It was about the aircraft-missile “Oka” (Japanese “cherry blossom”) of the powder with three engines and a warhead weighing 1200 kg. To the launch site, within a 50 – 80 km from the target, “oku” has taken в4М bomber “Betty”. At an altitude of about 8000 m Oka separated from the carrier and the pilot of the bomber, including engines, were closer to the target. In the range of 4 to 5 miles to the pilot translated “oku” into a dive and fell on purpose. To intercept flying “oku” was virtually impossible.
To counter the “kamikaze” the us Navy needed a interceptor that is optimized for action at low altitudes, with great speed and rate of climb.
The development of new aircraft required a lot of time, and in the Bureau of aviation of the fleet decided to choose the characteristics of any fighter of an already built experimental aircraft. The choice of the military stayed on the modification of the fighter Corsair – F4U-1WM with the Pratt & Whitney engine XR4360, representing the four “star” with a capacity of 3000 p. S. the Resulting excess power of 800 HP, compared to the production Corsair, promised unprecedented flight characteristics.
The first prototype aircraft was transferred to Goodyear Akron (Ohio) for testing and future production. The contract provided for the construction of 418 aircraft in two versions: F2G-1-for the marine corps and F2G-2 for carrier-based aircraft. Production aircraft firm Goodyear was to deliver before the end of 1944
Doodlebug “Eye” for suicide pilots
Fighter F4U-4B from squadron VF-884 fly over the aircraft carrier CV-Wahag. The war in Korea, 1951
F4U-4B on the deck of the aircraft carrier CV-45 Valley Forge. Winter 1951
Difficulties with fine-tuning and production of the engine on the R4360 Pratt & Whitney arrested the flight of the first prototype of the XF2G-1 until the end of summer 1944. Only on 26 August 1944, test pilot don Armstrong flew on the first experimental sample XF2G-1. The pilot struck a power plant, but large changes in the design of the BOW worsened directional stability, especially at low speeds. The designers managed to partially overcome the problem by increasing the height of the keel of 305 mm and to installing in the resulting gap between the bottom of the rudder and a fuselage the additional section of the rudder. A new section has started to operate simultaneously with the release of the flaps when landing. But these improvements were only pre-production aircraft and the first prototype flew with the usual keel of the F4U.
During the tests the car has received the informal name – SuperCorsair.
The only drawback of the classic fighter is the Corsair, which the designers managed to eliminate completely is a bad view from the cockpit. Starting with the third prototype XF2G-1 on the machine began to put a canopy of the fighter P-47D Thunderbolt. Total built four prototypes SuperCorsair.
The first production aircraft F2G-1 out of the Assembly shop July 15, 1945. But the Navy lost interest in the fighter. The effectiveness of kamikaze decreased, and the most dangerous flying bombs of the type “Eye” was seldom used – the Japanese did not have enough carriers. Even if G4M and flying, they are usually intercepted before the launch of “cherry flowers”. The Navy has reduced its order for F2G first to 63 and then to 18 fighters. In may 1945
year contract with Goodyear was completely removed – it was only built 10 aircraft.
After the Second world war in America is gradually beginning to stabilise. People went back to their normal peaceful activities and entertainment. The organizers of the National air races Thompson also decided to resume the competitions and have planned for them in Cleveland in 1946. During the war none of the former participants in these races (and the race was held in Cleveland in 1929) the special aircraft has been developed. The participants decided to use conventional military fighters. Withdrawals of weapons reservation, formirovalis engines and improved aerodynamics.
On the first post-war race the honor of the Navy defended a former pilot of deck aircraft of cook Cleland. He was flying a fighter FG-1D Corsair with the hull number 92. Unfortunately, he got only the sixth place. The prize was taken by the test pilot of Bell Alvin Johnston to disperse his Aircobra to 600,2 km/h.
Frustrated American Admiral Halsey, the legendary commander of the 7th fleet in the Pacific, asked Cleland: “What do you want to win?” Cook replied very briefly: “F2G, sir.”
No wonder Admiral Halsey received during the war, the nickname “Buffalo”, for his perseverance and ability to achieve goals. After a few days at the disposal of Cleland sent three fighter F2G. Pilots of two other SuperCorsair became test pilot of the Navy dick Becker and the pilot of the Navy reserve Tony Janazzo. To increase the maximum flight speed machines carefully plastered and zapolirovat the joints and skin, and fixed the flaps in the retracted position.
The next races in 1947 the immense power of the R4360 engines installed on the aircraft did their job. On the Cleland F2G-2 with hull number 74 won the race, showing the speed 637,2 km/h. dick Becker’s F2G on-1, number 94 took second place. Unfortunately, the joy of this victory was marred by the death of Tony Janazzo. His fighter with the number 84 flew for more than half of the program suddenly crashed into the ground. The true cause of the tragedy to install and failed. All the experts were of the opinion that the pilot was poisoned with exhaust gases of the engine and lost consciousness.
For the race the following year Cleland was planning a new, more impressive win. He wanted to win all three prizes. While the main emphasis is on the new fuel F2G – triptan.
Triptan, or trimethylbutane (first name appeared only in 1943) were obtained in Belgium in 1922, but in large quantity it was to make a Shell just after the war. This fuel can truly be considered unique. Tests have shown the increase of power operating on tryptone engine almost in half. New fuel, is absolutely not prone to detonation, you can compare with gasoline, the octane number reaches 300 units. Only a broad introduction to aircraft jet engines stopped using triptan as the primary fuel for aviation piston engines.
But triptan not helped SuperCorsair to win the coveted victory – Cleland and Becker had to retire due to problems with engine cooling. And this time the prize was taken by the pilot of the air force Anson Johnson a fighter plane Mustang.
In 1949, Cleland again took to the stage and his team again, there was a third pilot on a private F2G-1 was the test pilot of the Navy Ron Puckett. All three machines have shown excellent results. Cook Cleland on the plane with the number 94 ranked first (speed muah 638.8 km/h), Ron Phuket (tail number of his plane 18) received second and third place went to Ben Mckillen the fighter F2G with the number 57. Thus, cook Cleland became the first post-war pilot, winning races at Thompson twice. His plane with the number 94 was in the Cleveland airport until the Museum in Crawford bought it the engine and propeller. After that, the glider salopeta gave the fire brigade of airport for training. Fire it burned and melted remnants of the plane buried in the dump of the airport. In 1950, the next race was postponed and then cancelled due to the outbreak of the Korean war.
Another war for fighters Corsair began at 6.00 am on 3 July 1950. 16 fighter F4U-4 squadron VF-54 in the strike group aircraft carrier “valley forge” attacked Pyongyang airfield. Being in the second wave of attack, fighter Corsair approached the airfield when the hangar, and the runway has already been destroyed. Their blow fell on the surviving enemy planes. In the reports of the pilots returning to the aircraft carriers, reported the destruction and damage 38 27 aircraft of various types. A little less North Korean trucks destroyed fighters from the English aircraft carrier “Triumph”, which finished “processing” the airfield at Haeju at 8.15 am.
Thus, for three hours, the aircraft of North Korea, there are about 110 aircraft, ceased to exist. Due to strikes of carrier-based aircraft, the Americans lossless gained complete supremacy in the air and held it before the advent of the MiG-15. During July, the F4U flew at the call of the land forces, restraining the advancing of the enemy.
A typical set of weapons fighter Corsair in such departures were 800 shells to the guns, one 450-kg bombs and eight 12-mm HVAR rockets. These weapons were successfully used to strike at clusters of manpower, human settlements and transport, but against T-34 tanks, they were powerless. “Thirty” was “too tough” even to ground units. The main antitank weapon of the infantry – 60-mm grenade “Bazooka” – did not break through tank armor. And only after adopting the aircraft fleet 165-mm NUR RAM with heat warhead naval aircraft to fight effectively against tanks. All modifications on the Corsair hung on eight new missiles.
F4U-4B from squadron VF-113 landing on the deck of the aircraft carrier CV-47 Philippine Sea
In early August 1950 over the Korean Peninsula appeared a Corsair fighters belonging to the squadron VMF-214 and VMF-232 aircraft of the marine Corps. At that time Americans did not have land-based airfields, and planes flying from escort carriers, the “Sicily” and “Badoing Straight”.
The most productive day for the pilots of the Corsair began on August 10. On this day, the vanguard of Marines overtook a column of the retreating enemy. Advanced air controllers called Corsair fighters and two passes F4U destroyed 20 trucks and scattered the enemy infantry. The suitable parts of the marine corps captured serviceable vehicles and other equipment of Koreans.
28 days Aug fighter Corsair made 1359 sorties. The effectiveness of their strikes was so high that North Korean troops almost completely abandoned actions in the daytime. The retreating columns of troops began to move only at night. To achieve such results helped clear interaction between the ground forces and pilots. Targeting the aircraft was carried out by advanced group guidance, personally trained pilots. In each marine infantry battalion there was one such group. During the fighting often happened so that the two squadrons of F4U (48 machines) supported by one of the advancing battalion! For comparison we can recall that during the Second world war approximately the same number of airplanes had one division fighting in Europe.
Such a concentration of forces of aviation is fully consistent with the views of the Navy command for close air support of ground troops. In this position of the sailors was very different from the views of representatives of the air force, which made a major bet on a strategic air strikes on the enemy’s infrastructure. And if the aircraft and provided direct support, fighter-bombers struck at targets located a few kilometres from the front line, while “dogs” and “Skyraider” Navy destroyed targets in 50 – 200 m from the front edge of his troops. So the army more than willingly cooperated with naval aviation, than with the air force.
During the Korean war aircraft of the marine corps has experienced persistent difficulties in the supply of fuel and ammunition, so fighters sometimes had to function as a transport aircraft.
After the capture of Wonsan from Japan to the nearby airfield relocated 12 group aircraft of the marine corps. Sea port were mined and transport aircraft C-119 is engaged in transportation of property and fuel. So bombs and rockets had to be transported by hanging them under the night fighter F4U-5N. This method was used for 12 days, while there was a clearance port.
Carrier-based Corsair took an active part, strongly assisting minesweepers in their risky work. One day, loitering in the Bay area, a pair of F4U saved from certain death two trawlers that came too close to shore and were in the zone of fire of the shore batteries. Cooking the North Koreans was out their guns out of the cave, said the observers. Immediately alerted F4U covered the exit with rockets HVAR. The destruction of the guns took 2-3 minutes, and minesweepers quietly continued to work.
After entering the war, China’s status of us troops has sharply deteriorated. On the night of 27 November 1950 the 1st marine division encircled six Chinese divisions. Command ignored reports of pilots who saw “a thousand footprints in the snow” to the North and West of the advancing division of Marines. 30 Nov Corsair fighters of the 1st wing of the ILC saved surrounded, preventing the powerful attack of the enemy. Time seeing about 2,000 Chinese soldiers, planes, dive bombs pelted them with bombs and tanks of Napalm. But the surviving Chinese again went on the attack. Then four F4UB Corsair dropped a Napalm on them, hitting straight into the ranks of the attackers. The second approach F4U-4B forced the enemy randomly fled breaks 20-mm shells.
In early December surrounded by Marines decided to make my way to the sea. They had to go through fighting more than 100 km Over the column of Marines was constantly 40 to 60 aircraft from the aircraft carriers “Sicily”, “Badoing Straight” “leute” and “Philippines sea”. For precision guidance of aircraft and ensure uninterrupted radio contact with the convoy in a mountainous area used converted into the headquarters of the transport aircraft C-54 Skimaster October 6, he began to escort columns of troops, while maintaining the connection of the shock aircraft, becoming the prototype of modern aircraft command and control guidance.
A few hours after the appearance in the air is 54, the column ran into an ambush of mortar. Flying on specified land area, the crew of the C-54 has determined the coordinates of the target and sent her 18 F4U Corsair and 8 Skirrfider from the aircraft carrier “Leyte First link F4U was hit by enemy R katami and bombs. Second, saving ammunition, swooped down from the height of 2,700 m, firing guns and fighting alternating visits to the target idle speed is psychological. Action F4U was given to the Marines to gather forces, and they responded with mortar fire. Using the fact that the Corsair fighter planes swooped down in the direction of the target, Mortar used the tail Assembly of an airplane as a point of pickup. Mina had time to fly out of the barrel before the next Corsair, and its trajectory passed over the aircraft out of the dive. After a few hours the column moved on.
In the most critical day – December 4, naval aircraft made 239 sorties, of which 111 – F4U Corsair. The evening of 9 December advanced parts saved of the column I went to the sea and began loading on ships.
All summer 1951 F4U Corsair was hunting for cars in the area of the 38th parallel. Day fighters worked in the daytime, and after sunset flew night fighter F4U-5N that was discovered convoys of the enemy, using his radar.
Hunting for cars was a dangerous job. Very often the pilots ambushed the Korean anti-aircraft gunners, “buying” different kinds of bait. First was the radio transmitting broadcast distress signals or false information. But become careful when American pilots started to request the radio operators call sign, the Koreans stopped using this technique. An inexperienced pilot could easily catch on hung on trees, the American parachute more experienced were often two layouts of warehouses, clusters of machines, etc. In two months using these techniques, the Koreans managed to shoot down F4U 39.
With each passing month of the war the air defense of North Korean troops increased and the loss of American aircraft grew.
The MiG-15 is rarely found in the air with the F4U Corsair. But if that happened, then the outcome of the battle was not a foregone conclusion. So, on 10 September 1952, a couple of F4U-5N was intercepted by five MiG-15. Flying at low altitude, the pilots noticed “MiGs”. Radakovici, they imposed on the fight to them on the bends. Captain Jesse Folmar, going into a sharp turn, shot out of cannons the nearest MiG, but lost sight of his friend, who, trying to break away from persecution, came under fire of another MiG-15 and exploded.
Of course, in combat with a jet fighter F4U pilots find it difficult to exercise their advantage in maneuver, but when meeting with piston aircraft Corsair demonstrated a complete superiority. Especially distinguished in these air battles Lieutenant guy P. Bordelon flew the night fighter F4U-5N Corsair. Just a couple of weeks he privates of the Navy pilot turned into the ACE of naval aviation in the Korean war. Squadron VC-3, where he arrived in Korea, flying from the aircraft carrier Princeton. This ship was designated by the Navy for actions only at night.
In their night raids the Chinese and North Koreans used the Soviet Yak-11, Yak-18 and Po-2, La-9 and La-11. The main protection of these machines was their low speed. Jet interceptors often do not have time to slow down and aim. The pilots of the F4U Corsair was in a much better position and the chance to win the battle with slow-moving enemy, it was, on the night of June 29, 1953, Bordelon, using on-Board radar detected a North Korean Yak-18 and shot him. Over the next two weeks he managed to shoot down two Yak-18 and two La-9.
The successful operation of the naval aviation called the representatives of the United States air force a genuine interest in tactics that use marine pilots. Moreover, frequent cases of dumping bombs on their own troops with planes the air force has undermined the confidence of the high command in the capacity of staff of the air army control in the air with their planes. Specifically for members of the force were organized demonstration of carrier-based aircraft attack on targets in the vicinity of one of the settlements. 22 November 1952 and Skiraider Corsair from aircraft carriers “Essex” and the “Kearsarge” in the presence of air force generals put 90 percent of the bombs exactly at the target located a few hundred meters of the American positions. Planes destroyed 7 guns, 10 of the 25 bunkers and dugouts of the enemy.
In the final months of the war aircraft Corsair continued to “bother” the front line of defense precise and sudden attacks. Continued raids on industrial facilities. Their last combat missions F4U Corsair, made may 27, 1953.
The Corsair fighters were the most mass combat aircraft naval forces of the United States in the Korean war. Only carrier-based aircraft, there were 26 squadrons in four different versions, while “Skyraider” was picked only 14 squadrons. Even the Panther was inferior to the jet fighters Corsair in numbers.
Night fighter F4U-5N
Forced use of the F4U fighter in an attack aircraft showed the presence of the machine of many hidden structural reserves, which were used by the engineers improve the aircraft during the Korean war. Giving the fighter features specific to the attack (increased bookings, a large number of suspension units, appropriate equipment, etc.) adversely affected the flight characteristics of the aircraft. But despite this “Corsair-attack” demonstrated higher efficiency than the attack aircraft of the air force of North Korea – a Soviet plane Il-10.
In subsequent years, aircraft Corsair occasionally took part in the fighting.
In the fall of 1953 24 of the Corsair attack aircraft squadron VMA-211 was delivered to French troops who fought in Vietnam. Most of these cars are in a failed state. 18 APR 1954 American attack planes were unloaded at the port of Annam. Two days of hard work the technical staff managed to put into operation only 16 aircraft. On 25 April they began to perform combat missions, supporting the defenders of Dien bien Phu. Despite the heroic efforts of the pilots, on 7 March, the French garrison surrendered. But the air operation continued until March 20. The intensity of the use of the French Corsair attack aircraft can be judged by the statistics of the sorties. Over the 11 weeks of fighting these machines flew 1235 hours, dropping 700 tons of bombs, fired 300 NUR HVAR and 70,000 rounds. Six aircraft were lost, killing two pilots.
In October 1956, the French used their F4U-7 Corsair for attacks on ground targets during the Suez crisis.
Until 1962, F4U-7 was used in Algeria. They are assigned the task of supporting troops with air support of helicopters during landing and search-and-rescue operations. In the autumn of 1964 Corsair fighters started to withdraw from service. In their place came a jet machine F-8FN Crusader and Etendard IVM. The last flight French F4U-7Corsair was held on 28 September 1964.
In 1969, the Corsair was used during the “two week war” between El Salvador and Honduras. The last combat Corsair flew in the air force of El Salvador. In 1971 they were replaced by jet fighters F-86 Sabre.