In the spring of 1941 the air force was 660 MiG-1 and MiG-3. But before the war this number was not considered sufficient, and the decree of the Council of people’s Commissars of the production aircraft ordered to increase. As of June 1, was built in 1094 machine.
Despite the fact that “MiG” is constantly improving, to completely get rid of identified test defects and failed. Drill the pilots noted a lack of stability, weak chassis design and the many defects in the power plant, what great confidence the pilots of the plane didn’t use and retraining of pilots of I-16 And I-15 on “MiGs” was hard.
By the beginning of the war fighter units in the Western military districts had 917 “MiGs”, which accounted for roughly a quarter of all Soviet fighters. 48 hours after the attack the Germans in the ranks was 384, and the rest were destroyed mostly on the ground as a result of enemy aircraft attacks and his technical staff during the retreat. And a few of the MiG-3 was in the hands of the enemy absolutely in good condition.
Air battles were few, but they are fully manifested constructionproduction defects, especially in her arms, forcing pilots to go to desperate steps and RAM the enemy aircraft. It is believed that the first aerial ramming during the great Patriotic war was carried out exactly on this type of a fighter.
The loss of personnel and equipment forced to throw in the most valuable footage of test pilots from the air force research Institute and design Bureau, which had a great flight experience and piloting skills. Forming six pieces of special purpose.
Two aviation regiment (401 and 402) was armed with MiG-3. The first was commanded by Hero of the Soviet Union, Colonel S. P. Suprun, second – Lieutenant-Colonel P. M. Stefanovsky, a prominent Soviet pilots of the time.
regiment went into battle in the first days of July. Pilots of the regiment fought against superior enemy forces in the district of Orsha, and then at Vyazma. In 44 days of fighting, they shot down 56 enemy aircraft, but lost 28 of its pilots, including the commander – Stepan Pavlovich Suprun. The circumstances of his death are not precisely known. Command of the regiment accepted the Colonel K. K. Kokkinaki, who on his MiG-3 shot down four enemy aircraft in person and three in the group. August 13, 401 regiment was sent to re-form, and test pilots have returned to work.
regiment went into battle July 2 in the Pskov region. Until August, his pilots shot down 27 enemy planes, but lost almost all of its (by mid-July there were only three serviceable MiG-3). After the reorganization of Moscow, the regiment returned to the front in 1942, it was rearmed with Yak-1.
Other parts of fighter aircraft, flew the MiG-3, also heroically fought the enemy; almost all a number of aerial victories have outnumbered the losses.
Among the many pilots who flew the MiG-3, it is necessary to highlight the future of the legendary ACE Alexander Pokryshkin, who fought in MiGs until the end of 1942 and only for the period was down around 15 Nazi planes.
Manifested in the course of operation, the disadvantages are gradually eliminated, and the MiG was continuously improved. So, to increase longitudinal stability in mass production launched a new wings with automatic slats. And put them not only on new machines, but also gradually upgraded the previously released planes in combat units. In MiGs early series were replaced by propellers. New was lighter and without the effect of “promotion”.
The armament was also increased. The first car had a standard set of one 12.7 mm BS machine gun and two 7.62 mm ShKAS. Late – and two wing-mounted ShKAS 7.62 mm or under-wing-mounted 12.7-mm machine gun BK. In the autumn of 1941, the series has gone the two heavy machine guns BS in the bow, and from “weak” ShKAS was abandoned in favor of increasing the ammunition. Already at the end of serial production of the MiG-3 started to put two 20-mm cannon ShVAK.
Cannon “MiGs” were equipped with engines AM-38 with a maximum capacity of 1500 HP
In October 1941 the main producer of the MiG-3 – Moscow plant № 1 was evacuated to Kuibyshev, where it was planned to continue their output, but on 26 November the factory received an order to stop production of these aircraft in favor of Il-2, which had the same engine. Serial production of “MiG” in Kuibyshev gradually decreased and finally ceased in early 1942.
In the spring of the same year, KB Mikoyan returned to Moscow and the production plant of factory No. 115 has resumed production of the MiG-3 with cannon armament. However, the quantities were negligible -30 machines. All in all, it was built 3172 MiG-3.
In combat regiments of tactical aviation, the number of the MiG-3 has been reduced -mainly due to the lack of spare parts, and in the course of reformation of the fighter part of the rearming of the fighters Yakovlev and Lavochkin. In the regiments of air defense, the air covering Moscow, Leningrad and other major cities, “MiGs” was delayed much longer – until the summer of 1944. Performing tasks standing in front of air defence, the MiG has shown itself from the best side. Can be very useful here was his great height and speed. On account of the pilots of the Soviet air defense lists more than 700 victories.
The MiG-3 became the most popular fighter of new generation put into service just before the war. At speed and altitude it was on par with the best fighters in the world but, unfortunately, his service was short. However, the MiG-3 has left an appreciable trace in the history of domestic aviation, assuming all the difficulties of the initial period of the great Patriotic war.
The MiG-3 was a single high-altitude fighter of mixed construction, made by normal aerodynamic scheme with low wing.
Technologically the fuselage consisted of two compartments – the front and tail. The front was formed by a spatial frame made of welded pipes and engine mount. Compartment closed by dural panels five and seven removable hood, observed by the castles “ZUSHI”. Rear compartment – wood, monocoque (as described in the technical description – “scallopboy design”), carried integral with the keel. The power range of the compartment was formed of four pine longerons with lining of bakelite plywood, stringers (pine slats) and eight box-shaped frames. Trim the tail section was wycliffes from five layers of veneer with a thickness of 0.5 mm; the inside and outside of the compartment papered another layer; the outside section is covered with putty and viskazalas.
The engine was installed in the front compartment on the steel Motorama; it also housed units of the fuel system. The front of the engine, just behind the spinner screw was located the oil tank and expansion tank. Behind the engine were fixed to the front fuel tank and cartridge boxes. On the engine, before the cockpit was installed weapons.
The cockpit was located behind the fuel tank and was completely closed by the lantern, consisting of a front fixed shroud, the middle sliding part glazed outside door. The middle part of the lantern is opened by moving backward flight; if necessary, it can be emergency reset. Cup the pilot seat is regulated on height.
Instrumentation allows you to perform flights day and night, in VFR and IFR weather conditions. In the lower part of the section, under the floor of the cabin, mounted liquid cooler and the main fuselage fuel tank.
In front of the tail section, just behind the pilot’s seat, housed the radio equipment. Around the Bay took place of the control rod of the control surfaces. In the lower part (under the keel) was installed tail (spike) wheel, and slightly higher section of the stabilizer.
The wing is single-spar, mixed design. The center section is metal. Longitudinal force consisted of I-shaped steel spar, the two dural walls (additional spars), 2 mm thick with reinforcing profiles and five stringers under the top wing skin. Cross set was composed of 13 ribs, two of which (the power) went along the sides of the fuselage. Wing profile – Сlark UNIVERSITY, elongation -5,97, transverse V – 6°. In the center section of the wing housed the fuel tanks and niche cleaning the main landing gear.
Two detachable wing – wooden, single-spar design. Longitudinal power set consoles consisted of a spar box type, two box-like walls with nine stringers. Cross set formed ribs 15 of the beam type. The consoles lining – 5-ply bakelite plywood thickness from 2.5 to 4 mm When the Assembly was used casein glue.
At the trailing edge of the wing panels were mounted ailerons of the “fries” with the angles of deflection: up 25° , down to -18°. The power range of the ailerons – aluminum, trim – cloth AST-100. Across the span of the lower surface of the wing (ailerons) was located dural flaps type “shrink”. The angle of deflection of flaps is 55°.
The aircraft later series (starting the 19th) at the front edge of the wing before the ailerons, housed the automatic slats.
The tail unit consisted of a vertical fin, made integral with the tail section of the fuselage, rudder, stabilizer and elevators. Frame two stabilizer – aluminum, with a cladding made from thin sheet aluminum. Frames rudder and elevators – also duralumin with fabric covering. On rudder and right sections of the Elevator were operated trimmers.
Control system – combined. The Aileron and rudder actuator – control knobs with push-pull rods, while the rudder was connected with the pedals Bowden-cable runs. The flaps were rejected by the pneumatic cylinders.
Chassis – retractable, tricycle, tailwheel. The main stand was developed in a niche of the wing along the axis of the aircraft tail stand – on the flight back into the fuselage. Housekeeping system – pneumatic. The design of the main props in the production process of the machine has changed. Depreciation stands – vostochnoperevoznaya (mixture of 70% glycerin and 30% alcohol). Stroke of the absorber rods were 250 – 270 mm dimensions of the main wheels – 600×200 mm, tail – 170х90мм. Tail stand in line units were often recorded in the released position and does not retract.
The power plant of the V – shaped 12-cylinder liquid-cooled engines AM-35A takeoff power 1350 HP, cooling systems, lubrication and fuel supply. The engine was equipped with propellers VISH-22E and VISH-61Ш (first series), and later propellers AB-5L-or VISH-105P. Radiator – cellular, type, OP-310, with capacity of 40 l; was placed in the tunnel under the cockpit. The degree of cooling was regulated by the deviation of louver and damper. Two oil cooler located on the sides of the forward fuselage.
Starting system the engine air from the common pneumatic system. At the hub of the propeller aircraft of the last series there was a ratchet for airfield run autostarter. Six thin-walled exhaust pipes were made from heat-resistant steel ЭЯ1-TL1. Spinner -magnesium alloy “electron”.
The fuel system consisted of four tanks (two in fuselage and two wing) with a total capacity of 680 l and the units of the fuel control. Filling tanks – separate, through the filling neck. Provided for the possibility of suspension under the wing of two resettable PTD with a capacity of 100 liters each.
Aircraft equipment consisted of electrical, instrument, navigation, communication and high-rise.
Electrical equipment included a generator GS-350 and the battery 12А5 (grid – wire). These sources provided lights, ANO, light-signalling and ambient cabin lighting, heated and LDPE.
Instrument and navigation equipment were allowed to fly day and night in simple and adverse weather conditions.
The aircraft had established radio RSI-3 or RSI-4, some vehicles were equipped with a radio, and some of the fighters had no radio equipment. In some regiments the radio was removed to facilitate the aircraft and improve its handling characteristics.
In the high-altitude equipment included oxygen device KPA-3 oxygen cylinder with a capacity of 4 l in Almost all of the MiG-3 was not involved in the defense system, this equipment had not been used.
The armament of the aircraft consisted of missile, rocket and bomb. Standard missile included
UBS machine gun with 300 rounds of ammunition and two machine guns ShKAS ammunition 375 – 750 rounds each. All small arms were installed on the engine, front cockpit, and was synchronized with the propeller. In the later series of arms increased. It was also envisaged suspension of two wing-mounted containers
Reactive missile launchers six RO-82 rockets RS-82.
Bomber weapons were placed on the four wing castle holders DZ-40 capacity 100 kg Total bomb load – 200 kg. for the possibility of the use of bombs caliber 100, 50 and 25 kg.
On all series of MiG-3 was mounted reflex sight PBP-1A.
Flight characteristics of the MiG-3
Wing span, m
Wing area, m2
Maximum speed, km/h:
at the height of
Practical range, km
The rate of climb, m/min
Practical ceiling, m
A. CHECHIN, N. Food reserve was
Noticed mistape? Highlight it and press
, to inform us. Ctrl+Enter Recommend to read “ANGELS” IN THE SKY OF SPAIN Dive bomber, the Hs-123. After the First world war power aviation enterprises in Germany decreased significantly. The restrictions imposed by the Versailles Treaty, in fact, deprived the... THE PERFECT BIPLANE Carrier-based fighter Grumman F3F of the company. In the early 30-ies of the American company Grumman was the undisputed leader in the production of fighter biplanes for carrier-based...