EARLY FIGHTERS D. P. GRIGOROVICHThe car has received the designation IL-400. This first domestic fighter created after the revolution, aroused great interest from other designers, in particular, of D. P. Grigorovich. Engineer A. A. Krylov later wrote: “after Learning about the work of the group Polikarpov, Grigorovich engineer called to his office I and engineer V. Kalinin and says do we want to start to design a fighter and what we stand for when we rightly should start the project of a fighter. We responded in full agreement. On the same day, Grigorovich and Kalinin started mapping plane. The next day (through the night) they brought me a scheme for aerodynamic calculation that was me done for the night. On the third day, we had prepared preliminary design and aerodynamic calculation, and submitted to the aviation Department along with the Polikarpov fighter. The plane was named And-1”.

The draft I-1 adopted in March, and in may 1923 the first fighter Grigorovich with the engine “liberty” with a capacity of 400 HP was already in the building as the official experimental work of GAS-1. The aircraft was a normal biplane of wooden construction and was characterized by the following parameters: wingspan 9.0 m, wing chord 1.4 m, length 7.5 m, empty weight – 1188 kg. the Engine was completely closed dural streamlined hood, the cooling system includes a cylindrical plate radiators “Lumbly” installed between the landing gear.
Work on creation of the fighter of Polikarpov and Grigorovich from the beginning acquired the character of an undeclared competition. Monoplane IL-400 Polikarpov at the airport was the first, but unsuccessful attempt to takeoff on August 15, 1923, and ended with the accident, in a natural way dramatically strengthened the position of the Grigorovich.
Manufacturing biplane I-1 ended in September, 1923, and October 5, according to the decision of the Scientific Committee of the UWS, the aircraft made for flight tests. The first flight took place on 30 October 1923
And 2 Junior pilot Sukhanova after landing near the village of Snag, February, 1930
And-2 Junior pilot Sukhanova after landing near the village of Snag, February, 1930
And-2 at the winter ski gear
And-2 at the winter ski gear
And 2 bis of 19 squadron at the airfield in Bryansk, September, 1929
And 2 bis of 19 squadron at the airfield in Bryansk, September, 1929
During the test were recorded the following indicators: the maximum speed at ground 238 -240 km/h lift time to a height of 2000 metres in 5 min, 3,000 m – 8 min, 5000 m min. -19 the General view was that the aircraft was quite stable in the air and flew very confidently. It was recognized that I-1 “since the war is the first successful attempt to build a fighter jet under a powerful motor”. The aircraft was considered experienced, so from the beginning of the test was subjected to numerous alterations and changes. Such a state of never-ending improvements during the winter of 1923/24, delayed transmission, And-1 to the test in NOAH (Scientific experimental airfield) and, in a sense, made them unnecessary, for already there was a better fighter And-2. The name And-1 after some time moved on to monoplane Polikarpov, and with it he was later put into production.
And-2, in contrast to the biplane I-1 looked more full and complete terms of military applications. I-2 was finally fixed in the plane of Grigorovich as the documents and history.
Fabrication of the prototype And-2 began on 1 February 1924, and already on 6 September, the aircraft was finally ready. After examination by the Commission of NC UWS and ground samples of the engine And a-2 made for flight tests. 4 Nov 1924 pilot A. I. Zhukov for the first time lifted the car into the air. Pilot’s overall impression was favorable, he said good controllability, short takeoff run and the ease of landing. Following flights in aerobatics, the maximum velocity and ceiling led to the need for additional adjustment bearing and control surfaces, control systems, aircraft and engine. As usual, the prototype started to improve. This led to unexpected results: Zhukov said that the plane was not so good – at low speed arbitrarily nose up when giving gas is tightened into a dive. After the sixth flight the pilot simply refused to continue the test. Obviously, this episode had its explanation.
… Zhukov was recalled to the side Grigorovich said:
I don’t know what happened with the car? Took off – and suddenly the knob clamped tightly. And so it went to a height of five thousand. And was planning on releasing the handle, and had to sit down!
Staff Grigorovich headed by its chief surrounded the fighter. Stick, to their surprise, went completely free. After remaining thoughtful, Dmitry Pavlovich said, “Let’s put the camera on the trestles. Maybe something to clear up?”
Did so. And once it became clear the cause of the accident. It was the fact that the crutch had a damper connected with the lever at the top of the crutch. When the latter rest on the ground, the lever went down and did not touch held above the control rod. When raising the tail spike down, and the top lever up and hold traction. The elimination of this defect was a trifling matter.
19 Nov 1924-2 flew by M. M. Gromov and V. N. Filippov that the plane, on the contrary, praised, and no abnormalities of his behavior in the air was observed. At the same time, these two pilots rejected the cockpit as cramped and uncomfortable. While flying beetles, and he was small in stature, this fact has not been noticed. Quite poignantly in this respect expressed Filippov: “the Cabin at the pilot And plane-2 designed for a gnome, but in any case not a normal man. To sit in it, you can only sideways, the dashboard is very close… in Spite of good performance to watch on the plane as you can only record high-speed machine.”
Opinions in relation to I-2 was different not only in pilots. Had to convene a special Commission that concluded that the attitude of the fighter Grigorovich biased and there is a tightening of the terms of his surrender. However, the Commission left enough time for the above result was announced just 3 Feb 1925
Fighter And-2, and its layout
Fighter And-2, and its layout
Fighter And-2, and its layout:
1 – propeller; 2 – motor; 3 – engine; 4 – front view of engine with engine mount; 5 – expansion tank of the cooling system; 6 – air intake of the carburettor; 7 – filler neck; 8 – wing tank; 9 – drainage wing tank; 10 – float bensinger; 11 – fuel tank; 12 – lever bensinger; 13 – machine guns; 14 – lift the radiator (released); 15 – lift radiator; 16 pedal foot control; 17 – arm lift of a radiator; 18 – a dashboard; 19 — atrophie boxes; 20 – aircraft control stick; 21 – the Gaza strip; 22 – thrust to the steering wheel height; 23 – desire for ailerons; 24 – skid; 25 – shock absorber crutch; 26 rocking of the Elevator; 27 node mounting braces on the upper wing; 28 – attachment of braces on the lower wing; the 29 – receiver pointer speed: 30 – window giltedged; 31 – step; 32 – handle the rise of the aircraft; 33 maintenance hatch; 34 thermometer; 35 – sight vakhmistrova

In the same 1925, when it was in full swing And the test-2 and IL-400, there is a problem of attribution for these aircraft. And in the worker-peasant state, producing only the rules of the new companies, the resolution of the problems resembled the attempt to depersonalize the process of creation, to make its collective product, devoid of not only authorship, but also of responsibility.
The group of designers working to create the IL-400, conveyed all rights to his plane aviation plant № 1. When the proceedings got to the attribution at I-1 And I-2, and the case went to the court of arbitration – Grigorovich has declared literally the following: “the Planes I-1 And I-2 from the initial concept to the smallest detail worked out by me with the participation of engineers A. N. Sedel’nikova, and V. L. Corwin, in cooperation draftsman Schwartz, Nikitin, and, to a lesser extent, other…
Engineer Kalinin V. V. had made sketches of gasoline pumps and pipes, but the application is not found, engineer, Krylov A. A. worked on the details of the control according to the sketches of Grigorovich”.
In addition to these individuals, the number of participants in the creation of I-1 And I-2 were called engineers Sutugin, Uspassky, Shirokov. The number of comrades who have made efforts for the emergence of the aircraft, obviously grew, and also increased the number of awkward questions. In particular, Grigorovich recalled that it is during the work went to Leningrad, and also the fact that, using the position of technical Director, began to sideline teammates that guide the design and construction of aircraft led surface, and part of the originality of the idea of the scheme both fighters so normal and nothing new is.
To continue flight tests in NOAH AND 2 were only 13 Mar 1925 After the first flights of the number of claims increased. In particular, it was recognized that the aircraft fire hazard, the fuel line from the top of the expendable tank is leaking. In fact, the elimination of this malfunction is available was one good mechanic, but the rules were: I was required to write a bunch of papers, to discuss and approve them, and then get to work.
Test the PLA also showed low directional stability of the aircraft, to eliminate this drawback it was proposed to increase the vertical tail. New plumage manufactured and installed, after which on April 17, the test continued. It was the last of the Moscow flights of the first prototype And-2. All work on the setting up and development of the aircraft was transferred to Leningrad, where he has moved the design office Grigorovich (GAS-1 Dmitri Pavlovich did not work from October 1, 1924).
The test-2 in Leningrad continued from 25 may to 25 June 1925 they took part of the factory pilot A. D. melnitsky and former factory pilot L. I. Hicks (the latter was at that time chief of the Air forces of the Baltic sea). As is often the case, and here there are many new wishes: to improve the maneuverability, ease of operation, to increase the wing area, expand the cab and even install a turbocharger. Improvements, however, it did not come – began to prepare for serial production. Even before the completion of the tests at the end of April 1925, the NTC, the air force issued an order for the production of a pilot series of ten And 2, although the maximum speed and a variety of other flight and operational characteristics have not yet determined.
Preparing for a series and the creators of the monoplane IL-400, which has received the designation I-1. The first production models of both fighters and Polikarpov and Grigorovich began operations in early 1926, However, in March this year the specialists of NOAH in relation to politicheskogo And-1 made a negative conclusion. A negative attitude is fueled by doubts in the strength of a wooden cantilever wing, some peculiarities in the technique of piloting, and became strongly negative after two instances of I-1 were broken during the test. In the first case, the pilot Sharapov was in a flat spin, out of the plane, he could not, and only narrowly survived the collision with the ground. The second repeated the story of the flat-spin, but the test Gromov on time left And-1 and escaped by parachute.
Thus, the fighter Grigorovich remained the only contender for future series. However, many complaints against him remained, and representatives of the air force is required to continue to improve the car.
Improved version was designated And-2bis. It strengthened the individual nodes, redefined the technology of manufacturing towards cheapening and simplification, expanded cockpit, perekomponovkoy piece of equipment and the dashboard. Noticeable external differences are the new migraleve racks, chassis and changed the tail, another the engine hood.
The first And-2bis, which was originally built as one of the series I-2 was prepared in the spring of 1927, before the end of his trials has planned a series of 140 copies, soon, however, reduced to 50. Although officially stated on the delivery plant No. 1 in 1927, seven fighter-2bis, but these figures refer rather to desirable than to valid.
The prototype-2
And-2 serial on skis
And-2 serial ski
I-2 bis
I-2 bis
It is possible that these devices in General is some transitional machines. According to the memoirs of M. I. Kostkina, the first fully-2bis was ready by the summer of 1928 by the Way, Kostkina, one of the authors of the IL-400, ironically, had to spend a lot of effort on the introduction of a series of fighter Grigorovich. It was accompanied by numerous problems, transmission of working drawings from Leningrad to Moscow was due to the flight properties and performance characteristics of the aircraft has deteriorated. There were cases of breakage of the chassis, the pilots complained of tight control, fighter bad was heard of the rudder when you increase the engine speed tended to the scoring of the nose. And-2bis unanimously was assessed according to its characteristics lower than its predecessor And-2. Conclusion the results of tests And-2bis, signed by the chief of the air force Institute Gorshkov, said: “the I-2bis, having a low speed, climb rate, ceiling, and poor maneuverability, can not be considered a modern fighter. Compared to I-2, it is inferior in its flight data, but design and operational improvement And do-2bis more desirable. After removal of all deficiencies And-2bis can be used as a training and transition aircraft.”
Prototype a better And more-3 Polikarpov was being built, and the acquisition of modern combat aircraft abroad was complicated by a number of circumstances. That is why in the fall of 1927 at a meeting with the chief of the air force P. I. Baranov in respect of I-2bis was said that, although the aircraft does not meet the requirements to build it you need at least to conduct the training and training of pilots.
In the first two years of production at the Moscow plant № 1 produced 50 And-2. The aircraft came to Trotsky (Gatchina), Bryansk and Vitebsk. Individual specimens were immediately transferred to training units. The first two-And-2bis arrived in the summer of 1928 in the 15 th air brigade in Bryansk. Until the end of the year, the number of “encores” has increased to ten. In 1929 I-2 appeared in the Borisoglebsk flight school. In early 1929, according to the results of experience of operating in the Bryansk prepared a report in which of I-2bis was regarded as the plane is quite heavy and inert steering. It was stated that he swooped down steadily, at the exit of the dive had a significant drawdown. Small was the visor of the pilot, and the cutout of the cab was regarded as too large. The latter can be understood that, responding to the wishes of the pilots, who initially complained of neck and small cramped cockpit, the designers have simply overdone it.
Characteristics of serial fighter-2 (No. 1886) and 2bis (No. 1990)
Characteristics of serial fighter-2 (No. 1886) and 2bis (No. 1990)
From the end of 1928 in the air force began to arrive-2bis of the Leningrad plant No. 23. Before the official cessation of production in 1929, managed to build a 140 And-2 and-2bis. But some instances surrendered to the customer and later. The last such aircraft was the And-2bis No. 1990. This camera, shipped in may 1931 during the 2nd aviation school in Borisoglebsk, was the first model And-2bis, which was built in 1927, Three years, the fighter stood at the factory before they went to the place of service.
In 1928, by agreement with the government of Persia, it was supposed to sell a number of aircraft P-1, I-1 and I-2bis. These machines are particularly carefully prepared, the clothes on their supply has been characterized as “special purpose” markings do not apply. Aware of eight prepared for this purpose And-2bis, which was armed with machine guns, “Vickers” and had increased cellular radiators available for use in hot areas. The fighters were Packed in boxes for delivery by sea, spare parts kits are assembled in small boxes pack for possible transportation. However, confirmation of this export was not detected.
According to the report of engineer P. M. Krason prepared in the summer of 1928, during this period in the ranks was 62 fighter And-2 and-2bis; most of them were in the Leningrad military district, and aviation of the Baltic sea.
Ending the story of the fighters And-2 and-2bis, we note that in 1925 – 1926 Grigorovich designed the “improved I-2” fighter And – 3 with the engine “liberty”, armed with two machine guns and can reach speeds of 270 km/h, and its an improved version And-4 with motor Wright “Tornado” 3. The speed of the latter, according to calculations, should reach 300 – 350 km/h, gross weight – 2000 kg. However, fighter And-3 and And-4 Grigorovich never details have not been worked out.
Fighter And-2 was a classic biplane with wings of equal span 9.15 m installed without the removal and V. the transverse Profile of both wings, “Gottingen 436”. The construction of each two-wing, – wood, the ailerons were located only on the lower wing, with a little advocated the contour of its rear edge. The covering of wings And a 2-ply, with a rigid trailing edge.
Wings-2bis for the same with the I-2 area, scale and shape for design. Plywood was only sewn a sock to the first spar, then the wing tight fitting cloth. The trailing edge was made of steel wire. After covering it on in plan view, resembled an undulating line.
Crash And-2bis, Leningrad military district, 1929
Crash And-2bis, Leningrad military district, 1929
Decommissioned And-2bis used as a textbook in vocational school
Written off And-2bis used as a textbook in vocational school
Biplane box was amplified by the cross-shaped braces: I-2 -single, I-2bis – double. Empennage and ailerons – duralumin with fabric covering. Endings elevators I-2 was sort of made up of straight lines, and I-2bis – rounded.
Main fuel tank capacity of 200 l was placed in the Central part of the fuselage. In the center section of the upper wing was expendable fuel tank of 96 liters, the Neck of the expendable tank out in the front edge of the wing. To determine fuel consumption in the Central part of the main tank is a simple float gauge is clearly visible in some photos. The float pin (called “reeds”) was handed out in a special tubular casing with dimensional glass; for the consumption of the gas, he fell down.
The fuselage is of mixed construction: the bow is metal, starting from the cockpit – wooden monocoque. The covering of the rear fuselage has been formed is laminated on the special form of shells of veneer mounted on a frame structure.
Release And-2 and-2bis
Issue And-2 and-2bis
Engine M-5 rated at 400 HP was carefully zakoptelova. There were at least two different versions of the cowl: I-2 and I-2bis. The main “decoration” of the Central top of the hood was sloped toward the oncoming flow tube inlet through which the air is fed to the two carburetors “Zenith”. Before the intake of carbs in the collapse of the cylinder was placed expansion tank of engine cooling system, the main element of which was a cylindrical plate radiator “Lumbly”. For maximum airflow, he could have wandered down to 70° – was controlled from the cockpit. Part I-2 had a fixed cell radiators, and immediately adjacent to the fuselage.
The chassis was very common pyramid schemes, were manufactured from shaped steel tubes. Depreciation – standard rubber cords with a diameter of 16 mm. the attachment points of the landing gear was made in the form of ball bearings.
Armament consisted of two synchronized machine guns, “Vickers” or PV-1 with a stock of 500 rounds each. On most I-2 machine guns significantly protrudes from the fuselage, so the shooting was carried out on top of the engine hood. On And-2bis guns were partially hidden inside the fuselage.

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