Significant improvement in the flight data could only be achieved after the installation of the geared engine M-34R, but not immediately. On the experimental plane in 1933, failed to reach a speed of 229 km/h, almost half to increase the rate of climb and a bit of the ceiling. And only after improving the aerodynamics of the aircraft to the test in July 1934, received of features that satisfy the designers and the customer – the air force.
On serial machines we finally removed the wing machine guns, and instead introduced fodder infantry unit. In addition, increased tailplane, the rudder with a modified geometry is lifted up and supplied fleteren, reinforced keel column and installed wing fairings, empennage and nacelles. Appeared the tail wheel, the rear wheels on the main landing trucks had replaced the brake, and rubber shock absorbers – oil-air. As a result the maximum speed has increased to 242.5 km/h, practical ceiling – up to 5100 m.
In the summer of 1934 in the far East were air force exercises with broad participation from TB-3. The effect of their use has exceeded all expectations. In the July decision of Committee of defense of the USSR, in particular, noted: “Given the high military value of the ships in TB-3 with the motor M-34 to the gearbox, especially gearbox and supercharger, NKTP to oblige in every way to force the release of these aircraft… To oblige the UVVS of the red army immediately upon receipt from industry to install these aircraft <…> ShKAS machine guns in the first place the air units in the far East”.
Bow-shooting machine gun ShKAS
Turret UTK-1 with UBT machine gun 12.7 mm mounted in the war, only some of the instances of TB-3
Subsequently, the TB-3 all Sparky YES machine guns replaced the single Scusami, distinguished by high rate of fire. Such protection of airships designed to solve strategic challenges, is still considered insufficient in the mid-1930s, but large-caliber weapons for aircraft in the country did not exist.
In the years of the war of the TB-3 equipped with shielded turrets with heavy machine guns UBT.
Most high performance was obtained after installation of the motors with the supercharged M-34RN. In addition to them, the plane appeared aft missile installation. In this regard, the reduced vertical area and increased the area of the horizontal tail. Changed the shape of the rudder, which is to reduce the effort on the pedals supplied fleteren.
If the TB-3-4M-17 were standing two-bladed propellers with a diameter of 3.5 m, then machine M-34RN domestic engines used four-bladed propellers with a diameter of 4.4 m, and at the extreme, where the wing was thinner – four-meter two-bladed. The positive was that the capacity of the cooling system of the engines was reduced to 130 litres per engine. Total win just for the coolant was 120 kg, compared with cars equipped with engines M-34.
On spike support set wheel.
Has become richer and instrument equipment of the aircraft.
At a takeoff weight of 23 050 kg flight distance has reached 3000 km, the maximum speed at an altitude of 4,200 m – 288 km/h and a service ceiling 7740 m. But in 1935, these data did not satisfy the military. Despite the efforts of the industry, the moral plane was aging right before our eyes.
In a report on government trials of the bomber with motors M-34RN was noted: “the Plane is on <…> maximum speed, ceiling, rate of climb has a definite advantage over T5-3M-34P, at the same time greatly inferior to maximum speed <…> “Boeing-229”.
In the biography of the TB-3 it had its moments and UPS and downs. List all emergency situations it is impossible, but one of them will interest the reader. In October 1938 bomber with engines M-34RN, piloted, M. A., Gurov, at the height of 4200 m went to storm cloud. The airship snapped at the peak of the left-hand turn. All attempts of the crew to bring the aircraft, speeding up to very high speeds, proved futile. In the end, the TB-3 was destroyed. First off the tail, then the mate’s cabin. The rest of the fuselage, the investigation showed, broke between the 12th and 13th frames. Almost simultaneously, tore the covering on both planes of the bearing surface. Of the eleven man crew to escape by parachute was only eight.
On the last series T5-3M-34PH truck chassis replaced with a two meter wheels and changed the shape of the forward fuselage in connection with the installation of a shielded turret. In such a configuration, released and four aircraft “, Awiakta-ka”, destined originally for the landing of the expedition to the North pole.
In the Experimental Institute of NKTP, headed by P. I. Grokhovsky, and then in the KB-29 under the leadership of Privalov developed the device of the suspension of military equipment and vehicles under the fuselage of the bomber. TB-3 had to carry guns, motorcycles, and in August 1935, passed military tests pendants light tank T-27.
In the same year tested object R-52-TB-3 installed on it with two guns caliber 76 mm.
In 1933, experiments were conducted to refuel bombers in flight with fuel from the aircraft P-5 and TB-3, was also tested fuel and lube ground equipment (TB-3 No. 22453, modified in KB, UWS). Three years later experienced yet another device for the overflow of fuel from a flying tanker to the bomber.
In the summer of 1939 made another attempt to improve the performance data of the machine. The engines AM-34RN mounted turbochargers TK-1 and controllable pitch propellers CPP-34. Tests showed, that the ceiling has reached 8000 m (up to the estimated 8900 m never rose from the low efficiency of the propellers). Maximum speed in comparison with serial TB-3 virtually unchanged -284 km/h In a result made the decision on inexpediency of modernization of the bomber.
In 1936, several TB-3 installed uprated engines AM-34FRN, allowed to bring his speed up to 300 km/h, ceiling to 8,000 m. However, these motors have a low resource, have not passed the state tests and could not be used on production machines. However, in October of the same year, the crew of A. B. Yumashev has set six world records. Controlling a weight of 5000 kg raised to a height of the first 8116 m, then at the height of 8960 m weight 10 000 kg – 6605 m and 12 000 kg – 2,700 m.
As the removal of the weapons, the aircraft were transferred to the CAF, where they operated under the designation G-2. Payload on the aircraft with engines M-17 has reached 4,500 kg, although the volume of the fuselage were not always able to accommodate planned cargo for carriage. Machine was used primarily for the transportation of goods to inaccessible and remote areas of the country.
The latest expedition, made at the former bomber under the designation ANT-6 was the reconnaissance of the areas adjacent to the Pole of Inaccessibility in the Arctic ocean in 1941.
In 1932, Japan occupied Manchuria, and its forces located along the border with the Soviet Union, clearly a hostile purposes, and the fleet of the rising sun dominated the far Eastern seas. In this situation, the Soviet government sent to the far East connection of the 150 TB-3, whose range is allowed to reach any part of Japan. This immediately sobered the samurai and pushed the armed conflict.
However, in the summer of 1938 between Japan and the USSR near lake Khasan happened armed conflict. Infantry units from the air were supported by 250 aircraft, including 60 TB-3. It was the first combat use of heavy bombers. But the lesson from samurai, did not go to them for future use.
In the spring of the following year, they unleashed another armed conflict on the river Chapin-Gol. And again, the TB-3 was involved in military work, having made 166 sorties. In addition to the bombings, TB-3 (mainly at night) delivered to the battle area munitions, food and evacuated the sick and wounded.
TB-ZRN with engines AM-34RN and antenna radiolucency placed in the fairing above the cockpit of the Navigator
By that time in our country there were three aviation army special forces (AON), consisted of heavy bombers intended to solve strategic tasks of bombing attacks and to ensure the landing of airborne troops (VDV).
For the first time the possibility of airborne demonstrated in 1934, the maneuvers of the Belarusian military district, and a year later on maneuvers near Minsk sky “decorated” 1800 parachutes. Even more surprised observers, including foreign, landing troops in the composition of 5700 men with heavy weapons, vehicles, guns, light tanks and armored vehicles.
Paratroopers in the amount of thirty was placed in the center and on the boards, laid over the wings of BOM-balykov. People were sitting in darkness and distress, numerous slots much blew. Jumped from the turret cutouts in the fuselage on both planes of the wing. It was hard to paratroopers, but other aircraft, capable of solving such problems did not exist.
The assets of TB-3 was involved in the war with Finland, the Polish campaign and the “campaigns” of the red Army in the Baltic States and Bessarabia.
In 1941 part of the 81st air division long-range, commanded M. V. Vodopyanov, joined a special group of remote-controlled planes headed A. G. Fedorov. It included three TB-3 and one SB and DB-3. At the end of August in Moscow has begun preparation for guidance of unmanned aircraft to the target. To solve this problem involved, in particular, the polar pilots ek pusep, retired A. N. Tagudin and N. N. Ponomarenko, as well as other professionals.
During the week, TB-3 converted cockpit, installing equipment radio control. The cargo bays were filled with explosives. On the bombers SB and DB-3 mounted radio transmitters with remote control for radio commands. The crews were trained in leaving the aircraft by parachute. During the training the TB-3 flew ahead of him with a small excess at the distance of 150 – 200 metres – aircraft guidance: SB or DB-3.
Were taken only, and not successful attempt to combat use of radio-controlled TB-3 for the destruction of the bridge across the Volga near the city of Kalinin (Tver).
A limited amount of article does not allow to talk about the numerous night bombing strikes, missions to the partisans and landings. The TB-3 to be able to solve the tasks entrusted to him by the military. The flight crews of combat vehicles was rarely done without victims, and sometimes they came back with a black engine and on last drops of fuel, but after some days again appeared in the ranks – and so for nearly three years of war.
TB-3 was stable, easy to operate and reliable in flight in all modes available to pilots of average qualification, which contributed to its rapid development.
According to the statistics of the former Ministry of aviation industry of the USSR, three of the aircraft factory built 873 TB-3.
Life cycle of TB-3 was completed in 1946 after the government resolution on cancellation of the remaining machines. To this day have not got any car, once something that surprised Europe. However, there is hope to rescue from snow captivity one of the cars Polar aviation made an emergency landing in the Arctic, but for this one initiative is not enough. Need more money, but patrons wishing to correct the mistakes of the Soviet past.
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