During the Second world war working on jet engines were in Germany on a broad front. They are ahead in this area all of the country and was able to convey in the production of two types of TRD – Ju-YuMO 004 and BMW 003. Equipped with their first jet aircraft – the Me 262, he 162 and ar 234 was the undoubted success of the German scientists and engineers. These aircraft were successful and widely known, but the design idea was not on, and the command of the Luftwaffe in July 1944, announced a competition for the creation of the fighter, who had the best flight and operational data than the Me 262, and is able to replace him.
Characteristics of the new fighter was set out in the Technical requirements of the RLM 226/II, dated 15 July 1944 They stipulated that the new fighter will be single-engine, with a new turbojet Heinkel HeS 001 Hirt with an estimated thrust of 12.75 kN (1300 kgs). The work was conducted already in 1939, and the Germans hoped that they will be able to arrange its production. These hopes were not justified – until the end of the war was built only a few prototypes. The rejection of the twin-engined fighter in favor of the concept of “One engine-one plane” at the time, had serious arguments. The fact that the production of engines was small, and their lifetime is much less than that of the piston, not allowing them to build a lot of twin-engine fighters. On the other hand, to create a single-engine plane was not very simple – jet engines lacked the thrust required for the maximum relief of the glider.
Other paragraphs of the requirements was that the maximum speed should be 1000 km/h at 7000 m, fuel capacity – 1000 liters (30 minute flight), and a service ceiling of 14 000 m. equipment expected from the 4 cannons MK 108 caliber 30 mm. the Pilot must be in a pressurized cabin with front and back protection from bullets caliber to 12.7 mm. the Latter requirement stemmed from the experience of the struggle against American bombers b-17, the arrow which side had the guns. In General, the fight against heavy bombers of the allies was the main task of the new fighter. Not filmed the task of maneuvering air combat, which is also easier solved in the case of a single-engine plane. With regard to technological requirements, it was recommended strongly to reduce the use of scarce materials, and instead make greater use of steel and wood.
The competition in that hopeless position, which was then Germany deserves admiration. No less surprising is the fact that the competition was attended by all the major aviation firms. This is due to two factors: firstly, the German science and technology had great potential, and secondly – a business led initiative development of jet aircraft since the early 1940-ies. The results of the competition were as follows: the majority of candidates (including the winner – TA 183) remained only on paper, one sample has reached the stage of full-scale wooden model (Focke – Wulf “Flitzer”), and “underground” sample – Messerschmitt R. 1101-in as a pilot of the aircraft flew in the skies of America until the early 1950s, moreover, in the presented projects were studied all possible schemes single-engine jet that served as a good basis for the development of aircraft after the war. Despite the abundance of the presented projects, they all had two common layout solutions: tricycle landing gear with nose wheel and swept wings. The latter is particularly important and suggests that the designers relied on the data of aerodynamic research at high subsonic speeds and understand the value of wing sweep to achieve the required speed of 1000 km/h.
The layout of fighter R 1101
A prototype fighter Me 3.1101 VI obtained by the Americans as a trophy in Oberammergau in April 1945 Wilen layout engine. The bottom of the fuselage and wing main landing gear removed. Missing the canopy
Firm Heinkel submitted the project is Not R. 1078С. It was an unusual design for a “tailless wing, a sweep of 45°.” At that time did not know how to properly design the air intakes and ducts to the engines, so they tried to make as short as possible. Here was the short fuselage, and to provide load balancing and necessary aspects from the handlebars – swept wing. The machine had a mixed structure: the fuselage and the spars of the wings are made of metal, plating and some other parts of wood. In fuselage housed the cabin, armed with 2 cannons MK 108, engine compartment and chassis compartments. Main legs retracted forward, and the nose – back, turning the wheel 90°.
The wing was the original design – with great sweep and cross V. Ending a considerable area was bent down and performed the role of the keel and stabilizer. Located on the elevons were used to control pitch and roll. In addition, the wing was supplied with slat and flap. Wingspan -9,00 m length of machine – 5, 13 m. it was Assumed that she would be able to fly at a speed of 1000 km/h because the plane was not built, then numeric data should be treated with great caution. This extends to further the narrative.
Even more exotic looked design by Blohm und Voss, under the designation R. 212-03. Despite the longer fuselage, there is also applied a swept wing (40°) with large transverse V and curved endings. At the breaking point of the chord of the winglets were reduced in comparison with the chord of the wing, but to maintain directional stability added a small keels with rudders. Such a keel could be mounted on the end of the fuselage. The cockpit was closed with a three-part light, giving good visibility in all directions. The design of the airframe was supposed to be metal, but in the case of the adoption of the aircraft into service, the firm promised to simplify the design and more use of wood and steel.
The armament was housed in the nose of the fuselage and consisted of three MK 108 30 mm caliber, with a margin of 60 rounds per gun. Were studied also other arms, including the installation to run 22 rockets R4М on the sides of the fuselage or a pair of guided missiles X-4 under the wings. For attacks on ground targets provided for the suspension of bombs up to 500 kg or 7 Mk8 guns in containers. The wingspan of the plane – of 8.55 m length – 6.5 m, empty weight – 2700 kg, flying weight -4170 kg fuel capacity in fuselage and wing tanks – 1500 l, which promised a range of 1120 km. the Maximum speed at the ground – 910 km/h, ceiling -12 500 m.
Repair of damaged R. 1101 VI workshop by bell in Buffalo in 1947, the Plane gradually turns from R. 1101 in X-5
R. 1101 in the United States. On the plane assembled American engine Allison J-35. On Board glued to plywood layouts 12.7 mm machine guns. The fairing of the wing is missing. Visible protivoallergennye the load on the rudder
R. 1101 at Oberammergau. The plane is equipped with engine YuMO 004В. The hatch between the wing and the stabilizer provides access to radio stations
Design by Junkers under the designation EF 128-03 also been made under the scheme tailless, but it was not an exotic bells and whistles”, as in the previous samples. The wing had a sweep of 45°, but without transverse V, and carried the usual mechanization – elevons, flaps and slats. To ensure directional stability, around the middle of the wing span were installed keels that were both above and below the wing. Designers do not have a long duct inside the fuselage, and placed two intakes at the sides, immediately in front of the engine. Scoops of the air intakes protrude beyond the contour of the fuselage. As a result, the duct was short, though curved. From the point of view of today, such a scheme would be workable. The use of such a layout of the engine compartment allowed us to free up space in the nose of the fuselage for installation of radar FuG 240 Berlin for aircraft variant night of the interceptor. In this case, the firm promised to shield the fuselage place for second crew member.
In the conventional version of the aircraft was controlled by a single pilot, in the closed lantern, projecting outside the contour of the fuselage. Of course, this worsened the review back, but to reduce the resistance with this fact, decided to accept. Weapons developed in two versions: for night interceptor (radar) – two cannons MK 108 caliber 30 mm in the wing roots with a reserve of 100 rounds per gun, and in the usual form – advanced two guns in the nose of the fuselage, instead of the radar.
The design of the aircraft was mainly made of wood, using metal only in the most necessary cases. Fuel is stored in wing tanks with a capacity of 540 liters, and in the fuselage – 1025 L. the Estimated range in this case was 1300 km. the Maximum speed was assumed to be 900 km/h at sea level and 990 km/h – at an altitude of 7000 m. the empty Weight of the aircraft was 2610 kg, takeoff weight – 4070 kg, a wing Span of 8.9 m, machine length – 7 m.
In addition to these firms, the competition was attended by two of the famous “fighter” firms of Messerschmitt and Focke-Wulf. The main struggle for the order was between them as the projects of competitors pretty quickly dismissed.
Firm Messerschmitt presented three projects: R. 1110, 1111 R. and R. 1101.
Project R. 1110 was generally conventional configuration, with the exception of some elements. During its development the designers sought to create a fuselage minimum cross section. Because of this, the cockpit was closed the lamp, not much protruding above the fuselage. Of course, this worsened the review. Main legs retracted into the wing root, resulting in its thickening in the region of the center section. To maintain the relative thickness of the profile, had to make a rush from the fuselage with a large sweep. The rest of the wing had a classic look (except for sweep) and carried the ailerons, flaps and slats. The empennage consisted of a swept fin and stabilizer. The stabilizer was placed at the edge of the fuselage, above the engine nozzle. The weakest point of the project was the organization of the air supply to the engine. Due to lack of knowledge on the design of the air intakes and striving to the minimum midsection to supply air to the sides of the fuselage just cut out two holes. Any buckets protruding beyond the contour of the fuselage, was not provided. It is difficult to say how this system would work in flight.
The design of the fuselage metal was assumed, and – feathers – wood. Fuel capacity was 1500 l, the wingspan is 8.25 m, the length of the plane – of 10.36 m Weight of empty aircraft – 2812 kg, takeoff – 4290 kg Maximum speed at the ground -900 km/h at 7000 m – 1000 km/h range – 1500 km and the ceiling is 1400 km Armament: three MK 108 in the nose of the fuselage. The impression is that the firm simply copied the flight data from conditions of the contest. Despite this and the fact that the plane was never built, his appearance had a great influence on post-war design ideas. Features R. 1110 clearly visible from aircraft Saab J-32, Etandar Dassault, Grumman F-11 tiger, and especially hunter Hawker.
Experimental aircraft bell X-5. Visible in the wing root fairings that cover the nodes to adjust the wing. From the fuselage the wing has the influx
Experimental aircraft X-5 is used to study the optimal sweep angle of the wing. Wing coaches would simply be fitted on the ground by hand. Some sources say that the plane X-5 – the first fighter with in flight variable sweep, but it’s not. Photo NACA-NASA
Project R. 1111 was developed clearly influenced by aircraft Me 163 – the same pattern of tailless with a keel. The sweep angle of the wing was increased to 45°, with a simultaneous increase in the profile thickness. It was necessary to arrange the cleaning of the main landing gear. Along the way, solved the problem of air intakes, placing them in the leading edge of the wing. While there were long, curved duct, but with proper design it is possible to avoid large losses. In order to compensate for the resistance from the thick wing, the lamp is most recessed in the fuselage, making it flush with the fairing to the detriment of the review. The wing had elevons, flaps and slats on the outer parts of the front edge, in front of the elevons. Armament consisted of 4 x MK 108 cannons, placed in the fuselage and the leading edge of the wing. Design combined, fuel -1500 L. Wingspan – 9,16 m, the length of the plane – of 8.92 m. empty Weight – 2740 kg, takeoff – 3490 kg Maximum speed at the ground is 900 km/h at 7000 m – 995 km/h, ceiling of 14 000 m. the flight Range is up to 1500 km. the Plane was never built, but some of his ideas after the war, was implemented by the British in the planes De Haviland 106 Comet, De Haviland 110 sea vixen De, Haviland 108.
The most advanced work on the project R. 1101. Using their large capabilities as well as scientific and technical potential obtained in studies in the 1930 – 1940 years, the firm Messerschmitt started to build a prototype without waiting for the decision of the competition Commission. In fact, the construction of the R. 1101 was carried out at your own risk. For reduction of terms in the first instance decided to use the wing (outer part), the Me 262, and the main landing gear taken from the Bf 109. Many questions was in part joint work of the turbojet engine and a long duct. Since all the wind tunnel of Germany at the time was inundated with urgent orders, the firm conducted its own research, and from flight tests. In mid-November 1944, the motors of one of the serial Me 262 mounted pipe, imitating the long ducts of the new aircraft. Conducted the flight showed that the losses do not exceed 3%, which is considered quite acceptable. The photograph shows that the test duct had a major cylindrical portion, and then the conical narrowing of the front of the engine. This suggests that the end of the question of German engineers to study the time – modern views say that from the air intake to the engine, the channel has gradually expanded. Another important issue was determining the optimal sweep wing for R. 1101. This was done by the engineer Puffert, conducting research in the tubes. He recommended that the angle of 45°, which was adopted.
A preliminary design study was completed in November 1944, simultaneously carried out work on gathering materials for the construction of the prototype and preparation of serial production, without waiting for the results of the competition and flight tests. Prototype R. 1101V1 decided to build at a secret factory in Oberammergau in southern Germany.
The plane was an all-metal, signalen being transferred to the scheme. In the front part of the fuselage housed a cylindrical air intake duct on the pilot and the niche front. The cockpit was closed with a three-part lantern, opening to the right, as in other designs such as the Messerschmitt. Behind the cabin was located at the fuel tanks 1000 l, radio equipment and niches main landing gear. In the third compartment housed the jet engine, the nozzle of which was placed under the tail boom. The engine compartment and the lower part of the tail boom had a steel shell to protect from the hot gases. As the work on the engine HeS 011 was delayed to the first sample provided for the installation of engine Cadet – YuMO 004В with a thrust of 8.7 kN (890 kgf).
The detachable part of the wing, borrowed from the Me 262, had two metal spars and wooden ribs fifteen. Cladding made from aviation plywood, the frame mechanization – metal. You saved the mechanization of the slat, Aileron, and flaps, although they are partially modified with respect to the swept wing. Further, for mass production, it was assumed to develop a new wing optimized for this aircraft. It had to have a smaller contraction, a little more space and less weight. R. 1101V1 there are special attachment points of the wing, permitting the earth to rearrange it and set in three fixed positions: 35°, 45° or 49°. And with the growth of the root wing sweep was moved forward to hold the focus plane on the spot. This was done to further search for the optimal appearance of a fighter. After the war there was a legend that designed the mechanism of change of sweep in flight. But it is not, wing coaches would simply be fitted manually and only on earth. On production machines intended to establish a fixed-wing, with the selected, optimal sweep.
Empennage consisted of a swept stabilizer and fin solid wood construction. Was studied also the tail in the form of letters T and V. But as any advantages they did not show refused them.
The bow rack was removed back on the flight, rotating the wheels by 90°, and the main stand and down in the niches of the fuselage near the duct.
Armament on the prototype is not mounted, but in a series was supposed to establish four guns MK 108. Was studied also the options installed on the aircraft radar and (or) up to four guided missiles X-4 (the missile below).
At the time of capture Oberammergau allies R. 1101V1 was ready about 80%. Then his fate was detective coloring. All documentation was shot on film and hidden four caches on the outskirts of the town. The aircraft itself, the layout of the engine in the fuselage, hid in the hangar in the mountains. The allies included in Oberammergau on April 29, 1945, was surprised by the presence of aircraft production in this hick town. Found they and the plane rolled out from hangar and left in the open air. Part of the documentation was lost, the part occupied by the French. A few days later came the American experts, which the locals gave the surviving caches. Discovered the machine very interested in Robert woods from the company “bell”. He, together with Waldemar Voegel, designer of the “Messerschmitt”, had offered to build and test the plane on the spot. The order was denied – first, because of the lack of the documents, which was the French, not wishing to share it, and secondly, for fear of sabotage by local staff. Meanwhile, the machine and its parts are photographed, collected the necessary parts and fixtures, recorded the testimony of all staff, and all collected “wealth” was transferred to the U.S., at the base of Ryde Feild. Of course, Voigt followed.
When unloading in Ryde Feild the car was badly damaged, delayed further work. Interest in it revived the army in 1948. Then the plane began to recover. It established American engine Allison J-35. He had more weight than the HeS 011, but much greater thrust. Instead of German guns wanted to install six machine guns Browning 12.7 mm, but most likely, it was limited by gluing on the fuselage cardboard models of weapons. The plane began to fly under the designation X-5 and made a great contribution to the study swept wings and testing mechanisms of change of the sweep. The flights were carried out until the beginning of 1950-ies, after which the car went for scrap.
(To be continued)
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