Be-30 – “AIR BUS” BERIEV

A passenger plane Be-30 was created at a difficult time for headed by Gurbanguly Believin design office time. The euphoria associated with the development of rocket technology led to the fact that the main customer in the face of the Ministry of defence has sharply reduced the development of new aviation technology in General and seaplanes in particular. The staff of the Taganrog machine-building plant (that then became known as OKB G. M. Beriev) had to look for the use of their forces and to try myself in new areas. It was decided to participate in the creation of machines to replace the mass, but by that time, already obsolete aircraft of local airlines An-2. This plane (the future of An-28) has also began to design at OKB O. K. Antonov.

Work on the new lightweight passenger aircraft short takeoff and landing Be-30 (the designation within OKB – product “P”) with two turboprop engines TVD-10 started under the leadership of G. M. Beriev in 1965
 
Required runway length for the new aircraft was estimated to be equal to 550 – 600 m. In this case it would be based on 95% of the airfields of the Soviet Union. In the first variant of the be-30 was recalled by the layout appeared much later “Gzhel”. “Highlight” of the project was the “spark” of the two turboprop installed in the nose of the plane and worked on one screw. However, later came to a more traditional pattern of a twin-engine cantilever monoplane with high wing. But also here has not done without innovations. Takeoff and landing performance of the be-30 had significantly improved the planned installation of transmission, linking the engine.
The design of this version of the aircraft was presented to the OKB in TSAGI in June 1965, the Conclusion of TSAGI, approved by the head of the Institute myashishev, was the following: “the Selected layout scheme and power setting of the aircraft, consisting of two turboprop engines, connected by a single transmission, is the most appropriate for light passenger aircraft for local lines that satisfy specific requirements for this aircraft (the length of the runway on the ground -180 – 200 m, cruising altitude up to 2000 m).”
 
The first prototype Be-30 prototype engines
The first prototype Be-30 prototype engines
 
Then the project was approved by the Scientific and technical Council of the Ministry of civil aviation. In the first quarter of 1966 was developed conceptual design, and in August, the mock-up Committee presented a preliminary layout of the be-30. On the technical task of the crew was to consist of one man, but the MGA has put forward the requirement about the included co-pilot. The project was redesigned to include a second cockpit equipment of the working place – by reducing the payload.
 
To end ground testing of the transmission plane decided not to install. Despite the fact that the layout provided for two working places in the cockpit, the first two pre-production cars were built in option for a pilot. In parallel with the construction of the prototype machine at the end of 1967, work began on an improved version of the be-30. It was planned to install new, more advanced equipment and to eliminate all revealed on the first car comments.
 
At the pilot plant design Bureau has built three prototype Be-30. Another glider gathered for static testing conducted in 1967.
 
Timely construction of prototypes of machines let a lag in the development of the TVD-10 (OKB experienced Omsk engine plant, chief designer V. A. Glushenkov) and small-sized special equipment. Full set of on-Board equipment installed on the third machine. Therefore was made a special layout of the cockpit.
 
Before the start of the flight test aircraft project was presented at the Exhibition of achievements of national economy in Moscow in March 1967, where he received a diploma.
 
The first prototype Be-30 metal layout engines (“working” theater-10 was not yet ready) was demonstrated unprecedented for its time, the exhibition of aircraft, dedicated to the 50th anniversary of Soviet power and on 8 -9 July 1967 just opened Moscow’s Domodedovo airport. It is symbolic that on the airfield of Domodedovo Be-30 and An-2 stood. “Thirty” in front and “corncob,” as the veteran, behind. When the exhibition ended, the be-30 on the train platform back to Taganrog.
 
In may 1968 the first flying prototype of the be-30 No. 01 (product “P”) has finally gotten a full-time engines and was transferred to the Ranks of the factory tests.
 
The first flight in the be-30 was factory airfield in Taganrog on 8 July 1968 In the air machine has raised the test pilot M. I. Mikhailov. In the same year he built another two prototypes of the aircraft. Machine No. 02 (“2P”) first flew on 10 December 1969 and No. 03 (“SP”) with dual controls and a full complement of small equipment ready for trials in April of the same year.
 
All three prototype cars had lower emergency hatch in the floor of the passenger cabin (which was absent from the aircraft experienced series). Escape through it was tested by the parachute test LII.
 
The be-30 was the last aircraft created under the direction of Georgy Mikhailovich Beriev, which was full of new ideas, but is let down by heart.
In October 1968, for health reasons he goes to work in the Scientific and technical Council of the Ministry of aircraft industry in Moscow. Chief designer and responsible head of the enterprise was a student and colleague G. M. Beriev – Alexei Konstantinov. Although favorite work had to part, but with the staff of the G. M. Beriev connection is not interrupted, especially a lot of attention with the fate of Be-30. But the main burden of the struggle for the serial production of “thirty” is, of course, rests on the shoulders of A. K. Konstantinov. Note that with the departure of Beriev the first “cracks” in relations with OKB O. K. Antonov, to this developing quite successfully and constructively.
 
However, problems are ahead, while future is Be-30 seemed successful and cloudless. After the completion of factory flight tests of OKB modified technical documentation, and on December 30, 1968 aircraft filed by the MHA on the joint state tests of the 1st stage. The test program completed by September 1, 1969, completing 203 of the flight.
 
Familiar with the aircraft, the Minister of civil aviation E. F. Loginov said: “the Plane is good, let us, brothers, come on test, I bought you a big series.” With the Minister in September 1969, followed by a joint decision of MHA and MEA on the launch of an experimental series of five Be-30 at the Taganrog aviation plant. G. Dimitrov.
From may 25 to June 10, 1969, Be-30 No. 03 (CCCP-48978) was screened at the Paris International air show at Le Bourget, spending on flights on the route Moscow -Vilnius – Berlin – Copenhagen – Amsterdam – Paris and back in 24 hours 03 minutes. Piloted aircraft test pilot YM Kupriyanov.
 
Weight of the perfection of the machine struck contemporaries. The structure of the aircraft found use lot latest by the time of technologies.
 
So, a large percentage of the airframe is the Be-30 was a sandwich panel with honeycomb core. Their wide use as progressive connections (glenvarna, riveted and glued and glued) are allowed to provide increased weight coefficient of the aircraft.
 
The use of monolithic extruded panels reduce the number of technological connections and the detachable part of the wing has improved the quality and reliability of the sealing of fuel tanks-compartments.
 
The use of adhesive joints in the nasal parts of the wing, fin and stabilizer reduced the amount of drilling and riveting work and improved the quality of the manufacture of aircraft. The role played by the fact that for saving the masses of designers generously awarded.
 
The first prototype Be-30 at the exhibition
The first prototype Be-30 at the exhibition “mosaeroshow-92”. After revision and replacement of engines РК6А-65V received the designation of the be-32K.
 
The second phase of joint state tests of the be-30 was completed by 30 March 1971, although the test was interrupted several times due to malfunctions of engines TVD-10 and improvements to their control system. Report him in the report stated: “to Recommend that the plane Be-30 into production after the modification according to the list № 1 and № 2”.
 
In 1970 construction began on a series of experimental to operational testing. On the experimental production of OKB in cooperation with the plant. Dimitrov to December 1970 was built five planes Be-30: serial numbers from number 01 “OS” No. 05 “OS”. Performance testing was conducted on three planes Be-30 prototype series from March to September 1971 Total flight time was 1191 h 41 min
 
Conducted joint flight tests: at high angles of attack, characterization of the cross, in conditions of natural icing, to test the airworthiness and others. Be-30 flew at temperatures up to +40° in Ashgabat and the Mar, up to -40° V – Kolpashevo and Novosibirsk. In Ventspils took off with the pebble runway to determine which modes, if the screws revers pebbles will break the blades. The results of tests of OKB modified aircraft be-30 No. 01 “OS” and # 05 “OS”, with significantly improved technical and economic characteristics. Modified Be-30 theater-10 was given the index of the be-32.
 
Operational testing Be-30 in Bykovsky squadron showed the reliability and safety of their operation. Based in Bykovo airport, the aircraft performed the technical flight to many cities of the USSR, the flights were carried out both day and night. A day plaque ranged from 6 to 14 h In the process of testing of the plane Be-30-failure of the material almost was not.
 
In General, the operating experience Be-30/32 at various airports of the Baltic States, Central Asia, Ukraine, the middle zone of the RSFSR, Siberia and other areas at temperatures ranging from +45 to -40°C showed high reliability and ease of maintenance. Performed more than 4000 flight with a touch of around 3000 hours On one of the planes carried out the 1500 landings.
 
High flying-technical characteristics promised Be-30 cloudless career. But his fate intervened in high politics. To maintain the Czechoslovak aircraft industry in the framework of the Council for mutual economic assistance (CMEA), a decision was taken about the mass supply of Soviet aircraft L-410 “Turbolet”.
 
In this regard, the Council of Ministers of the USSR in 1972, adopted the decision on the termination of further works on the be-30. However, work on the variant of the be-32 was still going on.
 
The aircraft Beriev be-32 in the period from October 1972 to July 1974 he held a certification (in modern terms) the tests showed that the be-32 is consistent with the national “Standards of airworthiness of civil aircraft”.
 
February 13, 1976, the birthday of G. M. Beriev (but dedicated, in the spirit of the time, the next Congress of the CPSU) on the plane Be-32 test pilot E. A. Lakhmostov set a new record climb to a height of 3000 m (24,6 2 min.) and 6,000 m (5 min. 17,8 C), thereby breaking the previous American achievements on the aircraft P-3 “Orion”. However, on the request to give the instruction to send the materials on records in FAI, Minister of aviation industry P. V. Dementev said briefly: “I am against”. As a result, the records Be-32 count only as a Union, and in the meantime the Americans had their achievements improve.
 
Aircraft of the be-32K
The aircraft Beriev be-32K
 
Aircraft of the be-32K
 
On one of the prototypes of the be-30 (“2P”) for the first time in the Soviet Union was installed transmission connecting the motor installation. It was envisaged in the preliminary draft, however, testing was delayed, and only after 500 hours of work on the stand mechanism in December 1972 established on the plane and checked the air. Only completed about 50 flights.
 
The test results showed that the installation of the transmission to reduce the required length of the runway and 450 meters, greatly simplifies the piloting of the aircraft with engine failures on takeoff and in flight. However, its application raised a number of technical problems, in particular related to the selection of bearings with the necessary parameters.
 
All test results showed that the be-32 is consistent with the tactical and technical requirements issued by MHA to the aircraft of this class. The Taganrog car received the highest rating for flight crews and was recommended to serial production. All production and technical documentation, as does the manufacturing process have already been utilized in the construction of an experimental series.
 
Aircraft of the be-32K
The aircraft Beriev be-32K:
 
1 – Radome weather radar; 2 – the hatch of the battery compartment; 3 – nose landing gear; 4 – blade propeller Hartzel HC-Е4Р ЗВХ1; 5 – exhaust pipe of the engine; 6 – nacelle engine РК6А-65V; 7 – main landing gear with wheel size 720×320 mm; 8 – the front door; 9 – antenna coherent radio; 10 – caudal heel; 11 – Aileron; 12 – trimmer Aileron; 13 – flaps; 14 – steering wheel height; 15 – trimmer of the Elevator; 16 – rudder; 17 trimmer rudder; 18 – escape hatch

 
Performance characteristics of the be-32K
 
But, though all was ready, the plane in the series and missed. This was due to many reasons, including political decision about the purchase of a Czechoslovak L-410, the change of leadership of the Ministry of civil aviation (pleased with the plane of the Minister of civil aviation E. F. Loginov was replaced by Boris Bugaev), the lack of OKB “their” production plant. Competitor Be-32, An-28, though lost to him in all respects, however, the series has gone. His role was played by established by that time relations with Polish colleagues and powerful “lobby” in the Ministry, in the person of the head of the 6th Main Department map of A. V. Bolbot, a native of Antonov design Bureau.
 
Unfortunately, after closing the program Be-32 in 1976 was not accepted any decisions on preservation of the remaining machines, and gradually dismantled all who have any such desire. By the end of the 1980’s “alive” was left with only two experienced plane series No. 01 “OS” (USSR-67205), miraculously preserved on the factory airfield in Taganrog and subsequently turned into the be-32, and No. 05 “OS” (CCCP-67209), in 1983, became the exhibit of the Museum in Monino near Moscow. One of experienced the be-30 was used as a textbook in the Taganrog aviation College, but so far, he has not “survived”.
 
It seemed that after the quiet closing of the program by officials of the Ministry of civil aviation and mass order of Czech planes L-410 history established in Taganrog car ended forever. But in the early 1990s, the plane of local air-lines of the be-32 has experienced a rebirth.
 
In the country, new times, times “conversions” and Beriev. G. M. Beriev remembered his long ago built the plane, because the demand for machines of this class there, and the Park operated in Russia L-410 (manufactured in the Czech Republic, passed to the payment for your product exclusively in freely convertible currency) began to experience serious difficulties in operation. First of all, it concerned the supply of spare parts and renewal of the resource.
 
By this time the enterprise miraculously survived one of the be-32, 17 years stood under the open sky on the outskirts of the factory airfield. This machine pilot series No. 01 “OS” decided in 1992 and 1993, to restore, to convert administrative and business aircraft and then conduct ground and flight tests.
 
When Be-32 put under current, then, surprisingly, everything was included and everything worked. Making sure the equipment is mainly preserved, began to deal with the state of the airframe. The glider in some places revealed the detachment of the cell structures, some damage to paint finish and minor corrosion. But in General, the inspection result was encouraging. The airframe can be restored easily, maintaining its strength.
 
The aircraft was equipped with two engines TVD-10B with a capacity of 1025 HP with reversing propellers AB-24АН (such engines are installed on the An-28). In the center put four soft fuel tank capacity 300 litres. Radically updated avionics. Some parts even had to be removed from the be-32, No. 05 “OS” in Monino. Fortunately, preserved a full set of technical documentation for the prototype that facilitated the recovery of the aircraft.
 
The first flight with a duration of 24 minutes restored the be-32 was completed on 12 may 1993 with a crew of test-pilot V. P. Dem and mechanic E. V. Vedel. In all of the tests in may 1993 the be-32 has performed 17 flights with a touch of 18 hours. In the testing report it was noted that the main performance characteristics of repaired Be-32 almost match the characteristics obtained on the state tests in 1971
 
Initially, the construction of the be-32 was planned to deploy at the Taganrog aviation plant. G. Dimitrov. Tank gave the plant design documentation. However, due to the difficult financial situation of the work at the serial production never started.
 
Be-32 (with registration RA-67205) from 5 to 23 July 1993 was shown at the 40th international aerospace salon “Paris air Show Le Bourget 93” making a flight on the route Taganrog – Kiev – Rzeszow (Poland) -Vienna – Stuttgart – Paris. The car was piloted by test pilot V. P. Demia-ray and Navigator M. G. Andreev.
 
Reemerging after 24 years in Le Bourget, the “new old” Be-32 attracted a lively interest, showing that he not only outdated, but also to compete with the latest cars in its class. From 31 August to 5 September 1993 the plane with the amphibious A-40 and be-12P was exhibited at mosaeroshow in Zhukovsky.
 
In November 1993 the be-32 was represented at the air show Dubai-93. Because the route Taganrog – Mineralnye Vody -Krasnovodsk – Tehran – Dubai lay over the mountains and the sea, the flight was preparing carefully. In addition on Board of the aircraft established life raft PSN-6АП and oxygen equipment for flight in unpressurized cabin at high altitudes. Immediately before departure for the exhibition was carried out with three flight training on a special profile.
 
The organizers of the air show Dubai-93 initially took the be-32 the role of a static exhibit. Therefore, the head of the delegation tand N.. Lavro had to use all his diplomatic skills (supported by gifts) to still obtain permission for demonstration flights. In total, the exhibition period from 5 to 11 November, the car completed one of the training, one goal and three demonstration flight.
 
As in Le Bourget, Be-32 was not deprived of the attention of specialists and visitors, and the company “the Moscow airlines” even said he has ordered 50 of these aircraft (though before committing real money the case, unfortunately, never came).
 
Return flight on 12 November decided to run for one day without overnight stay on the route Dubai – Tehran – Mineralnye Vody – Taganrog. The flight was successfully completed, although the distance between Tehran and Mineral Waters was slightly less than the maximum range of flight of the be-32. In addition, because of the emergence in the North Caucasus “independent Republic of Ichkeria” during the flight had to climb to a level of 6800 m.
 
The third copy of the be-32 experienced a series of engines TVD-10
The third copy of the be-32 experienced a series of engines TVD-10
 
The layout of the passenger version of the be-32
The layout of the passenger version of the be-32
 
In Taganrog at the post-flight inspection of the machine was discovered curled-STI and nicks on the individual blades of the first stage compressor of the left engine. The reason for these injuries could be entering the engine intake snow with ice at the airport of Mineral Waters or solid object (small stone) when caroliana of the aircraft at its Parking lot at the airport Taganrog Yuzhny. As a result, the engine had to be closed, dismantled and sent for final fault detection and repair in Omsk ICD. The situation was complicated by the fact that the TVD-10B is already removed from production, and so deal with it nobody really wanted. There was a real threat of work stoppage in the Be-32 from-for lack of a suitable engine.
 
Here as is impossible by the way had the offer of the company Pratt & Whitney on the use of the aircraft engines of canadian development. This decision was formalized by the Protocol of intentions, signed in Moscow during the exhibition “Engines-94”. All work on the be-32 from the theater-10 was stopped, and an instance of RA-67205 was converted into a variant with engines РК6А-65V and received the designation of the be-32K.
 
The new engines had a number of advantages over turboprop-10. First of all, they had a high resource -6000 h, high capacity 1100 L. E., lower fuel consumption and less noise.
 
Firm Pratt & Whitney and the Saint-Petersburg state unitary enterprise “Plant them. V. Ya. Klimova” created a joint venture Pratt & Whitney/Klimov and, in the future, was going to get a certificate and start production of the engine РК6А-65V in Russia, thus turning it into a domestic product. Interested in advertising their engines Canadians in 1994 provided tend to install on the be-32K two engines РК6А-65V on favorable terms.
 
Work on replacing the engine demanded serious expenses, as this would have to redo the nacelles and the equipment of the power plant, to develop a new system of power supply AC and DC and to Refine the hydraulic system.
The deployment of full-scale retrofitting of the aircraft were hampered by a lack of the necessary financial means. The money came in the summer of 1995, just before the beginning of the International aerospace salon “MAX-95” in Zhukovsky. Working around the clock, experienced production tank managed to cope with the challenge and finish the conversion Be-32 in record time – a month and a half.
 
P-32 has now been equipped with two turboprop РК6А-65V firm Pratt & Whitney/Klimov four-mi propellers HC-Е4А/ Е10950К diameter of 2.79 meters manufactured by Hartzel (USA). Launch engines – electrical, from an onboard battery or a ground source. In addition, the power source of the hydraulic system НС74-1 was replaced by РМР054-026-02 manufactured by AVEH (Germany), working on direct current.
 
In the air-upgraded machine raised test pilot G. G. Kalyuzhny, and after a week Be-32K (with the same registration RA-67205) was successfully demonstrated at “Max-95”.
 
From 10 to 20 may 1996, the car participated in the International salon of aviation technology ILA-96 in Berlin, then in the “Max-97”, as well as in International exhibition on hydroaviation “Gelendzhik 96 and 98 Gelendzhik”. Demonstration of the capabilities of the be-32K in comparison with the latest foreign cars of a class of MVL showed that the plane is in line with the best of them. Trial operation of the be-32K confirmed his high flying-technical and operational characteristics.
 
Like its predecessors, Be-32K in addition to the basic passenger version, designed to carry 19 passengers, and could be implemented in the following modifications:
 
administrative – 7 passengers;
 
sanitary and accommodates up to 6 stretchers with patients up to 10 seats and one seat for a medical attendant;
 
airborne for training of paratroopers and airdrop 15 people;
 
transport the maximum payload of 1900 kg, the airplane is equipped with removable conveyor and hoist;
 
the patrol with the crew of 4 people;
 
staff.
 
It was possibly also the use of aircraft in forest protection option, to perform environmental monitoring and as a training machine. In addition, the be-32K would be mounted on the ski or float landing gear.
 
A machine could be converted from one variant to another by the operating organization, in addition to patrol pereonals in the factory.
 
On the basis of the be-32K, on the technical task agreed with the command of border troops, was developed in the project patrol aircraft be-32ПВ (1994) for state border guard and patrol service in areas adjacent to the coast and marine areas in a month and a half.
 
Be-32K
 
P-32 has now been equipped with two turboprop РК6А-65V firm Pratt & Whitney/Klimov four-mi propellers HC-Е4А/ Е10950К diameter of 2.79 meters manufactured by Hartzel (USA). Launch engines – electrical, from an onboard battery or a ground source. In addition, the power source of the hydraulic system НС74-1 was replaced by РМР054-026-02 manufactured by AVEH (Germany), working on direct current.
 
In the air-upgraded machine raised test pilot G. G. Kalyuzhny, and after a week Be-32K (with the same registration RA-67205) was successfully demonstrated at “Max-95”.
 
From 10 to 20 may 1996, the car participated in the International salon of aviation technology ILA-96 in Berlin, then in the “Max-97”, as well as in International exhibition on hydroaviation “Gelendzhik 96 and 98 Gelendzhik”. Demonstration of the capabilities of the be-32K in comparison with the latest foreign cars of a class of MVL showed that the plane is in line with the best of them. Trial operation of the be-32K confirmed his high flying-technical and operational characteristics.
 
Like its predecessors, Be-32K in addition to the basic passenger version, designed to carry 19 passengers, and could be implemented in the following modifications:
 
administrative – 7 passengers;
 
sanitary and accommodates up to 6 stretchers with patients up to 10 seats and one seat for a medical attendant;
 
airborne for training of paratroopers and airdrop 15 people;
 
transport the maximum payload of 1900 kg, the airplane is equipped with removable conveyor and hoist;
 
the patrol with the crew of 4 people;
 
staff.
 
It was possibly also the use of aircraft in forest protection option, to perform environmental monitoring and as a training machine. In addition, the be-32K would be mounted on the ski or float landing gear.
 
A machine could be converted from one variant to another by the operating organization, in addition to patrol pereonals in the factory.
 
On the basis of the be-32K, on the technical task agreed with the command of border troops, was developed in the project patrol aircraft be-32ПВ (1994) for state border guard and patrol service in areas adjacent to the coast and marine areas,
 
and in high latitudes. From basic passenger Be-32K, he was distinguished by the presence of special equipment (thermal imager, camera, gun, extra radio stations) and the possibility of a suspension under the wing weapons (12.7 mm machine gun or various bombs).
 
Analysis of the domestic aviation market, the prospects for changes in the volume of traffic and the tendency to write off old Park of planes of the local lines, especially the An-28 and L-410 showed that the expected large demand for multi-purpose transport aircraft for regional airlines short and medium range. The new machines must be robust and be able to fly from unprepared airfields ground.
 
Therefore, development of the be-32 was continued. Decided canadian engines РК6А-65B replace domestic VK-1500, created by the Russian state unitary enterprise “Plant them. V. Ya. Klimova” and Ukrainian JSC “Motor Sich”.
 
But in order to increase the competitiveness of the aircraft in the market, only a replacement of the engine did not stop, deciding to hold its deep modernization. Since the most economical modes of the VK-1500 engine has at high altitudes, the cabin of the new aircraft made airtight.
 
The project of the modernized machine, designated Be-132МК was developed in 2001, the Aircraft was designed to carry 26 passengers in a pressurized cabin on regional routes day and night, in VFR and IFR weather conditions.
 
Aerodynamic design of the be-132МК was the development of the scheme Be-32K – high with a wing of medium aspect ratio, tricycle retractable landing gear with nose wheel and two turboprop engines VK-1500П joint Russian-Ukrainian production.
 
However, the project Be-132МК has not been implemented in the metal, and the perfection of the be-32K has gone the way of modernization of the airframe and aircraft systems for the certification of the machine by modern standards of airworthiness. Upgraded and certified aircraft received index of the be-32KM.
 
The be-32KM will differ from the basic Be-32K modified design that meets the requirements AP-23, and applying it to the newest alloys, and composite materials and advanced avionics. The upgrades will increase the weight coefficient of the aircraft, improve aircraft performance characteristics that will make it competitive with modern foreign analogues.
 
When upgrading the geometry of the airframe and aerodynamic configuration will be mostly retained. This will reduce the timing of the start of serial production due to the reduction of the amount of research and development work.
 
In some basic flight characteristics (range, load, cruise speed) Be-32KM meets the requirements of civil aviation requirements on aircraft of this dimension, with transport capabilities will be comparable with foreign analogues and are superior to the existing An-28 and L-410УВП-E.
 
Primary, the passenger version designed to carry 19 passengers, the administrative version of the aircraft carrying 7 passengers. The salon is easily rearranged in the cargo compartment. It is possible to use the be-32KM in sanitary and patrol variants. Chassis provides aircraft operation from unpaved airfields with the strength of the soil to 3.5 kgf/cm2.
 
Further modernization of the aircraft provides for the production of more parts of the airframe made of composite materials.
ZABLOTSKY A. A. SALNIKOV

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