TRUCK GAZ-53A

TRUCK GAZ-53AOne of the most popular Soviet postwar trucks became the GAZ-51 or, as it was called drivers, is “lawn”. Released in 1946, this 2.5-ton vehicle became the basis for many specialized vehicles — trucks, tractors, vans, tankers, cranes and buses. However, as time went on, and won the national love the truck gradually handed over their positions — the country needed a more powerful, higher gross weight and higher speed machine.

First of all, for a new truck it took a modern engine. The one that was fitted with “turf” — in-line, six-cylinder 70-horsepower, GAS-11 release 1940 could no longer meet the requirements for 4-ton trucks decades to come. The most promising way to increase its power and improve efficiency could be to increase the degree of compression of the combustible mixture in the cylinders of the engine, but the lack of a high-octane gasoline is not allowed to use this method.

GAZ-51 AND the release in 1955. Based on the car since 1975 was produced trucks GAZ-52-04Designers of Gas, taking advantage of the opening of the experts of the Institute of chemical physics, USSR Academy of Sciences, created the engine with torch-ignition the GAZ-51 F. the cylinders of the engine is supplied a lean mixture, which ignited a powerful torch that occurs during the combustion in the settling chamber of a small quantity of rich mixture. The emission into the combustion chamber of the cylinder of the hot gases has led to the creation of a particular turbulence structure, which was the avalanche activation of combustion. This process has helped to shift the threshold of detonation of gasoline A-66 and increase the compression ratio in the cylinders from 6.2 to 6.8, respectively, raising the horsepower from 70 to 85 HP With significantly improved dynamics of the truck and its efficiency.

Engine GAZ-51, f was produced from 1961 to 1966 and was discontinued because of an archaic pre-war concept of nizhnekayancha inline six-cylinder engine GAZ-11.

Four tons of GAZ-53A of the release of the 1965Change row “six” factory specialists began to design the V-shaped eight-cylinder engine similar to the one that was equipped with passenger GAZ-13 “Chaika” edition of 1959. However, for the new truck was created motor with a slightly smaller displacement (4,254 liters) and power (115 HP) in compliance with the terms of reference to develop the car. Interestingly, many of the components of the “eight” was the same as the engine “Volga” GAZ-21 — in particular, the “wet” cylinder liners and heads, pistons, connecting rods and many more. By the way, in the domestic science it was the first case of engine installations of this type on the truck.

When you create the power plant for the new truck was widely used aluminum alloys, which were manufactured main body parts — engine block, head, cover timing gears, oil pump housing, the actuator housing of the valve, pistons, intake pipe and hoses thermostat, which will significantly reduce the weight of the motor. Serial production of the engine was carried out Zavolzhsky motor factory (ZMZ).

The process of the formation of the new truck was surprisingly long. Initially, the factory produced the car that differed from the GAZ-51 is that cabin. Next, small series has released a modification to the engine with pre-chamber ignition GAS, 51 F. From 1964 and 1965 produced a GAZ-53 with capacity of 3 tons, and since 1965 has been deployed, the release of four tons of the base model GAZ-53 A.

Basic dimensions of the truck GAZ-53A

It is interesting to note that from 1966 to 1978, produced long-wheelbase modification of the GAZ-52-OZ capacity 2.5 tons, and from 1975 to 1989 — and the rough terrains of the same capacity with inline six-cylinder 75-horsepower engine. Has become, in fact, an analogue of GAZ-51, GAZ-52-04 was designed for rural areas where operation of machines with /-shaped “eight” was difficult.

Development in the production of the new car GAZ-53A also was implemented gradually from 1964 to 1965 produced three-ton version of this truck, and in 1965 began production of the base car — four tons, long-wheelbase, eight-cylinder /a-line engine.

The chassis of the car GAZ-53A

 

The chassis of the car GAZ-53A:

1—eight-cylinder V-engine ZMZ-53;

2—front leaf suspension;

3—front axle;

4—clutch mechanism;

5—gear box;

6—the Central transmission brake;

7—driveline;

8—the vacuum amplifier of brakes;

9— spring rear suspension;

10 -rear drive axle;

11—frame vehicle;

12—steering.


In General, truck GAZ-5ACROSS was a quite modern for that age truck with improved (compared to the GAZ-51) suspension, hypoid main gear, with the already mentioned eight-cylinder engine and comfortable and spacious all-metal cab with panoramic windshield. Unlike previous models, the cabin had heating appliance with a fan providing airflow windshield wiper vacuum actuator working from a special pump, along with rotary vents and drop glass on the doors. In addition, the car had a new four-speed transmission with synchromesh on third and fourth gear; her silence and durability achieved through the use of helical gears constant mesh on the second and third gear.

For the first time in the domestic automobile industry on a truck was used Cam differential rear axle, increasing traction and stability on bad or slippery roads. It has also improved the suspension of the truck due to a new method of fastening the ends of the springs with rubber cushions.

THE DESIGN OF THE GAZ-53A

 

Steering apparatusThe car had a rigid frame with seven cross-beams. In the front part of the frame on two longitudinal semi-elliptic leaf springs were fixed forged steel front axle, the ends of which by means of pins joined the steering knuckles with axles. On the latter through the tapered roller bearings mounted on the wheel hubs. In the front suspension besides the springs included telescopic hydraulic shock absorbers.

Rear the frame was based on the beam axle through a pair of longitudinal semi-elliptic leaf springs connected to the frame through rubber cushions. In addition, the rear suspension had an additional spring-podreczniki, which together with the main springs were attached with ladders to the platforms side of the sleeves.

GAZ-52-04 with new facing the front of the cabinIn the rear of the frame mounted towing device with elastic rubber element. Spare wheel mounted on a hinged bracket on the left side of the frame.

The engine of the GAZ-5ACROSS with a working volume of 4.25 l at the diameter of the cylinders is 92 mm and the stroke of the pistons of 80 mm was developed power 115 HP at the engine speed of 3200 rpm (with limiter). The block-crankcase of the engine with two rows of cylinders of a V-shape with angle of 90 degree, cast aluminum alloy AL-4. At the bottom of the crankcase through the cork sealing gasket fixed pressed steel sump.The crane on the basis of the truck GAS-5ACROSS

Holes in the interior walls of the sections of the unit installed easily removable cast-iron wet cylinder liners. In the upper part of zapressovyvat insertion of corrosion resistant cast iron. Between the outer walls of the unit and the wall plug-in cartridges was a water cooling jacket of the motor.

The engine ZMZ-53On the upper surface of both sections of the unit through asbestos, grafitirovannye, the steel frame gasket set head aluminum alloy AL-4, fastened by nuts on the studs. The heads were poluchennogo combustion chamber type valve mechanism, and intake and exhaust channels. The spark plugs were on the side, in the holes in the heads.

The pistons are lightweight and made from high-silicon aluminum alloy; tapered piston skirt tin plated, oval profile with a non-through cuts. Each of the pistons has completed two compression and one oil ring.

The connecting rods with a rod of I-section was forged of the steel of 45G2; to the head of each zapressovyvat bronze bushings, and the lower head with steel-aluminum inserts supplied with a removable cover.

Patiparn crankshaft cast special cast iron and equipped with counterweights. Indigenous and connecting rod shaft journal is hollow. In the cheeks and necks of the shaft was drilled lubricating channels.

The car had a dry-plate clutch with the peripherally spaced springs and with mechanical operation include hinged in the floor of the pedal. The latter was fixed on the shaft mounted on the bracket, and that, in turn, is welded to the frame. An arm connected to the platen, with the help of an adjustable traction docked with the arm off the fork.Front axle and front suspension of the car GAZ-53A

GAZ-5ACROSS (GAS-5ЗФ) were completed with three-way four-speed gearbox with constant-mesh gears in second and third gear. The inclusion of third and fourth gears were produced by the synchronizer, and the second — gear clutch.

The rear drive axle of the truck consisted of a main transmission, differential and axle shafts mounted in the cast housing of ductile iron. Main gear with hypoid gearing, which provides improved smoothness of operation, increased strength of teeth and their high durability. Differential — bevel gear.

Leading axle — full floating. The flanges of the outer ends of the axles with the wheel hubs were connected by studs with nuts.

The controls and monitoring devices of the GAZ-53A

 

Controls and control devices of the GAZ-53A:

1 —main beam warning lamp lights;

2—ammeter;

3—a speedometer;

4—the index of temperature of a cooling liquid;

5—the switch of a wiper;

6—the switch of the fan of a heater;

7—clock;

8—crank the inner hatch of the heater;

9—door handle air flow units;

10—button manual control throttle valves of the carburetor;

11 —the ignition switch and the starter;

12—button circuit breaker;

13—warning lamp for turn signal indicator;

14—warning lamp oil-pressure indicator;

15—signal lamp high-beam headlamp;

16—signal indicator lamp battery charge;

17—signal indicator lamp overheating of the engine;

18—lamp switch of a plafond;

19—button choke control of the carburetor;

20—the switch of indexes of turns;

21 —horn button;

22—the steering wheel;

23—control knob grille;

24. the control handle of the hood lock;

25 pedal windshield washer pump;

26—foot light switch;

27—a coupling pedal;

28—the brake pedal;

29—shift lever;

30—pedal “gas”;

31 —brake lever.


The steering mechanism was performed in a pair of “globoid worm techgravy movie.” The last turn on two needle bearings, and steering shaft in the column on ball bearings. Carter of the steering mechanism was fixed with nuts and bolts on the left beam of the frame. Transverse thrust with wrapped on her bits with installed crackers, thrust bearings and springs connected with polusharie fingers on the steering levers supporting both fists. For the lubrication of swivel joints provided their grease fittings. The maximum steering angle was limited to adjusting bolts screwed into the steering knuckle arms.

Technical characteristics of the truck GAZ-53A:

Length, mm……………………………………………………………………………………………….6395

 

Width, mm……………………………………………………………………………………………2380

 

Height, mm……………………………………………………………………………………………..2270

 

Base mm………………………………………………………………………………………………….3700

 

Front/rear wheel track, mm…………………………………………………………………1630/1690

 

Clearance, mm……………………………………………………………………………………………..265

 

Self weight, kg…………………………………………………………………………….3250

 

Load capacity, kg……………………………………………………………………………..4000

 

Full weight, kg……………………………………………………………………………………..7400

 

Maximum speed, km/h……………………………………………………………………..80

 

Control fuel consumption at a speed of 30-40 km/h, l/100 km………………24

 

Dvigatel…………………………………………………………………………………………..3м3-53

 

The working volume, l……………………………………………………………………………………..4,25

 

Degree satia………………………………………………………………………………………….6,7

 

Maximum power, HP…………………………………………………………………….115

 

Fuel tank capacity, l………………………………………………………………………..90


 

Truck GAZ-5ACROSSIt should be noted that the GAZ-5ACROSS, GAS-52003 and GAZ-52-04 became the basis of dozens of various modifications on the basis of these trucks at Kurgan bus plant was about 28-seater buses KAVZ-685, at Saransk plant — dump trucks-SAZ and SAZ 3503-3504, at the Gorky plant of specialized cars — car-van GZSA-891, on the Circassian plant refrigeration engineering — car reefer 1АЧ, Arzamas communal machine building plant, the Grabovsky plant of specialized cars and the Volgograd plant of oil engineering, as well as many other enterprises — tank trucks for different purposes. In addition, on the basis of “gas” produced tractors, cranes, and refuse collection vehicles.Vehicle on the basis of the GAZ-5ACROSS

In 1984, the car underwent a thorough modernization and received a new designation — GAZ-53-12. The car was elevated up to 4.5 tonnes carrying capacity, improved fuel economy and increased up to 120 HP engine power, as well as several other facing the front of the cabin. In addition, were reinforced frame, rear axle beam, rear suspension and the base platform, which increased the mileage to overhaul up to 250 000 km.

The new generation of trucks GAZ-3307 was initiated in 1995. It is encouraging that the factory designers in developing the look of this truck thought of “lawn”, the most popular car of the 1950-ies and has brought his features to my new car. The story about this car in a future issue of the site “Modelstructure”.

TRUCK GAZ-53A

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