In early November 1943 the airfield was rolled out to Me.262V6, equipped with a modified and lighter engines YuMO 004В-1, located in more streamlined nacelles. The aircraft first installed a retractable nose landing gear. It was supposed to be used as air brakes, but it had turned out to be a strong negative pitching moment, for the compensation which was not enough rudder. And yet this car was still far from perfection. On it, in particular, there was no release mechanism the main landing gear, they just fell out of their niches under the action of gravity after clicking on the appropriate button.
Test flights of the Me.262V6 continued until 8 March 1944 when the plane, piloted by K. Schmidt, crashed.
Beginning in 1943, the military with special attention began to track the progress of work on Me.262. In the same month in Insterburg Me.262V6 demonstrated leadership of Germany. But the Fuhrer has treated him coolly. While the leaders of the Third Reich decided what to do with the machine, built the seventh prototype with pressurized cabin. After him took off Me.262 U8, for the first time equipped with standard weapons — four cannons MK 108 caliber 30 mm.
IU.262А at the airport, air force Institute
Built just 12 copies of the prototypes, the last of them — Me.262 V11 and Me.262 V12 was used for aerodynamic research. In early 1944 for testing was built 30 pre-series fighter under the designation Me-262А-0. Only after that appeared the serial version of Me.262А-1A “Schwalbe” (“Swallow”), which became the basis of all subsequent modifications.
Pilots noted that IU.262А-1 in control was much easier compared to the main fighter Bf.109G. However, the radius of the bend of the jet fighter was higher, but large angular turn rate to compensate partially for this deficiency, although to fight on bends with a piston fighter, it was dangerous. IU.262 worse were dispersed, and in a dive due to the lack of air brakes can easily exceed the speed limits.
IU.262А-1 but flew pretty well on one engine. However, his speed reached 450 — 500 km/h and the flight duration at an altitude of 7000 m to 2.25 h. However, planting as, however, and continued the takeoff, in case of failure of one engine was dangerous.
Armament of the fighter consisted of four 30-mm cannons MK 108A-3 with ammunition for 100 rounds for the top guns and 80 for the bottom. The choice of these guns testified that the plane was designed to combat enemy bombers, and about any maneuver the battle with the fighters it was not. Otherwise, it is desirable to use guns of smaller caliber, was tested on Bf. 109 and FW.190.
Fire 30-mm cannon fighter was effective at distances up to 220 m, while the hands of American bombers machine guns could hit enemy aircraft at distances up to 700 m. For this reason, the Germans in air battles with the Anglo-American bombers suffered heavy losses. Therefore considered other options for weapons. So, for Me.262A-1a/U1 were tested by a 20-mm cannon MG.151 and 30mm MK 103. The latter differed from the MK 108 more long barrels with muzzle brakes.
To combat the bombers, the aircraft in the version Me.262D proposed to equip rifled guns SG-500 “Jagdfaust” caliber 50 mm in the forward fuselage. The gun was intended to fire shells up and forward. Three IU.262А-1A is equipped with 50-mm cannon MK-214А.
On Me.262А-1b was tested holders for 34 missiles, it was planned to bring their number up to 48. In the variant of the interceptor aircraft was tested rocket R100/AS. We also conducted aerodynamic testing of missiles at launch vertically RZ 73.
A lot of difficulties during the development of the aircraft, the pilots brought the engines YuMO 004В. It was a dual fuel system. Engine start was carried out using a two-stroke piston engine RВА/S10 “Riedel”, who worked on gasoline. This fuel is used in a turbojet engine, but only running it. Only after reaching 6000 rpm, the engine is automatically switched to diesel fuel, after which the speed was increased to 8000. In the promotion of the turbines should gradually move the choke lever to the engine control. Otherwise there was a high probability of ignition of the engine.
When Anglo-American troops crossed the Rhine, the basis of the air defense of Germany was.VF.109 “G” and “K”. The calculations showed that the Me.262, compared to Me.109К-4, provided a greater area of protection, and at altitudes up to 8,000 m able much earlier to catch the enemy bombers. As for maneuverability, the horizontal plane, the advantage wholly on the side of the piston fighter. On verticals the same jet “Messerschmitt” surpassed its predecessor, gaining for the chandelle twice the height. It was stronger and its weapons. With such qualities IU.262 and joined the battle.
1 — gun; 2 — the cockpit canopy; 3 — engine; 4 — Aileron; 5 — flap; 6 — Central body (cone) in the nozzle part of the turbojet engine; 7 — stabilizer; 8 — the Elevator; 9 — main landing gear; 10 — fold niche cleaning the nose landing gear; 11 — fold niche of cleaning the main landing gear; 12 — wing; 13 — a receiver air pressure
Serial Me.262 were concentrated in the test team, “262”, 7th fighter squadron, “Jagdverband 44”, 10th group 11th squadron night fighter 1-th group of the 54th bomber squadron, two groups of the 51st bomber squadron and the 6th reconnaissance group.
The first fight was entered by the pilots of the team “262”. It happened in July 1944, when he was intercepted by a British “mosquito”. With heavy bombers, the pilots first encountered on September 11. They met returning after a RAID on Germany aircraft b-17, escorted the “Mustangs” and their only victory was a fighter P-51. Somewhat better was the result of the next day, when they were destroyed at least two “flying fortress”.
In the autumn of 1944 the command “262”, soon transformed into the group, headed by one of the most famous pilots of major Nowotny. 7 October 1944 the group lost the first two cars, shot down in aerial combat. And the next day killed the commander.
Despite the number of groups from 3 to 12 October, the pilots of the joints, making three or four times per day, reported the destruction of 22 (according to others, 26) enemy aircraft.
In the first stage, the use of IU.262 against the Anglo-American planes had complete success. The reason was the suddenness of their appearance, because the speed of jet aircraft, at least 200 km/h exceeded the similar parameter of piston fighters. Jet fighters initially did attack in small groups of two to three aircraft at the combination of the enemy bombers, and, as a rule, from the sun and exceeding 500 — 1000 m. shooting down a few bombers, they destroyed their system and at high speed left the “battlefield”. Time to re-attack is simply not enough. However, this tactic gave “fruits” long. The crews of the bombers found a way to concentrated machine-gun fire and the use of new tactics, causing sharp maneuvering with the loss of speed, to protect their “fortress”.
In General, “raw”, with a bad gun armament and not enough trained pilots in aircraft of Me.262 who received laurels jet combat of the firstborn, had no significant effect on the course of the war.
Negative role in the fate of Me.262 played Hitler, require to turn a fighter into a bomber. To realize the wish of the Fuehrer, was required primarily to try the different bomb racks for hanging bombs caliber 250 to 1000 kg, and also choose the sight for the bombing and to develop appropriate techniques. It should be noted that the bombing was only possible in horizontal flight, because the dive due to the lack of air brakes was excluded. There was no question about the bombing kupirovaniya.
Then considered and the option of towing on a rigid rod of 500 – and 1,000-kg bombs. To take off the bomb attached to the trolley, detachable after departing from the earth with explosive bolts. The bomb was unhooked from the tug, when the plane went into a gentle dive.
A sharp turn in the fate of Me.262 took place on 2 March 1944, the day the Ministry of aviation ordered to start serial production of 60 bombers IU.262А-2A. In addition to the bomb armament, podeshevelo under the fuselage, on the aircraft left two 30-mm guns. In fact, it was a fighter-bomber, able not only to bomb, but to contend with enemy aircraft.
The deployment of serial production of the aircraft took place with great difficulty. Not enough skilled workers. Not better things with the engine, it was very crude and required a long finishing. In addition, in order to avoid large losses from raids of English and American aviation, the Germans were forced to disperse production in small enterprises, disguised in the mountains and forests.
the number built and the more who were in combat units of aircraft Me.262 in the foreign press you can find a lot of conflicting information. The most real is the number 1433. Of them for the first four months of 1945, the factories in Germany produced 865 aircraft.
The prototype of the production fighter-bomber Me.262А-2 became the prototype of the IU.262V-10 with two ventral hardpoints with 250-kg bombs. To reduce the takeoff run the aircraft was powered by two boosters with a thrust of 500 kgf.
During serial production, the military has obtained permission to Hitler to release every 20th Me.262 in with the p, however, with the condition to keep the possibility, if necessary, to suspend at least one 250-kg bomb.
In addition to the described variants of the aircraft were developed armored attack Me.262А-with four guns MK-108. But before it was built it did not come.
Hitler was hoping in terms of air superiority of the Anglo-American aviation fighter-bombers IU.262 will still be able to assist ground troops who had to hold back the advancing allies, with the necessary support.
Pilots of the 51st squadron entered the battle on July 27. In that day the ten pilots “Messerschmitt” bombed acquired a tan on the beaches of Anglo-American fighters. But the effect of the use of jet bombers failed because the aircraft, devoid of scorers and special sights, dumped their deadly cargo to the eye, causing the enemy serious damage. So held the first use of jet fighter-bombers in world war II.
In subsequent battles the attempted hijacking of a jet “Messerschmitt” was inconclusive. Fighters and anti-aircraft guns of the allies could not have practically any opposition jet bombers. Only 13 Oct R. Cole, who flew on “the Tempest”, managed to win the first victory over Me.262.
Pilots Me.262 usually operated alone, leaving the target at an altitude of 8000 m, dropping bombs with a gentle dive and at high speed went home.
and 2 Oct 1944 “Messerschmitt”, without suffering losses, attacked the airfield grave under nimvegenom, destroying about 12 “Spitfire”. There were big losses among pilots and ground staff.
The most effective shot jet bombers in conjunction with piston aircraft of the 3rd fighter squadron struck on new year’s night 1945 in English airfield in Eindhoven during the operation “Bodenplatte” (“base plate”). In the end, destroyed about 50 “Spitfire” and “typhoons”. Today, after more than 60 years after the end of the Second world war, it is difficult to judge the role jet bombers for the destruction of enemy aircraft on the ground, as the experience of fighting application shows that such success was achieved thanks to the surprise factor. And who would have thought that the Germans would decide on such action in the new year’s eve. So it is realistic to look for “finest hour” Me.262 and not to exaggerate their achievements.
The main drawback of the fighter-bomber was still no sight for the bombing. Since placing it in the single cab Me.262А-2A were excluded, then went in a traditional way. In the new part of the aircraft equipped with cabin scorer, having removed the guns.
In the summer of 1943 began development of a training version of the fighter-bomber. The first prototype Sparky IU.262В-1A adapted from the pre-production machines, to preserve the regular weapons. From the normal plane Me.262В-1 was notable not only for the second cockpit, the instructor. The aircraft reduced the number of fuel tanks and their total volume, and to compensate for the reduced duration of the flight provided two suspension 300 litre fuel tank.
Until the end of the war produced only 15 training aircraft, did not have, as a rule, weapons, and to preserve the alignment in the forward fuselage housed a 150-kg load. In case of need instead of centering of the load mounted guns.
The first demonstration of single interceptor adapted from fighter Me.262А-1A installed on the radar “Lichtenstein” SN-2 (FuG 220), with antennas located in the nose of the fuselage on the outside of his body and nicknamed the “deer antlers”. The possibility of using Me.262 as a night interceptor was demonstrated during trials in October 1944
Of these aircraft subsequently formed the experimental group. The aircraft were directed to the target by radio commands from the ground.
Story double interceptor began in the summer of 1944 In his altered training Me.262В-1, placing on-Board radar FuG 218 “Neptun” radar and FuG 350 ZC “Naxos”. In addition, the second cabin equipped working place of radar operator. The first two double IU.262В-La /U1 received in line units in February and March 1945 and was used to cover Berlin. Debut double interceptors took place in the night from 30 to 31 March 1945 when it was destroyed by four “mosquito”.
It should be noted that even in the conditions of the agony of Nazi Germany, the designers continued to improve his creation. In particular, developed a full-fledged night fighter Me.262В-2A with increased fuel, the flow of which into service expected from mid-1945 in Addition to the four guns MK-108, located in the forward fuselage, with the cockpit placed two guns, the trunks of which were directed at an upward angle (so-called “slanting music”).
The first flight of the Me.262В-2A took place in March 1945, Initially it was radar who played for the fuselage antenna, reducing the maximum speed of almost 60 km/h. to Eliminate this drawback, it was assumed the radar centimeter range FuG 240 “Berlin”, with an antenna under a Radome in the forward fuselage. But to complete this work failed in connection with the termination of the war. Have been developed and triple interceptor variant with increased flight duration.
Double intercept, compared to single-seat fighter is noticeably heavier, decreased speed, climb rate and flight duration. Hope for the creation in the near future, turbojet engines greater thrust was not necessary. So there was the idea to establish at IU.262 additional HWK 109-509 rocket engine thrust 1640 kgs of the company “Walter”, who worked on concentrated hydrogen peroxide and methyl alcohol.
Revision was performed on the pre-production car, placing the rocket engine and fuel components for it in the rear fuselage. This aircraft, designated the Me.262С-1 “Heimatschutzer” (“defender of the homeland”), first flew on 27 February 1945.
The use of rocket engines allowed to increase the climb rate nearly doubled (43 m/s) compared to Me.262А-1A. 11 to a height of 700 metres he was up for 4.5 minutes, the airplane remained in the experimental instance.
Another modification of the fighter interceptor was Me.262С-2B combined with two BMW 003R engines included BMW 003А turbojet engine thrust of 800 kgf rocket engine ВМW109-718 thrust of 1500 kg.
The first flight of the Me.262С-2B took place on 28 March 1945 the Germans managed to do on this machine only two flights. The climb rate of the machine near the ground reached 70 m/s and a height of 12 km, he gained in 3.9 min. 25 Jun 1944
G. H. Herlitzius managed to disperse Me.262С-2 to a speed of 1004 km/h, which became the highest achievement of the aircraft of this type.
Towards the end of the war was crafted version of Me.262 with HeS 011 engines, the remaining unrealized. The same fate befell the project IU.262 wing with a large sweep (50° to the front edge) and engines located on each side of the fuselage, with a supply of air through the intakes in the center section.
The first attempt to create a scout project was Me.262А-4A. It was supposed to give up arms and install two Rb 50/30 aerial cameras. The plane was never built, citing its strong vulnerability to air combat, give priority to the fifth modification of the Me.262А-5A, equipped with two cameras located in the nose of the fuselage. On the prototype machine has retained the armament of two 30 mm guns. But on the aircraft, received by the troops, there was no weapons. While on the bomb racks that were kept “Sturmvogel” generally was suspended two fuel tanks. These machines were actively used for the exploration of the Anglo-American troops landed in France.
IU.262 on the Eastern front
The first on the Soviet-German front with the jet fighter was found, the pilots of the 176 th guards IAP on February 14, 1945, the day
S. Komanecky paired with the commander of the regiment P. F. Chupikova saw in the air unusual the plane the Guards tried to attack the enemy, but “German” suddenly and very quickly pulled away from his pursuers. After film developing, photo kinoplanet it became clear that it was the newest jet fighter Me.262.
The first Soviet pilots to shoot down Me.Had I. 262 N. Kozhedub La-7.
A meeting with Me.262 were other pilots who somehow managed to knock the gun “retaliation”, and someone fell under his blows. Second win over the jet “Messerschmitt” was won by Lieutenant L. I. Sivko on March 22, 1945, that day, four Yak-9 of 812 IAP, covering ground troops, hovered at an altitude of 2000 m with a speed of 550 km/h. the First unknown aircraft without propellers saw Sivko. When the German began to unfold, Sivko queue with a distance of 100 m has damaged the right wing of the plane IU.262, after which the enemy aircraft rolled over and fell 5 km from the city of Sequin.
Czechoslovak training aircraft CS-92
A third Soviet pilot, who defeated jet “Messerschmitt”, was the pilot of the 152-th guards IAP G. A. Merkviladze. When the enemy fighter having the advantage in speed, went to the tail of the plane Merkviladze, he sharply went to the side, conceding the enemy forward. The Soviet pilot had only to catch sight of the enemy and shoot him point blank…
The first instance of IU.262 fell into the hands of our experts with minor injuries in March 1945, Followed on airfields Oranienburg, Dolgov and Tempelhof revealed a large number of such vehicles and engines for them.
The first samples of engines YuMO-004, or rather their fragments, he entered the Central Institute aviamotorostroeniya (CIAM) at the beginning of March
G. in the Summer of the same year in NII VVS tested on the stand the engine VMW-003, which allowed to determine its traction flow characteristics.
Later, the Commission created a Special Committee under the GKO on the development of measures for the study and development of German jet technology, proposed to charge factory No. 26, (chief designer V. I Klimov) copy this turbojet engine and to master its mass production.
After the great Patriotic war in the Soviet Union brought four captured Me.262. One of them entered the air force research Institute. After a thorough examination of the recovered aircraft was transferred to the flight test. The leading car was an engineer I. G. Rabkin, technician
V. A. Fedotov, and test pilot A. G. Kochetkov. Flight tests of the Me.262 began on 15 August 1945 In November Kochetkov performed the last, the 12th flight.
The main defects identified in the tests was a great effort on the control stick, a bad start petrol starting engines, burnout guide apparatus of the turbine and the complexity of the process of starting the engines.
It was noted the instability of the nose wheel chassis, which gave itself felt in the beginning of the run. The tendency of the machine to the u-turns had to fend off the wheel brakes of the main landing gear.
Flights on Me.262 showed that a high landing speed the nose wheel at the moment of contact with the runway is experiencing high alternating loads directed perpendicular to the axis of the shock absorber and causes significant stresses in the structure of the forward fuselage. To avoid this “effect” used on the aircraft prior promotion of the front wheel RAM air with blades on the wheel.
By throttling the engines of the aircraft was quenched by very slow speed, and due to the large range of flight speeds often had to change the installation angle of the stabilizer. Another drawback of the aircraft — difficult go-around. In this case, due to the poor throttle response of the engine should slowly transfer the levers of the engines for maximum thrust, which required relevant skills.
At the same time, the pilots noted that the technique of piloting, including take-off and landing, Me.262 was close to the normal planes with the gear support.
Despite this, the military petitioned the CPC of the USSR on the construction of a series of planes IU.262 without any changes in single and double versions, with the fastest goal of aircrew training combat units of the VVS KA, and research aspects of the aerodynamics associated with high speed flight.
In October 1945 the OKB of V. Myasishchev, in accordance with the decree of people’s Commissariat of the aviation industry, began to study aircraft design, production of drawings and devices of the aircraft under the domestic weapons and equipment, as well as to the restoration of another instance of a captured fighter. The work was completed by 29 December, but in the air “Messerschmitt” was not up.
The government made another decision — to master the domestic MiG-9 and Yak-15.
At the end of the war, the Czechoslovak firm Avia has instructed the manufacturer to the front of the fuselage. At other enterprises of the Czech Republic repaired the engines YuMO-004 and manufactured parts. After the liberation of Czechoslovakia, all production equipment in these plants gave the company “Avia” and started to build jet aircraft, including engines.
The first copy of the aircraft, designated S-92.1, flew on 22 August 1946, four months Later launched the double CS-92.3, an analogue of IU.262В-1A.
In 1948, the Czechoslovak “Swallow” interested in Yugoslavia, which has ordered two aircraft and six engines, and the representatives of the Yugoslav air force even made familiarization flights on the spark. It seemed that the Czechoslovak “Messerschmitt” opens the road to third countries, but this has not happened due to the termination of serial production of the aircraft.
At the same time, work continued as on the improvement of the M-04 and M-03 — Czechoslovak version of the BMW-003.
M-03 was considered more promising than the M-04, because their hunger could bring to 1000 kgs.
In February 1949 the M-03 mounted on a double CS-92.7 and flew the crew Kraus and Stoica. However, the first flight was the last. The engine on the stand showed good results, were in flight more capricious than M-04. The result is a forced landing…
The first production S-92 was delivered to the Czech air force on 12 June 1948 of All (according to different sources) was built from ten to twelve S-92, including three Sparky CS-92. 5 of them-I fighter squadron of the Czechoslovak air force received five single and three double machine, stationed at the airfield Kbely. Six aircraft from this military unit was planned to show at the parade on 1 may 1950. This seven crews (including reserve machines) flew in to Ruzyne airport. However, due to doubt of security the decision about their participation in the parade was canceled.
Basic data single fighter Me.262
Note. 1in the tests — 6026 kg. 2. Excluding takeoff and acceleration, taking into account takeoff and acceleration to 5.7 min. 3. With full tanks. In the test — 1530 kg. 4. At a speed of 655 km/h at the altitude of 5430 meters flight duration 1 hour 5 min. With a fuel capacity 2520 l distance and flight duration ±1000 km and 1.5 h, respectively. 5. The results of the tests in NII VVS, with two guns. The time of turn at an altitude of 800 m — 32 p. 6. With boosters — 600 m 7. Takeoff weight — kg. 6114 Speed of 725 km/h. 8. No bomb armament. 9. Apparently, with external fuel tank. 10. According to the results of measurement in NII VVS.
In the same year in Czechoslovakia started to receive Yak-23, which decided the fate of the “Messerschmitt”.
Abroad Me.262 can be seen in the museums of England, the Czech Republic, the USA, and in Germany one of the instances of this aircraft was restored to flying condition.
A short description of the plane Me.262А-1A
The plane is a classic low with the engines located on the wing.
Single-spar wing sweep 15° line tricks drawn from a symmetric profile relative thickness of 11.3% (along the axis of symmetry of the fuselage) and 8.6% at the ends. Maximum profile thickness is located at a distance of 40% from the leading edge of the wing. The wing spar is of I-section with steel shelves. The covering is made of aluminum alloy with a thickness of 1.5 to 2 mm.
The wing consists of two parts and is joined to the fuselage along the axis of symmetry.
The mechanization of the wing includes three-piece automatic slats along the entire span, and Fowler flaps (with hydraulic drive) with deflection angles up to 20°.
The ailerons are equipped with trimmers-flaterate, split with a metal shell. To reduce loads on the aircraft control stick they have the weight and aerodynamic compensation.
The fuselage is technologically divided into the nose, middle and tail parts. The bow section is made of steel. The profiles of the frame are connected by spot welding.
In the forward fuselage are four cannon MK 108A-3, under which there are ammunition boxes. Shell casings and links are ejected to the outside. The whole upper part of the casing of the gun compartment consists of two flip-up panels, in the raised position podpirala special racks.
Fuel is located in five tanks with a capacity of about 2570 L.
At the bottom of the fuselage between the main tank has the cutout for the wing, through which during installation you installed the pressurized cabin of the pilot with a cylindrical duralumin shell with a thickness of 0.6 mm. Thickness of the fuselage skin varies from 0.8 to 1.5 mm.
Life support system consists of individual oxygen device company “Digger”. Oxygen cylinders located in the rear fuselage.
The lantern of the cockpit consists of a visor hinged to the side middle and rear parts. Visor lamp has a 90 mm windshield electrothermal anti-icing device.
Booking the cockpit includes four armor plates with a thickness of 15 mm. in addition, armor-protected ammunition guns.
In the rear part of the fuselage fuel tanks located radio compartment. In it, in particular, includes: VHF radio, upgraded from FUG-16ZY, the system of recognition (“—another”) FUG-25A and a radio FUG-125.
Vertical tail — single-fin with the rudder, is equipped with a trimmer-fitnesom. Design — combined with the use of wood. Horizontal tail consists of two halves: upper and lower. Depending on the mode of flight the angle of deflection of the stabilizer can be changed electrically from +3° to -7°. On the elevators to reduce the effort on the control handle are trimmers. All Executive bodies have the weight and aerodynamic compensation.
The aircraft control system in all channels — rigid, tubular rods with rocking. The aircraft control stick allows you to change the gear ratio on the Elevator. On the handle there is a lever. When flying at high speeds, the pilot lowered the lever, and at low speeds — raised.
Landing gear — tricycle with a nose wheel. The nose wheel is equipped with a brake wheel size mm 660×160 installed it without the removal, and the shimmy damper, but its effectiveness was insufficient. Front wheel is cleaned in a niche on the flight back.
Main bearings, fitted with a single brake wheels in size 840×300 mm, are cleaned in the fuselage niche. Cleaning and landing gear is made using a hydraulic system. Emergency release is provided in part from the pneumatic system of the aircraft (nose strut and fold the main wheels) and partly under its own weight (the main support).
Fold the main pillars that holds stand in retracted position (locks available), made of steel and operated by individual hydraulic actuator.
All supports equipped with shock absorbers melanephelinites.
The power plant includes two engines YuMO 004В in the nacelle, is made of steel or aluminum.
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