EAGLET, HAVE NOT HAD TIME TO GROW UP

EAGLET, HAVE NOT HAD TIME TO GROW UPat the beginning of last century, the pilots noticed that the landing of the aircraft when the height was commensurate with the chord of his wing, there is an additional lifting force, and became more volatile. “The nature of The” additional forces did not understand but came up with the name: “airbag”. Later, after the emergence of the theory of inductive resistance with this phenomenon understood, and it received a scientific classification: “proximity Effect of the earth.” Subsequently, this effect is divided into two components: dynamic air cushion that is created due to the inhibition of air flow under the unit and its supporting surface, and the effect of ground proximity, which is tied exclusively to decrease the inductive component of the aerodynamic drag of the wing.

Additional lift (dynamic air cushion) and a lower inductive reactance increase aerodynamic efficiency (the ratio of the coefficients of lift and drag), and therefore, the range and payload of the aircraft. In the Soviet Union, one of the enthusiasts of the flying vessels was the R. E. Alekseev. His experiments on self-propelled models are pretty quickly convinced the military of the advantages of a new class of aircraft.
 
In 1964, Central design Bureau for hydrofoil (CKB po SPK) started to create a transport and assault wig T-1 (project 904) weighing 105 tons, received at the beginning of the 1970s marking “the Eaglet”. It was preceded by a double self-propelled model SM-6 takeoff weight of about 26 500 kg. Its development began in the fall of 1969, and the launching took place in 1971
 
Under the scheme SM-6 was more like a plane: low wing, T-tail. But there were important differences. So, two turbojet engine (TRD) was located inside the bow of the hull, on the upper surface which were their air intakes, significantly lowered the probability of hitting the engines sea water. Propulsion turboprop engine (TVD) placed on top of the keel.
As follows from published materials, as engines destined for blowing under the wing and acceleration of the apparatus, was used a couple of NK-8-4K (Maritime modification of double-circuit turbojet engines, developed for the aircraft Il-62) with a total thrust 21 000 kgs. A similar powerplant was used in “Eaglet”, which was almost four times heavier than CM-6. To place such engines with a diameter of about five feet into the narrow bow of the self-propelled models was not possible. Most likely, as the starter motors used polutoratonny AI-25 turbofan engines with a diameter of 820 mm from the plane the Yak-40.
 
Winged
 
Ekranoplan “Orlyonok”
 
In addition, to facilitate the device off and reduce loads on the body during landing SM-6 at the agitated surface of the waters provided gidroliznaya device, subsequently used on “the eagle”.
 
Behind the nasal TRD was the cabin crew While the pilots were located in a row.
 
On top of the keel SM-6 placed main turboprop engine AI-24P with a propeller AV-72 with a diameter of 3.9 meters (in the media “walks” the information on the engine AI-20, which is not true). When this gas stream TVD was directed upwards, reducing its equivalent power — up to 2467 HP on the shaft.
 
After a self-propelled model was built her glider SM-6A for static tests.
 
The first phase of testing of SM-6, held on the Volga in Chkalovsk (Gorky region) was completed in 1971, and the following year the car was sent back for revision. In addition to the main hydrolyze mounted bow. Since the motion of the ekranoplan on the water surface even with a little excitement occurred as on a washboard, then both skis equipped with cushioning devices (LAU), and in 1974, wheel bearings, allows you to roll out not only the slip (hydropack), but also on unequipped shore
 
In the autumn of 1974 testing of SM-6 continued in the Caspian sea. The final shape corresponding to transport the winged, self-propelled model purchased in 1977, after equipping it with automatic control system and radioisotope altimeter “Seliger”.
 
This allowed the fall of that year to begin the final phase of flight research. Since the CM-6 was an experimental machine, it was made only short flights at speeds up to 270 km/h at a height of about two meters.
 
CM-6 was used for research until the late 1980s, and he subsequently took pride of place on the pedestal in the Caspian.
 
The world’s first transport ekranoplan “Orlyonok” was launched in the summer of 1972 the Unit was designed for quick transportation of troops, weapons and other equipment, operated by the Navy, including the BTR-80 and PT-76 amphibious tanks in the cargo hold with a length 21, a height of 3.2 and a width of 3 meters (according to other sources 28, 4.5 and 3.4 meters, respectively). Download of the ekranoplan was carried out via a flip-side heavy bow, where the turbojet engines NK-8-4K, cockpit and numerous equipment. It was not the best technical solution because it bend different pipes, electrical cables, complicated wiring system engine control NK-12МК and a wig in General. But I guess there was no other way.
 
Winged
 
Winged
 
Winged “Eaglet”:
 
1 —fairing antenna for radar navigation; 2 —the engine air intakes of jet NK-8-4K; 3 —lateral sKey; 4 —wing; 5 —hanging the Aileron; 6 —flap; 7 —stabilizer; 8 —the Elevator; 9 —sustainer engine NK-12МК; 10 —aerodynamic rudder; 11 —Kiel; 12 —window; 13 —front door; 14 —fairing antenna search radar; 15 —machine gun “Utes”; 16 —cabin crew; 17 —rotary nozzle of the engine boost 18 —wheel nose landing gear

 
The ekranoplan is equipped with two starter-booster double-circuit turbojet engine NK-8-4K (subject to a replacement for the NK-87) and one marching TVD NK-12МК air coaxial rotors of AV-90. Highly efficient and reliable NDT-12МК created over fifty years ago for the Intercontinental bomber Tu-95, despite the high noise level that most closely suited for such devices. The engine NK-8-4K, equipped with rotating nozzles, used to create an air cushion and to disperse the machine to cruising speed. As in the SM-6, for the reduction of drag and protection against sea water intake devices turbofan engines NK-8-4K very well hidden in the contours of the bow of the hull.
 
In addition, the “Orlenok” has the auxiliary power unit TA-6A, required to run the engines NK-8-4 and NC-12МК.
 
To reduce the shock loads on landing modes used hydrolyze as the simplest deflected flaps with a wheeled chassis for movement on the slipway and coastal paths with an artificial surface.
 
Estimate the weight impact of the airplane useful load (payload, fuel and crew) shows that it does not exceed 27%. For the transport unit is not enough.
 
Except for a main mode near the water surface, the “Eaglet” was able to fly away from the screen like a regular plane. But the maximum value of the aerodynamic quality while significantly smaller, which directly affects the range.
 
On the “eagle” provided two radar stations. Surveillance radar is located on top of the housing, and the other for scanning the shore line, — in the bow. This established all-weather and kruglosutochno application.
 
Stripping of the landing area and protect the machine from the enemy intended a double-barreled machine gun “Utes” 12.7 mm placed in a deck installation with a circular firing.
First flight of the prototype of the “Orlenok” was held in 1972 on one of the tributaries of the Volga river, after which it, under the guise of the Tu-134 was loaded on a barge and transported to a naval base in the Caspian (Caspian sea coast), where he passed the main factory testing.
 
According to the classification of those years “Eaglet” ekranolyot was capable of flying as close to the interface of two media and away from its borders. Much later, when it was introduced to international classification, these vessels became known as the wig.
 
Almost two years of flight tests of the prototype of the “Orlenok” was held without incident. But their completion is not enough main results of static tests of the case on the strength of the second instance of the device. Stationed in Kaspiisk, Deputy head of the Main Department of the Ministry of shipbuilding industry had urged Alekseev to continue the test (for a report on the implementation of the plan), and Rostislav E., persuaded, and signed the flight manifest required practicing take-offs and landings along and across the waves. Perhaps this decision was influenced by the fact that shortly before that in the “Orlenok” drove the whole delegation, which included about 40 passengers, headed by the first Deputy Minister of shipbuilding.
 
 
 
“little eagle” in flight
 
A quarter century later, former chief of TSKB po SPK flight test wig Ivanov said: “the eagle” went to sea, and at the moment of takeoff came off the tail case with the tail and the engine. Alekseev managed on working the nasal engine to bring mutilated the car in the Bay of the plant “Dagdizel” (about 40 km — Approx.ed.). The Commission recorded as the cause of the accident application in construction materials, are not designed to work under high loads.
 
But the use of these materials and insisted the technology research Institute of shipbuilding industry. (Strength) the test case airplane has broken in the same place.”
 
The main cause of the accident recognized a rather fragile alloy К482Т1 used in shipbuilding. On serial machines, this was replaced aluminiummagnesium alloy AMG-61. The strength characteristics of the AMG-61 was significantly lower than that of aluminum, in particular D-16T is widely used in aircraft. But to afford such luxury shipbuilders, apparently, could not.
 
Despite the accident on the prototype of the “Orlenok”, made several dozen flights, I managed to work out different modes of movement, including access to land, and confirm the estimated performance.
 
The first copy of the set series — marine amphibious wig MDE-150 (building number s-21), wherein the reinforced hull, built in 1977, the State tests of the “Orlenok” lasted almost two years and 3 November 1979, he was accepted into the Navy.
 
Transport the winged differed a good maneuverability. On the water, the radius of the circulation did not exceed 60 meters. In flight by executing a coordinated turn by rudder deflection, and Aileron, its radius was about 3000 meters.
 
In 1981, the customer passed the second serial winged MDE-155 (building number C-25) and in the following year — the third MDE-160 (C-26). The sailors wanted to have about 20 machines of this type. By the time Alekseyev as “unmanaged” chief designer was replaced by V. V. Sokolov.
 
Serial “eagles” arrived in 236 Bundesliga ships-wig, which is part of the brigade of landing ships of the red banner Caspian flotilla. The formation of this unit took place from November 1979 to December 1983, thus to control the ships of the new type prepared four pilots.
 
Trial operation of the wig was rather sluggish, the ships were often modified to work on gradually their operation and combat use. In 1984 was supposed to relocate the division to the Baltic, and on their own at altitudes up to 1500 meters. But it did not take place.
 
In late 1986 by order of the Minister of defence of the USSR 236th battalion of the ships-wig was renamed the 11th air group subordinate black sea fleet. The airfoil, as expected, found its niche in the structure of naval aviation.
 
Despite all rather subjective difficulties, airfoil participated in naval exercises, practicing landing reconnaissance and sabotage groups.
 
We must assume that institutions, the Navy and the Ministry of defense of the USSR conducted research related to the ways of the use of ships of this class. But we should not forget that the country since the mid-1980s, entered a period of unstable economic development, and politicians of all stripes were not to promising types of weapons. All these factors are negatively reflected on the state of the armed forces. In addition, 28 Aug 1992, s-21, piloted by commander major A. V. Korobkin and chief of staff of the air group major I. A. Hammarby, in the fifth minute of the flight when turning, on memoirs of participants of those events, was “fail”. Experienced marine pilot Korobkin intuitively turned the machine into a climb. “The eagle” flew about 40 meters, lost speed and crashed into the water, jumped up, and hit again. From bumps come off the horizontal tail, collapsed, covering the tail was damaged and the bow of the hull.
 
Through the open (for technical reasons) the hatches of the main deck into the Cabinet began to enter the water. In the end, the disaster claimed the life of the onboard technician senior warrant officer A. Baratova. The other nine people aboard, despite the injuries, escaped through a side window of the front cockpit on the wing. At the same time the water dropped three life raft, two of them opened up and drowned. The third opened, but the wave struck on a pin of the antenna…
 
However, nine people survived and eleven hours on Board the ship was taken to hospital with various injuries.
 
As for the “Eaglet”, the storm took from the crash site more than a hundred kilometers. Since the salvage company for the evacuation airplane have requested a lot of money, it did blew up.
 
The results of the work of the emergency Commission still has not announced, but it is known that the pilot of the machine is not turned on the automatic control system, which may have led to the tragedy.
 
After this incident, the wig became immobilized, and only in late 1993, one of them (MED-160) resulted in flying condition for display of the American delegation. With the collapse of the Soviet Union stopped the funding of the project, and past overhaul resources are not allowed to go to the “Eaglets” in the sea. Finally the fate of the wig was resolved at the end of March 1998, when by order of the commander of the Navy”s two remaining ships took off. Gone are the ship, capable to solve landing problems, which are unsustainable neither the courts nor the planes and hovercrafts was significantly inferior to the ships Alekseeva.
 
One “Eaglet”, MED-160, in June 2007, the barge was brought to Moscow at the Khimki reservoir, where he stood on eternal Parking, and the remaining machines without any prospects of rot in the Caspian.
 
For aircrew training wig was created double unit “swift” and the serial version of the “Strizh-M” with two piston engines.
 
When the country began the transfer of enterprises of the military-industrial complex to civilian production, “Eaglet” and “Rescuer”, tried to adapt for rescue operations at sea. In particular, it was proposed to transform the most lifting aircraft in the world An-225 “Mriya” in vehicle “Orlyonok”. Such coupling allowed to conduct operations in any waters of the oceans, and as such, both machines had no equal, only lacked the main thing — the international system of salvation on the water. Efforts of Russia and Ukraine (for the implementation of proposals for the recovery system “Eaglet” — “Mriya”) was not enough.
 
There were offers on creation of the passenger variant of the landing vehicle “eagle-P”, which is quite realistic. According to one of the avenues, a passenger superherofan could carry up to 20 tons of commercial cargo or, according to the developers, from 150 to 200 passengers at a distance of 1500 km At the same time, the calculation shows that the cabin length 28 and a width of 3.4 meters in economy class, 170 passenger seats (five in a row with passage width 400 mm) will be placed. Limit the range of the “Orlenok”, again according to advertising data, does not exceed 3,000 km. Its seaworthiness has reached 5 points at wave height of 2.5 to 3 meters. Unlike war machine, the passenger airplane was supposed to match turbofan engine boost-NK-87 thrust of 13 000 kgs each.
In 2002, the international Maritime organization adopted a special resolution of the Committee of safety at sea, approved interim guidance on the airfoil. There was a slip of the tongue and General requirements, reflecting, in particular, issues of transport security.
 
In consultation with ICAO, the international Maritime organization came to the understanding that airfoil located in the intermediate niche between aircraft and marine vessels, the motion shall fully comply with such requirements of Maritime security, as a discrepancy.
 
As a result, in the international regulations for preventing collisions has been amended. The Ministry of industry and trade in 2002, it was proposed to include the wig in the Federal target program (FTP) for the development of civil marine equipment, which contains a section “high-Speed passenger vessels”.
 
As for the wig for military purposes, in the fall of 2002 on a press-conferences the chief observer of the 1st TSNII for airfoil V. Denisov said that the Navy for action on the ocean require large wig. For the Caspian sea the minimum size can be considered a 100-ton winged “Eaglet” with a utilization up to 80% of the days in the year.
 
Then Denisov noted that investment and industrial group came to the conclusion that the larger the wig, the better and easier to manage. Regarding the basic requirements for prospective wig, Denisov said that the deployment of the device should not be tied to the airfield, and its weight should be around 50 tons. In addition, one of the requirements of this wig should be autonomy. It needs to be big enough to drop a boarding team to have a certain service.
 
In the opinion of the 1st TSNII initially it is necessary to explore possible areas of exploitation wig; to determine what tasks they need to decide; to define requirements and develop technical tasks in which you must define and model the use of the wig to develop tactical mission
 
However, until now no progress in this direction is not done, stopped the discussions about the need to create a wig.
 
Brief technical description
 
The winged aircraft made according to the scheme “tandem”, located on the tail of the rear wing.
 
Body (fuselage) wig length is about 45 m, width 4.8 x 5.2 m semi-monocoque design. For loading and unloading of combat equipment and personnel of the troops of the hinged nose of the body rotated to the right, opening the doorway of the cargo compartment. For entry and exit of the crew with two doors located on the sides of the hull above the wing. Emergency evacuation of the airplane through a hatch on the roof of the cockpit.
 
Wing — desethylamiodarone, caisson structure by elongation of 3.26. The caissons placed fuel tanks. At the ends of the bearing surface has a displacement Group. Along the trailing edge, is located five sections of the flaps and drooping ailerons. Along the front edge of the bottom surface of the wing (closer to the ends) are special pads that contribute to the pressure increase under the wing at takeoff and prevent the flow of gas jets podyemnaya engines abroad bearing surface. Deflection angles: ailerons hanging — from 10 degrees up to 42 degrees down flaps on the front wing of 70 degrees. Afloat wing partially submerged in the water.
 
The tailplane is a T-shaped. Vertical tail consists of a fin made in one piece with the housing unit, and two-piece rudder, horizontal stabilizer and of the four elevators.
 
wig master data
 
Basic data wig
 
Chassis — retractable, includes two hydrolyze for takeoff and landing on water and castors. Front gidroliza located under the bow part of the hull, and the main — in the heart of the center of mass. Hydrolyze Both have a damping device.
 
Chassis, designed for movement on land, includes rotary nose strut with two wheels and main landing with ten wheels on independent suspensions. Wheel non-braking.
 
Cleaning the nose is in the front niche of the body, and main landing — Bay, partially closing hydrolyze.
 
The main structural material of the airframe is aluminum alloy AMG-61. In the separate units and aggregates are applied steel and composite materials. Protecting the airframe from corrosion — electrochemical coating with appropriate paint.
 
The control system of wig — hard, with irreversible hydraulic actuators. The production and cleaning of flaps and landing gear are also made with a hydraulic system. Piloting of the machine is possible both in manual and in automatic mode.
 
Navigation system includes a navigation radar located in the nose of the hull, and the review radar. The search radar antenna located in the fairing on the pylon on the top of the case for machine-gun.
 
The wig has a full range of aviation and ship navigation lights. In the forepeak is acinonychinae device. The anchor is retracted into the hawse — hole in the fore part of the body. On Board the airplane, there are inflatable life rafts and inflatable motor boats.
 
Armament includes installation with dual machine gun “Utes” 12.7 mm. If necessary, you can use his gun crew and paratroopers.
 
The crew of six men: commander, the second pilot, mechanic, Navigator, radio operator and gunner. When transporting troops in the crew also have two technicians.

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