“MUSTACHE TRIANGLE”

French fighter-interceptor. In 1967, the firm Dassault, in cooperation with Swiss engineers aircraft factory in Emmen, started work on the modernization of Mirage, known as “Milan” or “kite”. The main feature of the Milan was canards (PGO), which received the unofficial title of “whiskers”, intended to reduce takeoff and landing distances and increased maneuverability in dogfighting. The principle of operation of the PGO was to create pitching moment at low speeds without losing lift and increasing drag.

 

The fact that Buchvostau with a Delta wing, bright representative of which was the Mirage III, the increase in angle of attack, if you wish, lift the nose of the plane up, requires a deviation of up elevons. They begin to slow down the flow of air over the wing and the lift of the wing drops sharply. The results of the wind tunnel this fall could reach 25% of the maximum value. It also increases aerodynamic drag. The last is accompanied by inevitable loss of speed in dogfighting is simply unacceptable. These inherent flaws of the “Mirage” has resulted in a relatively small wing loading his agile quality or insignificantly exceeds the capabilities of enemy aircraft in normal aerodynamic scheme, or even slightly behind them.
 
For example, the wing loading, the MiG-21, depending on the modifications, was about 20 – 25% more than the “Mirage” III, and the radius and time of the execution of turn was almost equal. The MiG-21 M from the earth at the speed of 750 km/h carried out a turn with a radius of 935 m in 28 seconds, as the Mirage IIIC had the radius of the bend of 900 metres and a run time of 27 seconds. Moreover, this slight superiority of the “Mirage” is achieved only at the expense of increasing congestion – at the Moment she was 4,85 units, and the “Mirage” of 5.0. Interestingly, both of these light aircraft near the ground was inferior to the twin-engine heavy Phantom F-4E, which, when the wing loading is 40% more than “Mirage”, carried out a turn on overload 5.3 units with a radius of 850 metres in 26 seconds.
 
So I hope for PGO had been, after all, if the lifting force and frontal resistance during the maneuvers will only be changed for the better, the French fighter will finally get a decisive advantage over opponents.
 
For the first test of the ‘whiskers’ firm “Dassault” choose the second “Mirage” of the M5 and from the Israeli contract. It established the all-metal nose cone, repeating the shape of the cone “Mirage” S, and to the first frame of the fuselage still attached “mustache”.
 
Mirage 5J, equipped with front horizontal surfaces. 1972
 
The Mirage 5J, equipped with front horizontal surfaces. 1972
 
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Milan, equipped with laser rangefinder-target designator
 
September 27, 1968, test pilot Jean-Marie Saget raise the car in the air. The plane took off from the strip at a speed of 250 km/h (previously take-off speed is 277 km/h). In the air the Soot dispersed “Mirage” of up to 400 km/h, but was forced to stop the overclocking and go for a landing due to strong shaking of the aircraft. Thanks PGO landing speed decreased by 37 km/h. In General, the flight results were considered very positive. First, the effectiveness of the “mustache” was proven, and secondly, they do not impact adversely on the air intakes and the powerplant, which allowed to work on them next.
 
Test decided to continue exploring the different shapes and angles “mustache”. For the unusual appearance of the fighter was nicknamed “Asterix” after the popular French comic book hero and cartoon – Gallic warrior bitty with a huge mustache.
 
After 28 flights, the optimal form of PGO finally decided, and its effectiveness at subsonic speeds was finally proven. The maximum speed achieved during these flights was 630 km/h, which corresponds to the number M=0,82. The deterioration of the characteristics of the aircraft (shaking) was observed in flight from a speed of 555 km/h, hence the need to hide the “mustache” at high speeds. Any serious difficulties to occur it should not, because very little surface area “mustache” (only 1.7% of the area of the bearing surface of the aircraft) practically does not affect the position of the center of pressure “Mirage” and reduced the margin of static stability. However, the kinematic diagram of the electrical release mechanism-cleaning “whiskers” turned out to be quite complicated: in order to avoid sharp, unexpected for the pilot pitching moment GIP had to be let out slowly increasing the angle of attack of each “condition”.
 
“Us” had a rectangular shape in plan with a high aspect ratio and thicker profile of the greater curvature (St-Cyr-156), which provided a large lift coefficient. Across the span of the surface, there were two slits, the front formed slat, and the other slit flap. This complex design allowed it to keep the lifting force constant throughout the range of angles of attack.
 
Plane
 
 
The Plane Milan S01:
 
1 – drogue parachute; 2 – brake; 3 – flap main landing wheels; 4 – wheel main landing; 5 – nose landing gear; 6 – flap core niche cleaning wheel; 7 – front of the main chassis; 8 – LDPE; 9 – par (“whiskers”); 10 – gun carriage; 11 – ANO; 12 – Aileron; 13 – flaps; 14-chennaicompany tank; 15-adjustable nozzle; 16-fairings cylinders; 17-gun; 18 – fold the front landing gear; 19 maintenance access doors; 20 – standby (emergency) EDT; 21 – visor canopy; 22 – the opening part of the canopy; 23 – adjustable air intake; 24 – Kiel; 25 – rudder; 26 – drag chute container; 27 – UR AIL-9B Sidewinder; 28 combined fuel tank JL-100; 29 – bomb caliber 454 kg; 30 – fold additional air intake; 31 – fold niche cleaning PGO (“whiskers”)

 
“Asterix” remade back to the Mirage M5J and returned the plane to the group of the Israeli contract, and the “whiskers” of a new design (yet fixed) mounted on a Mirage IIIRD No. 363. This plane was designed to assess the characteristics of the “mustache” by military pilots. The machine was flying with two external tanks, containers for NUR JL250. The tests took place in autumn 1968, with French pilots and pilots of the Swiss air force.
 
The first aircraft with a retractable “moustache” was a converted scout “Mirage” No. 344. Released faces have the angle of the transverse V 15° and the installation angle of attack of 19°. The total mass of the entire system of PGO mechanism of release and cleaning was about 50 kg. On the issue of spent about 8 seconds. The cutouts for the “whiskers” in the nose of the plane was closed with a spring-loaded doors.
 
24 may 1969 the aircraft took to the air with test pilot Jean Corot. In the first flight “mustache” was locked in the released position. During the second flight, which took place on the same day, was first involved in the mechanism of production and cleaning of PGO. Assessment Corot, machine without the ‘whiskers’ on its aerobatic properties were close to “Mirage” 5. Released “moustache” there was a small longitudinal oscillations of the aircraft, which had been noted at speeds of 237 km/h 425 km/h with landing and manoeuvring performance improved. To reduce shaking at high speeds I tried to install the “whiskers” from small angles of the forward and reverse sweep, while shaking almost disappeared, but has deteriorated longitudinal stability of the aircraft. This forced the designers to return to the original zero angle of the mounting surfaces in the plan.
 
The plane with the released “mustache” had a takeoff distance of 600 m shorter than usual and the take-off speed – 48 km/h less. Landing speed with the release of the “moustache” was reduced by 52 km/h Increased and the maneuverability of the fighter at speeds of up to 600 km/h.
 
In June 1969, the Mirage IIIR No. 344 with a “mustache” demonstrated at the Paris air show under the name “Milan” 01. Pilot guy MiTo-Marwar made several demonstration flights. During the demonstration it was claimed that AC Milan intended to replace fighter jets the Mirage IIIS, which were built in Switzerland under licence. In the description it was reported the main characteristics of the machine: take-off weight without the suspensions – 7200 kg, maximum takeoff weight of 13 950 kg, the thrust in the conduct of air combat is 0.84, the maximum speed of the earth is 1370 km/h at high altitude the speed corresponds to the number M=2.2, and the maximum rate of climb 200 m/s.
 
After the exhibition “Milan” 01 went to the test center of air force “istr”, where he flew military pilots and made a few mock battles with a fighter “Mirage” P. Improved landing characteristics military confirmed, but his maneuverability in combat was considered insufficient. Milan was, of course, better than the usual “Mirage” III, but F1 in battle still was better.
 
“MILAN” FOR THE SWISS AIR FORCE
 
The last flight Milan 01 made on 13 January 1970 in the presence of a delegation of the Swiss air force, which planned to buy 60 to 100 of these aircraft to replace the “hunters” girder “venomu”, the armament distributedgeneration squadrons. After that, the plane took off “whiskers” and again altered in the scout.
 
Meanwhile, the designers of the company “Dassault” went to Lucerne, where they were introduced to the requirements of the Swiss military in new “mustache” fighter-bomber. Under the fuselage of the machine they wanted to hang two bombs caliber 450 kg or 1100 fuel tank on L. Under the wing of two tank locks for four 250-kg bombs. For self-defense provided two missiles AIM-9. The maximum bomb load was four bombs of 450 kg. in addition, the French learned that as competitors, the customer sees an American attack aircraft A-7D “Corsair II” (version for Switzerland, received the designation A-7G), and Italian fighter-bomber Fiat G. 91Y.
 
Trying to win the competition, the French made a major bet on a powerful set of avionics and a new engine “Atar” 9К50, with a thrust in afterburner 7200 kgf. The new aircraft received the designation “Milan” S01. It established a system of course and vertical IDFS-251, DISS RDN-72, navigation calculator of the company “Cruz” ER-91 and the navigation indicator IDN 91. Most of the equipment was taken from the plane Jaguar Anglo-French development. In the bow of “Milan” could be set at one time radar “agave” (from carrier-based attack aircraft “Etandar”) and laser rangefinder-designator firms CSF, or to use the simplified version without radar, one with a laser rangefinder-designator. With the latest version of the aircraft was planned to be called “Milan” S M2.
 
To create a “Milan” S01 chose a plain fighter-bomber Mirage IIIE No. 589. He was mounted on the nose of “Mirage” V with retractable canards and associated equipment. Free engine “Atar” 9К50 in this moment was not, and the designers used close to the characteristics of turbojet Atar 9К31, which stood on the prototypes of the “Mirage” F. 1.
 
Milan S. 01, only with laser rangefinder-target designator in the nose, flew on may 29, 1970, the plane was piloted by Hai MiTo-Morwar. 30 June the car was demonstrated to the Swiss. “Milan” and weight is 11 000 kg had a takeoff distance of 630 m, and the mileage is only 450 m. Precision sighting and navigation system was quite comparable with the accuracy of the system on “Mirage” IIIE, however, laser-designator rangefinder showed unsatisfactory characteristics. It had a range of not more than 4000 m and were characterized as extremely high power consumption. However, when in December on the ground in Kozo conducted a series of flights on bombing, accurate results, the customer was quite satisfied. On 26 April the car made a demonstration flight in front of Swiss journalists, who would then be able to see the parked airplanes.
 
 
“Milan” to the test in Switzerland. In the background is the American competitor – plane A-7G “Corsair” II
 
In June 1971, Milan S. 01 was shown at the next Paris air show. In July it established a full version of sighting equipment, radar and a laser rangefinder-designator. The bow section has a narrow end and a pointed cone, that is immediately noted by the pilots view forward and down from the cab was better.
 
Then followed a series of flights with an engine Atar 9К50 test improvements in the power plant. In particular, there was improved air intake and cooling the engine compartment. In November 1971, after 194 on flight radar of “Milan” took off and continued flight testing without it. The modified aircraft control system allowed to increase the maximum speed with released “mustache” without the characteristic shaking up to 648 km/h.
 
In may 1972 began comparative tests of the main competitors:-7G “Corsair” II and “Milan”. The Americans put up against a French airplane six cars and one “Corsair” was a spare – just in case.
 
First machine flew to Switzerland on the specified routes, the estimated accuracy of the navigation system, and completed range bombing. Only made more than 30 flights, which were observed approximate equality in the characteristics of the systems and precision bombs.
 
Then came the firing of guns at a floating target on lake Newsalaska. When flying over a smooth water surface, as is known, DISS gives the large error of determining the speed, so the pilots who flew the “Milan” exit one goal of the devices was hampered. But “Le Corsaire,” with its inertial navigation system, a dead reckoning path worked like a clock, and an American plane ended up in this competition the best.
 
At the conclusion of the competition, the aircraft made four demonstration flight in front of the Swiss Parliament.
 
In total, due to the larger bomb load and thanks to reliable navigation system, “Le Corsaire” turned out to be the winner, but his “fighter” capabilities were very questionable. Some experts were in favour of purchasing two types of aircraft: A seventy-7G and ninety “Milanov”. But the scandal in the procurement of “Mirage” S undermined the credibility of French aircraft from the government. The final decision on this matter was postponed.
 
 
The proposals of the company “Dassault” to improve the navigation system “Milan” by installing it on the inertial platform of the American company “Lit-tone” not found the support of the Swiss customers. This work was conducted with funds of the company “Dassault”, and a new navigation system has been successfully tested. So, on 23 October 1972, Milan S01 showed quite good results in the accuracy of the flight on a given route (like fighter). For an hour flight with correction of the TACAN system it has deviated from the desired track line 550 m, and for an hour and a half at 1500 m
 
Further improvement of “Milan” has gone the way of the installation of new avionics. From the on-Board complex of DISS is completely abandoned, and in the cabin installed the latest at the time of data display: the display on the windshield CSF-121 and the indicator with a moving map CSF INCA LC102. 24 Jun 1974 began testing the equipment on the plane, while the marking machine is changed to “Milan” II.
 
In October 1974 the aircraft was fitted with new radar “Agava” and held a series of live firing guided missiles at drone targets a Mirage IIIB and “Water”.
 
In August 1975, Milan last time unsuccessfully demonstrated the potential customers from the Middle East. After that, the plane is still some time used to test a variety of equipment in the firm “Dassault”. All the time use the famous “mustache” on the plane remained, although the work on the improvement stopped, and all efforts are focused on the development of canards. The latter led to the emergence of the fighter Mirage IIING (Nouvelle generation). His last -451-second flight Milan II made on March 10, 1976.
 
Flight characteristics of the aircraft AC Milan S01
 
Wing span, m……………………………….8,22
Length, m………………………………………..15,55
Height, m………………………………………..4,25
Wing area, m2…………………………34,85
Weight, kg
empty aircraft………………………….7200
normal takeoff…………………….9700
maximum takeoff………………14 000
Maximum speed , km/h
at the height of……………………………………..2336
earth…………………………………………1400
Maximum range, km…………..4000
Practical ceiling, m……………..15 400

 
N. Food reserve was, A. CHECHIN

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