case of engine installations of this type on the truck.
When you create the power plant for the new truck was widely used aluminum alloys, which were manufactured main body parts — engine block, head, cover timing gears, oil pump housing, the actuator housing of the valve, pistons, intake pipe and hoses thermostat, which will significantly reduce the weight of the motor. Serial production of the engine was carried out Zavolzhsky motor factory (ZMZ).
The process of the formation of the new truck was surprisingly long. Initially, the factory produced the car that differed from the GAZ-51 is that cabin. Next, small series has released a modification to the engine with pre-chamber ignition GAS, 51 F. From 1964 and 1965 produced a GAZ-53 with capacity of 3 tons, and since 1965 has been deployed, the release of four tons of the base model GAZ-53 A.
It is interesting to note that from 1966 to 1978, produced long-wheelbase modification of the GAZ-52-OZ capacity 2.5 tons, and from 1975 to 1989 — and the rough terrains of the same capacity with inline six-cylinder 75-horsepower engine. Has become, in fact, an analogue of GAZ-51, GAZ-52-04 was designed for rural areas where operation of machines with /-shaped “eight” was difficult.
Development in the production of the new car GAZ-53A also was implemented gradually from 1964 to 1965 produced three-ton version of this truck, and in 1965 began production of the base car — four tons, long-wheelbase, eight-cylinder /a-line engine.
The chassis of the car GAZ-53A:
1—eight-cylinder V-engine ZMZ-53;
2—front leaf suspension;
6—the Central transmission brake;
8—the vacuum amplifier of brakes;
9— spring rear suspension;
10 -rear drive axle;
In General, truck GAZ-5ACROSS was a quite modern for that age truck with improved (compared to the GAZ-51) suspension, hypoid main gear, with the already mentioned eight-cylinder engine and comfortable and spacious all-metal cab with panoramic windshield. Unlike previous models, the cabin had heating appliance with a fan providing airflow windshield wiper vacuum actuator working from a special pump, along with rotary vents and drop glass on the doors. In addition, the car had a new four-speed transmission with synchromesh on third and fourth gear; her silence and durability achieved through the use of helical gears constant mesh on the second and third gear.
For the first time in the domestic automobile industry on a truck was used Cam differential rear axle, increasing traction and stability on bad or slippery roads. It has also improved the suspension of the truck due to a new method of fastening the ends of the springs with rubber cushions.