FURY WITH A SPANISH ACCENTFighter biplane Hawker FURY. The first third of the century of aviation, leading the countdown from the flight of the Wright brothers in 1903, can be called the era of biplanes. Most of the Diptera of the devices looked like, now look, this is awkward; much more rarely met biplanes elegant, with clean aerodynamic shape. Typically, these machines have left an appreciable trace in the history of world aviation, differing not only beauty, but also the best performance characteristics.

One of the brightest representatives of the tribe “elegant biplanes” was a British fighter FURY Hawker firm that emerged in the late twentieth reptiles of the past century. The developer of the plane was the chief designer of the firm, H. G. Hawker Engineering Co. Ltd (1933 — Hawker Aircraft Ltd) in Sydney Kemm. His FURY became the first British aircraft to exceed the speed of 200 mph (322 km/h). These agile and speedy fighters for many years was part of the aerobatic and acrobatic groups, taking an active part in all aviation exhibitions and shows. On these planes the best of the British pilots showed the wonders of flying and air training. However, all these “demonstrations” had only one goal — to prove the necessity of military aviation in post-war Europe.
The design of the fighter FURY was launched in accordance with the requirements of specification F. 20/27, issued by the British Ministry of aviation, in which F means “fighter” (fighter), 20 — the ordinal number of the specification, a 27 — year of issuance of the specification. While working on the project F. 20/27 Sydney Kemm focused on new inline twelve-cylinder engine Rolls-Royce F. XI, which allowed them to create a plane with a very clean aerodynamic lines.
It should be noted that the engine the Rolls Royce F. XI with a liquid cooling system became the first British piston engine, in which the rows of cylinders were made of a single cast block. The power unit of this type, dubbed the monoblock, is significantly lighter than its predecessors and its mass properties were close to the cooled engine. In addition, the new engine had considerable reserves for further improvement and increase capacity.
The advantages of the new power plant was manifested in the creation Kemm light bomber the Hawker HART (deer). During the tests it turned out that HART, with high speed, can do without an escort of fighters. Urgently under the engine F. XI redesign and the new fighter project F. 20/27, which was given the designation HORNET (hornet).
The first prototype of the aircraft rolled out of the Assembly shop in 1927. Although tests of the aircraft showed that it meets all the requirements laid down in F. 20/27 (the main of them were formulated in the following way: “to Seize in a short time the enemy aircraft flying at the aerodrome at an altitude of 6100 meters at a speed of 240 km/h”), the Ministry of aviation has not shown to him considerable interest.
The new aircraft with the advertising goal participated at the Olympia Air Show, which showed excellent flight performance. High rate of climb and speed demonstrated by the aircraft with the engine F. XIA capacity of 420 HP, its successful debut in the show and the encouraging results of the first trials has forced the Ministry of aviation to recognize the superiority fighter HORNET over those that were in service with the RAF, and to order its production.
August 30, 1930, the firm of H. G. Hawker Engineering Co. Ltd signed the official contract for the serial production of the first twenty fighters HORNET. At the same time released a new specification F. 13/30, according to which the planes of the RAF ground-based named with the index F, and sea-based — N. In accordance with this I had to change the name of the aircraft. Of several proposed options chose the word — fury (fury).
Mounted on the aircraft engine the Rolls Royce F. XI was given the name KESTREL. To increase power it is equipped with a compressor IIS, which increased develop them the power to 590 HP at the altitude of 4000 meters.
FURY first series is almost entirely consistent with its prototype fighter HORNET. The introduction of the aircraft in the RAF there was no mass. The new fighter entered service only three elite units of 1, 25, 43 squadrons. The main reason for this situation was the beginning of the economic crisis and the relatively high cost of the aircraft, amounting to 3900 pounds.
Trying to expand production FURY, the Hawker firm decided to modify the aircraft in accordance with new specification F. 7/30, which was supposed to provide the fighter the opportunity to act during the night, and to be armed. The firm also suggested to install a new aircraft engine company Rolls Royce GOSHAWK. However, the protracted refinement of the engine is not allowed to do on the plane established improved KESTREL VI with a capacity of 745 HP New fighter received the designation of FURY II, and the old FURY came to be called — Fury I.
Fighter FURY I
Fighter FURY I
Prototype FURY II built by tampering with a serial FURY I (tail number К1935), involving the installation of KESTREL VI engine and equipment wheel fairings. Serial FURY II appeared and additional fuel tank mounted in front of the fuselage. The maximum speed of the machine amounted to 359 km/h at an altitude of 5000 meters. A height of 3,000 meters the plane was gaining 3 minutes 50 seconds, his ceiling is 9,000 m and a range of 435 km.
The first production FURY II (К7263) took to the air in December 1936. The new fighter began to enter service with 25 squadron in early 1937. In the future, the manufacturing order firm FURY II Hawker was canceled, and she was engaged in mastering of serial production of the fighter HURRICANE. Well, the release of FURY II continued firm General Aircraft. The aircraft, issued by this firm, went on re-equipment of the 43rd squadron, before flying FURY I, and to the staffing of the 73rd and 87th squadrons based at Tangmere and Mildenhalle. However, the last two squadrons already at the end of 1937 was replaced by Fury II Gloster GLADIATOR.
British FURY both modifications had not completed before the outbreak of war in combat units. With the arrival of the troops of the new generation of monoplanes, they began to transfer to flying school, Royal air force. To war only had the aircraft delivered to Spain, Portugal, South Africa and Yugoslavia. In addition to production FURY, the Hawker firm has released two pre-production aircraft.
The first of these, called the Intermediate FURY (side marking G-ABSE), was intended to test a variety of engine KESTREL and GOSHAWK, cantilever bespokoynogo chassis company Messier and wheels company Dowty. On the same plane tested bomb racks with an electromagnetic lock.
The second, called the High Speed FURY, was converted from production aircraft (К3585) and was intended to achieve maximum speed.
To do this, he changed the wing shape in the plan — the detachable console of the upper wing got the sweep on the leading edge, and console steel beveled lower wing forward of the trailing edge. During testing, the plane established a variety of engines. Experiments were conducted with multiple variants of the systems of cooling, with the radiator installed even in the front edge of the upper wing which should give an extra speed boost. The adopted changes improve the maneuvering characteristics of the aircraft and to reach a speed of 389 km/h — maksimalnoi for English FURY.
Fighter-Hawker FURY byplay
Fighter-Hawker FURY byplay
Fighter-Hawker FURY byplay:
1-ratchet airfield start the engine; 2—a two-bladed wooden propeller with a constant pitch Watts V.274 with a diameter of 3.2 m; 3 — reducer of the engine; 4 — cylinder block; 5 — exhaust pipes of the engine; 6 — compressor engine; 7 — water tank cooling system; 8—sighting of a fly; 9— the first spar of the upper wing; 10— panel power set of the fuselage; 11 — a large main fuel tank capacity of 123 liters; 12 — coupling of the power tube; 13 — the second side rail; 14 — 7.7 mm Vickers machine gun; 15 — optical sight; 16 — sector “gas” of the engine; 17–the wheel of the rudder stabilizer; 18 — the pilot seat; 19 — wooden decoration frames; 20—wood stringers; 21 —steel tubular power set of the fuselage; 22—tubular spars of the stabilizer; a 23 power set of the keel; 24-hinge of the rudder; 25 rocking of the Elevator; 26 — power set of the rudder; 27—skid; 28 — shock absorber tail crutch; 29 — the hard pull of the rudder; 30—lower power tube; 31 —rope-traction Elevator; 32—oxygen tank; 33 — sector control shutters oil cooler; 34— power node of attachment of the brace strut and rear spar of the lower wing; 35— cartridge box 600 cartridges; 36 — power node mounting the front spar of the lower wing; 37—water radiator of the cooling system of the engine; 38 — front of the main chassis; 39 — wheel main landing gear; 40 — fairing shock absorber main landing gear; 41 — small fuel tank capacity of 105 liters; 42 — supercharger intakes; 43 — power units motor; 44—motor mount; 45 — engine Rolls Royce Kestrel IIS power 590 HP; 46 — tightening bolts screw; 47 — Kok fairing screw; 48— fairing block; 49 Luc cartridge drawer; 50 — wilsonrating; 51 —hinged side of the cockpit; 52 footpegs; 53 — detachable operating panel; 54—cutout under the thrust of the rudder; 55 rocking of the rudder; 56 is a cutout under the thrust of an Elevator; 57 — Pitot tube; 58 — the spars of the lower wing; 59 — spinner wheels; 60 — removable service panel; 61 — rudder; 62 Kil; 63 — fuselage N-shaped strut of the upper wing; 64 Central removable operating panel of the engine; 65 — the air intake of the blower; 66 — mooring earring; 67 — strut landing gear; 68 — removable duralumin panels; 69 — foot tail crutch; 70 — struts stabilizer; 71 —removable operating panel; 72 — N-shaped strut; 73 — the exhaust pipes of the engine Hispano-Suiza 12Xbrs; 74 — of the slot of the air outlet; 75 — detachable operating panel; 76 — top operating panel of the engine; 77 — brace the upper wing; 78 — LDPE; 79 — control rod Aileron; 80 rocking Aileron; 81 –visor of the cockpit; 82 leather safety cushion cabin; 83 — brace stabilizer; 84 — open the side of the cabin; 85 — the case of the water cooler; 86 — front of the main chassis; 87 — Jack arm installation manual starter; 88— lower removable plate of the engine; the 89 — handle reloading of the gun; 90— shift knob fuel tanks; 91 — grip hand benzoni; 92— pedals control rudder; 93 — the harness belt system; 94 — Central locking harness system; 95 — storage case chart cards; 96 — manual pump starter; 97 — knob height Adjuster seat pilot; 98 — attachment of the wing strut; 99 handlebar height; 100 — stabilizer; 101 — the seam of the fabric covering of the fuselage 102 — mount brace; 103 — removable operating panel of the engine; 104 — air hose brake system wheels; 105 — the axis of the main chassis; 106— the fabric covering of the fuselage; 107 —rails of the upper wing; 108 maintenance hatches; 109 — Aileron; 110 — aircraft control stick; 111 — gun trigger; 112— column control

In addition to these two experimental flying machines existed unrealized project of a plane, named It FURY. The plane was to become the most radical modification of the fighter. It was supposed to change the design of the fuselage, further ennobling his lines. All trim made of all-metal, removed the steel cables of braces changed the shape of the wing struts, making them V-shaped. Has made changes in the design of the chassis, installing oil-air shock absorbers of the main landing. Syper FURY was supposed to be for its time the fastest fighter biplane scheme.
During the serial production FURY was built 5 prototypes and the 300 series fighters: 185 mushin collected the parent company of the firm Hawker, 75 — firm General Aircraft Co., and 40 aircraft assembled on Yugoslav enterprises Ikarus and Zmaj. In addition to England and Yugoslavia, FURY has operated in Spain (3), Iran (24), Portugal (3), South Africa (24) and Norway (1).
FURY in Spain
Although Spain were only three FURY, they left a noticeable trace in the history of the civil war. In early 1936, long before the country erupted in rebellion. Republican government signed with the firm Hawker contract for the licensed production of fighter FURY. Under the terms of the contract, the first three cars manufactured by Hawker and serial production was supposed to establish the factory of the company Hispano Suiza, located in Guadalajara.
The design of the FURY, to be sent to Spain, the firm has made changes in accordance with the requirements of the customer. Fighters on the installed engines Hispano Suiza HS 12Xbr, changed the chassis design, which became bespokoinyi, cantilever. The firm Hawker the aircraft received the name of the Spanish FURY.
Boxes with disassembled fighters arrived in Guadalajara a few days before the start of the Franco rebellion. Together with planes from England came from a group of experts that was tasked to assemble the aircraft and assistance in the organization of their serial production. Before the mutiny the British managed to collect and to avoid all three FURY, but with the outbreak of hostilities at the request of his government left Spain. Aircraft assigned index 4, and the sequence number 1, 2, 3 (4-1, 4-2, 4-3). Your license plate aircraft were carried on the rudder.
Left the British fighter could not be considered war machines — they do not have time to set up machine guns and synchronizers. In other circumstances, aircraft without weapons in the air does not rise. But the danger of the fall of the Republic was huge, and the account was each plane. In this situation, “under the gun” was played on all modern fighters could not just stand on the ground.
Unarmed FURY rose into the air and was used at first as a purely psychological weapon, and has a positive impact on the morale of the Republican forces and Franco’s otpugivateli “nupuri” and “shore”. All three FURY included in the 2nd international fighter squadron “Lafayette”, the organizational part of the 11th fighter group, which operated from airfields in the cities of Getafe and Cuatro Viento.
Until mid-August the aircraft was painted entirely in silver paint, but in the autumn all FURY struck the spotted camouflage. The upper part was covered with paint, sand and earthy colors, which was applied in occasional small dark green and brown spots. The lower surface of the aircraft was painted in sky blue color. Amended and markings. Around the fuselage caused a wide red stripe. On the wing top and bottom, near the Spanish tricolor cockades were narrow longitudinal stripes of red. The rudder remained unchanged and was painted in the colors of the Spanish flag: red, yellow, and red.
Fighter FURY II
Fighter FURY II
Despite the fact that the British basically broke the contract and after the beginning of the civil war left the country, Republicans are clearly adhered to the concluded contract, under which foreigners were not allowed to “secret” aircraft. Throughout the time of use FURY it flew exclusively Spanish pilots. Anton Kovalevsky, a Soviet pilot from the first group in Spain, told new pilots: “the Spaniards Have almost nothing protected. Only one plane exhibited clockwise. We asked the Spaniards to see it and test it in the air, but they refused. We were told that the British aircraft construction, is secret and they can’t afford even to us. We were allowed to fly anything that could get in the air, but not on him.”
First win for FURY won the Felix Arbury 31 August 1936, when, with two companions flying on DWOITIN D-372, conducted a successful air battle against three Italian fighters FIAT CR-32, having shot down one fighter. In early September Arbury flew to FURY at number 4-3 to intercept enemy bombers, JU-52, but during the fight got carried away and using up fuel, made an emergency landing on its territory near the front line in the area Estramadura. Subsequently, Felix Horbury became the first pilot who has made Taran in the civil war in Spain. At least two victories on the FURY won and the future as the best Spanish Republican aviation Andres Garcia Lacalle, who flew mainly on the FURY number 4-2.
At the end of August 1936 Spaniards lost the first FURY 4-1, which was shot down in a dogfight. Pilot ever the Minister, bleeding profusely, managed to land the fighter destroyed on its territory, but the pilot could not be saved, but the plane could not be restored. The remains of the car were transported to Guadalajara.
With the advent of the rebels of modern German and Italian aircraft, the number of Republican aviation has sharply declined. In his memoirs, the commander of Republican aviation Ignacio de Cisneros wrote: “the day came when, at my command, “Raise in the air fighters!” flew only one plane.” This plane was a Hawker FURY! And on September 20 of that year, in a dogfight with a FIAT CR-32 was lost and this machine. Made itself felt that the synchronizers and armament, the plane set the Spaniards, without specialists. Lacalle, opened fire from onboard weapons, shot off the propeller of his plane. To put the plane fell on the enemy’s territory. The pilot managed to cross the front line, and the plane index 4-2 came into the hands of Franco, who restored it and, giving the aircraft the designation 4W-1, was used until the end of the war.
FURY did well in the battles that caused the Assembly plant of the company Hispano Suiza in Guadalajara from the damaged planes 4-1 and 4-3 one fighting machine. This Fury of the Republicans in the fighting have not used, but at the end of the war, he fell into the hands of nationalists. Wrote off the aircraft in 1940. During the Civil war in Spain was lost, another FURY (no. 50), which belonged to Portugal, which assisted Franco in August 1936, he was shot down by the arrows of the Republican bombers.
Design description
Biplane Hawker FURY was a single, single-engine fighter biplane of mixed construction. The fuselage is all-metal, truss, design of it was developed and patented by the firm Hawker in 1925 and was used on most aircraft firms. The basis of the power set of the fuselage was made of steel and dural tube, cavalzani at the ends to a rectangular cross-section. Between the pipes connected by means of steel plates on the studs for greater rigidity massed steel cables-braces. The upper part of the fuselage behind the cockpit was formed by thin transverse and longitudinal dural profiles.
In the front part of the fuselage reinforced steel pipe formed engine mount — motor attached to it using rubber washers. Behind the engine was a steel fire door. “Arched” shape of the fuselage, the center of which housed the cockpit provided the pilot excellent visibility in any direction. The front and middle part of the fuselage closed duralumin panels. Outside the tail portion is trimmed with a blade. On the left side of the rear fuselage had a duralumin detachable operating panel providing access to the battery, tie rods control system and oxygen tank.
The two-spar wing, of mixed construction. The wing spars consisted of three interconnected thin steel flared profile. Shelf spar was in the form of octagonal pipes. Transverse power set of the wing consisted of wooden ribs of the truss. Around the perimeter of the upper and lower wings increased thin duralumin tube with a small diameter. For greater rigidity of the spars were joined together with steel pipes and massed steel cables-braces.
The ailerons were installed only on the upper wing. Control of the Aileron flexible cable from the control knob. The upper and lower wings have the same design. Between the wings were connected by N-shaped struts-struts. The same struts-struts the top wing connected to the fuselage. In addition, the upper and lower wings were pulled together with each other and with the fuselage by cables-braces. On the left wing strut is fixed a forked tube LDPE. The upper wing had a substantial carryover forward relative to the lower, which provides the best visibility from the cockpit, without requiring the traditional cutout in the upper wing. The upper and lower wings were set with the angle of attack of +3.33 degrees.
Tailplane composite construction. Keel with two spars of steel pipes. To compensate for the turning moment of the screw keel rotated 2 degrees to the left from the Central axis of the aircraft. Stabilizer dvuhkonturniy with the possibility of changing the angle of installation. Relining installation angle of the stabilizer was carried out using a helical gear. Management of the relocation of the stabilizer was carried out from the knob located on the left side of the cockpit. Transverse power set of the keel and the stabilizer consists of a set of wooden ribs of the truss. The covering of surfaces of the tail plain. Posting in rudder control cable. A good selection of the areas of the ailerons, elevators and direction allowed the aircraft good handling and high maneuverability characteristics.
The fuel system comprised two fuel tanks with a capacity of 227 litres. The main fuel tank 123 litres of gasoline were located in the upper part of the fuselage and closed by detachable duralumin panels. Under it installed a second fuel tank with a capacity of 105 litres. Between the tanks are not connected, which increased the survivability of the aircraft damage to one of them. Each tank had a separate fill tube. The main fuel tank is refueled through the filling neck located at the top of the fuselage, fuel filler is a second fuel tank located on the right flight. Under fuel tanks was a tank capacity of 19 liters. Another 16 litres of oil was kept in the oil system of the engine.
The water tank of engine cooling system with a capacity of 59 litres was installed immediately behind the engine before the main fuel tank. The radiator of the cooling system water and oil located at the bottom of the fuselage. In order to adjust the cooling radiator is supplied with shutters, which were controlled by the handle on the starboard side of the cockpit.
Flight performance of fighters FURI
Flight performance of fighters FURI
Instrumentation of the aircraft includes only the most necessary instruments: speed indicator, compass, roll pointer, and slip indicator engine speed, the pressure indicator fuel pressure indicator and oil temperature, the pointer of the fuel consumption and the index of water temperature in the cooling system. The aircraft FURY I installed inline twelve-cylinder water-cooled engine Rolls Royce KESTREL IIS power of 485 HP at an altitude of 3500 meters and a maximum output of 590 HP at the altitude of 4000 meters. The engine, equipped two-bladed wooden propeller with a constant pitch Watts V. 274 with a diameter of 3.2 meters, was launched from an onboard battery, fork car starter or manual starter. To install the crank on the left side of the fuselage in the engine area, there was a special socket.
Landing gear (FURY I and FURY II) non-retractable, strut, with the Central axis and the tail crutch. The shock absorbers of the main landing gear struts and tail of the crutch— rubber plate. Main wheels were equipped with hydraulic brakes of the company Palmer. Skid did not have a free orientation and was constantly directed along the axis of the aircraft.
Armament consisted of two fuselage synchronous 7.7 mm machine guns Vickers Mk.ll or Mk.lllD installed in front of cabin from behind the instrument panel. Reloading guns manually (handle reloading out in the cockpit). The ammunition of each machine gun was 600 cartridges located in the cartridge boxes, access to which was through a removable aluminum cover.
N. Food reserve was, A. CHECHIN

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