GLIDER CG-3A – WOODEN “SCHOOL DESK” AMERICAN PARATROOPERS

GLIDER CG-3A - WOODEN In February 1941 Aviatsionny corps of the U.S. army (the predecessor of the air force, U.S. army) became interested in the possibility of using gliders in the landing and transportation operations. As a result, by March 1941, developed the preliminary requirements for two types of gliders for the transport of eight and 15 people. These requirements sent to eleven firms, but only four of them said that they are ready to start work. It was “the Frankfort, sailplan company”, “Waco aircraft company of Troy”, “Bowles, sailplan incorporated and the St. Louis aircraft Corporation”. Other refused to participate in the contest, being involved in the implementation of other military orders, or citing the lack of necessary capacity or experience. To the stage of construction of prototypes of the gliders made it two companies.

 
Signs of the gliders in the US army consisted of two letters – S (Cargo cargo) and G (Glider – glider), followed by a hyphen and the sequential number of the model. Have the prototypes ahead of you added the letter X, for example, the XCG-4. Vehicles of small series made to military trials, instead it was the letter Y. the First production version was distinguished by the letter A after the symbol (e.g. CG-3A), the second, and so on.
 
The first order for the creation of the two aforementioned transport of gliders, eight-seat XCG-1 and XCG pjatnadtsatiminutnogo-2 in may 1941 gave the company a “Frankfort”. However, the case went wrong – the company was not satisfied with the terms of the contract, and during static testing her glider collapsed. In the result, the air corps cancelled the order, and the firm started production of double training gliders.
The second agreement was signed in June 1941 with “Waco”. He again called for the development and construction of samples of two types of gliders: eight marked ХСG-Z, and pjatnadtsatiminutnogo HSO-4. Ordered two sample ХСG-Z (one was intended for static tests and one for flight) and three samples ХСG-4 (one for the ran and two for flight).
 
ХСG-Z was ready in December 1941, and its flight model in January 1942 Static tests were carried out in laboratory on the base of Wright field and gave quite satisfactory results. The first flying prototype took to the air on 26 January 1942, before the end of the static tests, the report for which was signed in April.
 
Prototype airframe СG-3. He had the rudder painted in stripes. Note the large light, the shape of the wingtips and wing struts and chassis
 
The prototype glider СG-3. He had the rudder painted in stripes. Note the large light, the shape of the wingtips and wing struts and chassis
 
ХСG-Z had a traditional American transport gliders mixed design. Under the scheme it was a strut-braced high-wing monoplane with single-finned tail.
 
Wing with a constant chord across the span and rounded wingtips. Two-spar wing made entirely of wood. From the front edge to the front (main) spar it is trimmed with plywood, and then the tight fitting cloth. On the back edge mounted ailerons, any of the runway mechanization was not. Ailerons aerodynamic and the weight compensation had a wooden frame and fabric covers. Under the wing tips were installed, wire springs, which do not allow touching the ground plane.
 
The underwings were supported by V-shaped braces and N-shaped controlcase. The struts are welded together from steel pipes and closing fairing with plywood ribs, covered with cloth.
 
The plumage was performed according to the classical scheme. The stabilizer was tightened from the bottom V-shaped braces, top -bands-braces. Its design was similar to the wing design. From the leading edge to the spar sheathing was plywood and then fabric. The handlebars had a design similar to the ailerons. All rudders were mounted trimmers.
 
The base of the fuselage was a farm, welded from steel pipes. In district pilot and cargo cabin siding made of plywood. Further, along the fuselage were wooden stringers, to which was attached a linen cording. In the front there was a transparent lantern, leans to the right. Through the formed opening was used for the landing and landing. On the right side were made with a small door through which it was possible to load the glider. Empty the unit had a very back alignment, so in the distillation of nose fit balance weight.
 
In the front were two pilot’s seats with a set of proteininteractions devices (such as glider СG-4) and controls – control sticks and pedals. The glider was equipped with a radio. The project was going to be placed in the apparatus of the two pilots and six Marines, but most often right seat was occupied by another soldier.
 
GLIDER CG-3A
 
GLIDER CG-3A
 
 
Marines sat on two benches face on the flight. The cargo compartment was cramped, the people in full gear, with weapons and a small supply of ammunition and suhpaykov was placed there with difficulty. On the transport of any oversized cargoes speech did not go.
 
To escape glider opened the lantern and the soldiers jumped to the ground across the Board, as from the boat. And had to jump from a decent height – about 180 cm.
 
The landing gear consisted of a tricycle landing gear with a tail wheel and landing skids. The main wheels were attached to the struts with rubber shock absorption. In a combat situation before planting the main wheels can be raised so that the fit performed on the ski under the nose of the fuselage. Ski was wycliffes veneer. Tail wheel – driven.
After some modifications the glider was transferred to serial production. The main of them concerned the design of the canopy. It felt stiff enough. The fact that the soldiers jumped out of the fuselage, based on the lantern, which led to its deformation. Serial modification СG FOR the size of the lamp is reduced, and its binding is strengthened. On the sides there were round portholes. On the starboard side did the Soviet air inlet with damper for ventilation of the cabin.
 
Originally ordered 300 copies СG, but they only made 100. The order was cut back at the end of 1942 in favor of the more capacious СG-4A. Serial production was firm “Commonwealth aircraft” of Kansas city (Missouri), since the plant “Waco” (firm WAKO) was mastered the production of СG-4A.
 
Marines practice amphibious glider of СG-3. Jumping out of the glider, the main thing - not to run into the bayonets fixed to the rifles of his comrades. You can see seven paratroopers. Eighth, the visible on the left edge of the picture, apparently, not with this glider. The soldiers of the old-style helmets - with the fields that were supposed to protect from saber strike
 
Marines practice amphibious glider of СG-3. Jumping out of the glider, the main thing – not to run into the bayonets fixed to the rifles of his comrades. You can see seven paratroopers. Eighth, the visible on the left edge of the picture, apparently, not with this glider. The soldiers of the old-style helmets – with the fields that were supposed to protect from saber strike
 
Prototype airframe СG-3. Under the lamp is visible to the pilot in the left seat and Marines. On the Marines helmets, and pilot in the cap. He is not going to run on the field with a rifle and to practice ground fighting. The pilot has headphones on, so the glider installed radio. On the left side visible air intake of the ventilation system. Before the canopy of the lantern on the mast-tube LDPE, and at the top of the visor-Venturi. Another such pipe is mounted on the starboard side
 
The prototype glider СG-3. Under the lamp is visible to the pilot in the left seat and Marines. On the Marines helmets, and pilot in the cap. He is not going to run on the field with a rifle and to practice ground fighting. The pilot has headphones on, so the glider installed radio. On the left side visible air intake of the ventilation system. Before the canopy of the lantern on the mast-tube LDPE, and at the top of the visor-Venturi. Another such pipe is mounted on the starboard side
 
Prototype airframe СG-3 in a test flight. Protogen had the rudder painted in stripes
 
The prototype glider СG-3 in a test flight. Protogen had the rudder painted in stripes
 
Serial glider СG-3A. Enhanced visible light. In the side of visible round window. Three openings in the lower part of the fuselage - footrest to lift up the cabin. Modified chassis designs, U-shaped brackets, Aileron and Elevator
 
Serial glider СG-3A. Enhanced visible light. In the side of visible round window. Three openings in the lower part of the fuselage – footrest to lift up the cabin. Modified chassis designs, U-shaped brackets, Aileron and Elevator
 
Small load capacity, tightness in the cockpit and the inability to transport bulky goods led to the fact that СG-never been used in combat operations, and has found application only in training units. They trained as pilots, towing, piloting the C-47 and glider pilots. The soldiers of the airborne divisions was mastered on СG FOR rules of behavior during takeoff, flight and landing, and practiced the skills of a quick landing of the glider. In the future, the personnel were moved to a heavier СG-4A.
 
It is worth saying a few words about the organization of the airborne troops in the United States in that period. Theoretical studies on this subject began in America in 1939, it Turned out that there are different views on the organization and use of the airborne divisions.
 
The Marines believed that they should be an integral part of the infantry, and after landing to conduct joint military operations. The engineers said that the airborne division must first destroy important objects, carried out sabotage and sabotage and so must obey them. The BBC wanted to take the paratroopers themselves as “air grenadiers”, like the marine corps in the Navy. After a brief hesitation, the airborne units became subordinate to the infantry.
In may 1942, he developed plans for the organization of five airborne divisions. At first I wanted to shape them like normal infantry, but trained for delivery through the air. Soon, however, he changed his mind and created a new structure. American airborne division consisted of one parachute regiment and two glider with auxiliary units. But first, the ratio was different: two parachute and one glider regiment. The increase in the proportion of gliders was due to the need of the air of heavy weapons. The airborne division was smaller than an infantry. The staff consisted of 504 officers and 8321 soldier. The division included, in addition to these three regiments, the division light artillery (howitzers and anti-tank guns), a battalion of sappers, sanitary squad, a squad of quartermasters (quartermasters) and some others.
 
The first parachute battalion (501) created in the US in late 1940, following (550-y) in July, 1941 in the Panama canal zone. The first division, landed not on parachutes, and gliders, has become a private of the 88th airborne battalion. In fact, it was an experienced unit, which practiced methods of transporting, landing, resources, training, and so on. Soon was formed following two battalion 502 and 504. They became the basis for the organization of the first parachute regiment.
 
In August 1942 on the basis of the 82nd infantry division formed two airborne divisions – the 82nd and 101st. The process is continued.
 
At the then prevailing concepts as the vanguard landed parachutists, which was to capture and to prepare sites suitable for landing gliders. Then landed division of gliders, which are using heavy weapons, perform basic combat tasks.
 
For training glider pilots' Aviation corps US army used several types of two - and multi-seat gliders
 
For training glider pilots ‘ Aviation corps US army used several types of two – and multi-seat gliders
 
The group of students in front of the glider CG-3A, base of Wickenburg, AZ
 
A group of students in front of the glider CG-3A, base of Wickenburg, AZ
 
Soldiers for parachute regiments were recruited, for the most part, of volunteers. But if we were talking about gliders, that enthusiasm was not observed. The service was dangerous, there were frequent injuries at training. From may 1943 until February 1944, when disasters gliders 17 people were killed and 162 were wounded. At this time, there was a poster in the US depicting the five wrecked gliders with the inscription: “the Joint glider troop. No flight pay. No jump pay. But – never a dull moment” -“Join the glider part. You will not receive compensation for no flying, no jumping. But it will not be boring”. Then introduced extra glider – $ 100 for officers and 50 soldiers. But it did not increase the number of hunters to serve in the glider troops. General M. Ridgway, commander of the 82nd division (the commander of the 101st was General W. Lee), trying to reverse this trend, gathered the whole division at the airport, sat in the glider СG-4A with a known pilot-glider M. Murom. They carried out various shapes of complex aerobatics, including loops and turns, and put the glider in a designated place. This demonstration has changed the attitude of the glider in the division.
 
When the United States launched the production of transport gliders, was that they need a large number of pilots. By the end of the year expected to prepare 12,000 glider, which, of course, was unreal. The first 12 officers began to teach in June 1941, in Elmira. The program resembled adopted for glider pilots-sportsmen, but the fly tow more. Trained officers were to become the instructors and leaders of military training courses.
 
Initially, the glider assumed a four-week training and 25 – 30 hours flying time (1 hour introductory flight, 9 study with the launch vehicle or winch, 2 hours of flight on a single tow, 5 hours on a double tow, the two-hour flights, and from 5.5 to 15 hours of planning). Ground course included the aerodynamics, the design of the gliders, the mechanics and technique of flying towed and gliding flight. The flights were carried out on 2 – 4 seater gliders, the types which were a great many. Most of them were versions of civilian cars.
 
On 21 August 1941 the army chief of staff ordered the training of 150 officers-pilots. School Twenty-nine palms in California was the main training centre. Training began in March 1942, among other things, there were carried out training flights with the use of ascending currents, which, as it turned out, it was not mandatory for pilots landing gliders.
 
Candidates for training were the pilots of light aircraft. The advantage given to those who completed military or civilian flight school or courses. With the release of the glider pilots had the plaque on the glider 50 hours. Then the rate was reduced to 30. The need for pilots of gliders has increased the requirements for candidates is gradually reduced.
 
In may 1942 released 6000 pilots. By this time, the program included 30 hours of flight on a training aircraft, 8 o’clock – double gliders, and 8 on the eight – or pyatnadcatiletnij gliders.
 
The basic data of a glider CG-3A
 
Basic data of a glider CG-3A
 
 
Created 18 glider schools that were 80 to 212 students. The most difficult was to organize the final stage of training on the large gliders. At the end of 1942 2754 expected of a cadet of flying them, the total throughput of the four divisions that had these devices was 600 students.
 
The American pilots of the gliders were not prepared for ground combat. They were to be used in the preparation of landing sites and landing of other sailplanes and, where possible, to evacuate. This led to the fact that the loss of the American pilots was less than their British colleagues who after landing he participated in battles on a par with the rest of the Marines.
 
Although the glider СG not used in combat operations, he made a significant contribution to the training of airborne forces of the US and left a good memory in the hearts of veterans of the Second world war.

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