Rocket SHIP Be-10

Rocket SHIP Be-10With the beginning of the era of jet aircraft on the agenda was a question about a Russian military jet flying boat. Therefore, in may 1947, the OKB G. M. Beriev at the beginning of the initiative the development of jet seaplane Maritime reconnaissance P-1 with two jet engines VC-1. In November 1951, the first prototype of the R-1 was completed and submitted to perform the factory flight test and test pilot I. M. Sukhomlin started on it first run. At first there were no signs of trouble. Usually the plane was released after the first flight runs at speeds of up to 70% of the runway. In this speed range R-1 behaved normally, but when I decided to make a run at 80% of takeoff speed (over 165 km/h), started the longitudinal oscillations of such force that the aircraft were thrown out of the water. One time the car almost stood on his tail and only the instant reaction of the pilot prevented a disaster.

A way out tried to find the traditional ways: by changing the balancing of the Elevator and the installation angle of the stabilizer. But the behavior of the R-1 has not changed during the detailed analysis it became clear that faced with an entirely new phenomenon, later dubbed — “hydrodynamic instability barrier”.
 
It took painstaking research and long experiments together with scientists of TSAGI, before it was possible to find the reasons of such behavior of the aircraft and to develop measures to eliminate them. May 29, 1952, modified R-1 could steadily glissirovat at the speed of 196 km/h and the next day I. M. Sukhomlin lifted the first domestic jet seaplane.
 
As a result of prolonged adjustments R-1 began to fly quite well, but by the beginning of
 
1953 , it became clear that the first Russian jet flying boat had become obsolete in the process of development and serial production run it makes no sense.
 
Sailors are the main “consumers” of products Taganrog samoletostroitel this state of Affairs did not suit. Therefore, after the treatment commander of the air force, Navy E. N. Transfiguration, supported by the commander-in-chief of the Navy N. G. Kuznetsov, the Minister of defense of the USSR, October 8, 1953, issued a decree of the Council of Ministers on the development of a jet flying boat be-10 (product “M”), designed for reconnaissance at sea, high-altitude torpedo – bombing on the ships, laying mines, the bombing of the naval bases and shore facilities.
Task provided that the machine should reach a maximum speed of 950 — 1000 km/h, have a flight range of 3000 km, the practical ceiling 14 000 — 15 000 m, take off and land at a wave height up to 1.5 m at a wind speed of 20 m/s to Present the aircraft on state tests was in November 1955 a Second copy was ordered to manufacture in the embodiment of amphibians.
 
For EDB this work was extremely important. New flying boat just had to happen, otherwise, given the failure of R-1, could follow the most serious conclusions from the Ministry of aviation industry and the defense Department of the CPSU Central Committee. With its design of maximum use of existing experience. Special attention was paid to working out the contours of the bottom.
 
First, in the hydraulic canals TSAGI on small models, and then in the mouth of the don near the village Rogozhkino towed torpedo boat large scale model was studied all the details and planing. Thus it was possible to train the hydrodynamics of the future aircraft.
 
Be-10 second test
 
Be-10 second experienced
 
Be-10 record for erratic chassis
 
The be-10 record for erratic chassis
 
Be-10 with extended intakes
 
The be-10 with extended intakes
 
Be-10 front
 
Be-10 front
 
Fluid flow was important but not the only among the problems that had to solve OKB when you create a product “M”. The be-10 had a nearly three times greater take-off weight and engine power than R-1. A high-wing had a large sweep, and finally, the whole military load housed inside the boat and dumped through a hatch in the bottom. Such a bold decision in the practice of OCB was used for the first time.
 
For the complete linking structure of the aircraft and its equipment chief designer G. M. Beriev was organized in the brigade of General types of temporary group, which brought together about twenty of the most skilled designers from all design office. The group placed in a separate room, which the local “wags” was soon dubbed “Sochi — Matsesta” (because of the secrecy of the results of the group for some time was not evident, the majority of the staff believed that their “favorites” colleagues slacking like resorts).
 
Work progressed quickly, and may 15, 1954 , it was approved the conclusion on the conceptual design of the be-10 with two engines AL-7, and from 7 June to 15 July 1954, he considered the layout. In the same month, began static testing of the airframe flying boat “M”.
 
Turned around and the construction of the first flying prototype of the machine. Since that time, the design Bureau still did not have its own Assembly and developmental body, the aggregate and final Assembly of the aircraft took place in the shops of the nearby aircraft factory No. 86, manufactured in the period be-6.
 
For uploaded by serial production of the enterprise work on experimental aircraft proved to be very difficult, and yet in October 1955 the prototype of the be-10 was built.
 
To Be-10 all machines EDB were tested immediately, in the Taganrog Bay, which led to the break in flights, as soon as he was freezing. Beriev personally flew p-8 the black sea coast and chose a spot for a new base, where tests could be carried out all year round. His choice, he stopped in the town of Gelendzhik, where there was a superb Bay and the remaining from the military base concreted hydropack.
 
Here it is to be held in November 1955 , seaplane Be-10 was towed in a special floating dock. In Noumea on a special stand docked all units, after which on 20 December began testing it.
 
At the first race of the engines there was a very dangerous phenomenon. The impact of a powerful jet exhaust has caused so strong vibration of the aircraft structure, that in different nodes, the tail of the car cracks appeared spontaneously loosened the nuts, and pipelines and electroplaits broke from their places of attachment.
 
Had to be tilted to the axis of the exhaust pipes from the sides of the aircraft another 3°, as well as strengthen some of the elements of the frame of the boat and tail. It is possible to reduce the vibration level to acceptable limits.
 
In the air the first prototype Be-10, tail number “10”, piloted by Colonel V. Kurakin (Navigator B. C. Fadeev and radio operator G. V. Galetkina) first flew on 20 June 1956, the Flight lasted 20 minutes and was fine.
 
In the second flight of the be-10 went, piloted PI. By baranovym, became permanent commander of the crew throughout production tests during which they performed 76 flights a total duration of 83 h 33 min on 20 October 1958 this stage in the biography of the be-10 was completed, and the same day began with a joint state tests, which lasted until July 20, 1959 In them, except the first prototype, and was attended by the first production machine (the hull number “15”).
 
On the experimental plane was determined and the flight characteristics was tested powerplant and equipment, and the first serial tested weapons, equipment, and autopilot. By the end of the test the prototype Be-10 made 109 flights, total flight time was 138 hours and 33 minutes, and the first serial — 91 hours 31 minutes (65 flights).
 
The test was interrupted three times, once in connection with the relocation from Taganrog to Noumea twice because of failure of engines.
 
The act on the results of state tests of the be-10 was recommended with certain reservations to the acceptance into service of naval aviation of the USSR as a scout-torpedo. However, it was noted that the flight data do not fully meet the tactical and technical requirements — the aircraft has a maximum speed of 910 km/h instead of the specified 950 — 1000 km/h, practical ceiling is not more than 12 500 m instead 14 000 — 15 000 m, the practical range is equal to 2895 km instead of 3000 km.
 
The main reason for the reduction of flight data was the discrepancy between the actual parameters of the motor claimed. The testers also drew special attention to frequent failures in the power plant and small TBO turbojet engines AL-7. He was only 40 hours.
 
According to test pilots, the aircraft had pretty good flying and seaworthy characteristics, allowing to operate it with the wave height up to 0.8 m. It has been available to pilots of average skill and could be recommended for use in line units.
 
Thrust-weight ratio AL-7 was enough to continue flight on one engine at altitude up to 6000 m with a flight weight of 43,000 kg. Among the disadvantages, in addition to the above, stressed the impossibility of takeoff with a side wind over 7 m/s, the low reliability of the autopilot AP-5-2M, the insufficient visibility from the cockpit.
 
In addition, at speeds below 400 km/h at the seaplane had a tendency to stall into a spin through the right wing of the plane. Installed on Board the be-10 radar “Kurs-M” has not yet passed the state tests.
 
When assessing the tactical performance of the new machine, it was noted that according to data of be-10 is not inferior to modern jet planes land and its tactical range allows him to act against carrier strike groups potential enemy. But from the time of issue of technical specifications (November 1953) conditions and means of war at sea has changed significantly, increasingly began to play missiles.
 
Be-10 with extended intakes
 
The be-10 with extended intakes
 
The tests revealed two serious defects: water intrusion in air intakes of the power plant and the surging of the engine when firing the bow guns. Because of this, takeoffs, landings and maneuvering on water was only possible if the wave height of 0.8 m and a wind speed of 12 m/s, which did not meet the requirements of the customer.
 
The design Bureau began an intensive search for solutions to problems. At the special stand they worked out the ways of protection against ingress of water into the intakes, and experimentally determined the maximum allowable one-time “portion” of moisture from the point of view of stability of operation of the compressor (it turned out that just 10 litres of water to drown out the engine).
 
On the prototype Be-10 artisanal extended, at the same time curving slightly upward, the air conduit of the nacelle.
 
Field experiments have proven the effectiveness of the measures taken, whereupon the factory modified serial Be-10 No. 8600302. This car air channels was extended to 2010 mm, air intakes raised to 350 mm, frame №18 strengthened. Air intake cooling and ventilation of the front of the pressurized cabin was moved from the right side of the boat on deck, which brought was also previously on the left side of the filler neck of a system of centralized refueling. Nose guns equipped with gas.
 
In this form 26 December 1959 the aircraft was presented to the control tests. They lasted until 25 April 1960 and showed that the modified Be-10 can take off and land at a wind speed of 16 m/s, swell height of 0.8 m and wind wave height up to 1.2 m.
 
The firing of the bow guns in the whole range of speeds and altitudes for the powerplant now the impact is not provided. In piloting the modified machine practically did not differ from the prototype.
 
However, because of aerodynamic losses in the elongated air ducts decreased flight characteristics of flying boats: the maximum rate fell from 910 to 886 km/h, service ceiling was reduced from 12 500 to 12 200 m, the range was reduced from 2895 to 2610 km This was too high a price, so on production machines was limited to installing only bryzgogasiteli flaps.
 
The creators of Be-10 really paid much attention to the manufacturability of their products. When mastering a new seaplane at the Taganrog aviation plant number 86 in the process introduced new and unique equipment. For example, presses for the manufacture of sheets of a covering method of covering with stretching, elektromontazhnye heat treatment units, welding machines and semi-automatic.
 
In the shop, aggregate Assembly was built slipways, corresponding to the division of boats into four compartments. Mastered new technological processes, such as group processing of details, flexible pipelines hydrodemolition, chemical milling, ultrasonic soldering.
 
To ensure the water tightness of the boat for the first time the Assembly was carried out with application of the sealant AT-30MS instead of the previously used Thiokol tape. Began the introduction of large elements of aluminum alloy, which significantly reduced the weight and allowed for greater precision manufactured parts, applied foundry alloy al-8 power nodes (who later played a fatal role in the fate of the machine) and casting of steel grade 35HGSA.
 
In series of be-10 was built at the Taganrog aviation plant №86 from 1958 to 1961, Only produced 27 serial machines. Peak construction occurred in 1959, when it was built, tested, and delivered 12 aircraft (1958 — three cars, in 1960, nine in 1961, three).
 
Tests and acceptance of the be-10 was not without flight accidents. 29 Jun 1960 in the factory hydro-port crashed the be-10 No. 9600403, in which the crew of military acceptance, led by test pilot Lieutenant-Colonel Y. A. Ceruleum carried out normal flight according to the program. The day was completely calm and the surface of the Gulf of Taganrog turned into a real mirror. To the eye to determine the distance to it at landing speed 210 km/h was very difficult.
 
In such a situation, it was enough for the boat with a remote control tower (KDP) sail the waters of the hydro-port, and a Wake would be a good clue to the pilot.
 
However, this is not done, and Tsirulev, he miscalculated, he threw the plane down more than normal, height. As a result of the impact with the water the machine was badly damaged. The crew, fortunately, was still alive, but seriously injured gunner Sergeant H. A. Avdeenko, too early freed from the harness.
 
May 25, 1961 when performing a test flight in Taganrog crashed Be-10 No. 0600701, piloted by the crew of the test pilot plant number 86 Hero of the Soviet Union I. D. Zanin. The accident occurred on takeoff with a sharp increase in the angle of attack at speeds below takeoff. The car pulled away from the water, but the lifting force of the wing is not enough, and the plane fell down. When they hit the water the car broke in the area of redan into two parts. The bow of the inertia was already in the water several dozen meters, and the tail rose almost vertically. Broke spilled from the fuel tanks.
 
In this disaster saved only by the radio operator test F. A. Lyashkov. He managed by some miracle to get out of the cramped cockpit and tail to climb on the smooth sheathing on the protruding out of the water keel, badly damaging the leg muscles. It took the approaching boat, which was located at marine KDP. Pilot I. D. Zanin and Navigator B. A. Golovchenko remained at their jobs and died.
 
Another incident occurred with the plane, which was operated by a crew headed by the test pilot of the military representative of the plant No. 86 Colonel A. G. Yakovenko. In flight at an altitude of 6000 meters at a speed of 900 km/h at the plane collapsed in the cockpit glass of the cockpit.
 
Analysis of the causes of the accident revealed the most serious defect is cracking of the glazing of the cockpit canopy, which at high altitude could lead to an explosive decompression and the crash. Urgently the problem tried to solve by splitting the glazing into two parts with the upper bound, but a positive result is not given, the cracks continued to appear.
 
It took a huge research work of the design Bureau specialists and scientists of VIAM, in which the issue was resolved application oriented Plexiglas and the technology of manufacturing of a glass cockpit. The experience later was widely used in many design offices and production plants.
 
In the process of mass production, improved other components and assemblies of be-10. So, despite the fact that the engine AL-7 was made in a special version AL-7ПБ with compressor blades made of titanium, especially acutely the question of its protection against corrosion. In July — August 1960 was the testing of a new protection technology compressors developed jointly with OKB-45, headed by V. Ya. Klimov.
 
It was based on the use of chemical corrosion inhibitors for washing the air-gas path of the engine and the introduction in the design of the power plant corrosion resistant materials and coatings.
 
To facilitate the piloting of the machines of the latest series equipped with Radiotechnical system of short-range navigation RSBN-2 “code”.
 
Seaplane Be-10
 
Seaplane Be-10:
 
1—front door front pressurized cabin; 2 — door aft of the pressurized cabin; 3—escape hatch radio operator-gunner; 4 — the escape hatch of the Navigator; 5—deck hatch cargo compartment; 6—bottom, fotolog; 7—the bottom hatch of the cargo compartment; 8 fotolook; 9—keel; 10—rudder; 11 —trimmer of the rudder; 12—water rudder; 13—stabilizer; 14—steering wheel height; 15—trimmer of the Elevator; 16—wheel main landing erratic chassis; 17 — the tail wheel is erratic suspension; 18—redan; 19—float lateral stability

 
Developed and refined means of ensuring-based flying boats. For example, in the fall of 1962 in donuzlave tested special boat project 1382 for delivering and loading bombs, mines and torpedoes.
 
The military reasonably believed that the be-10, armed only with torpedoes aviation and free-fall bombs, will have a limited combat use. Significantly expand the tactical capabilities of the machine could only its equipment guided missiles.
 
Therefore, considering the prospect of fighting application of be-10, the designers have seen fit to turn it into a carrier rocket (“rocket”, in the terminology of those years) weapons. The project received the designation the be-10N, and the whole aviation sector, including aircraft, had the designation K-12B (index missiles).
 
According to the draft of the be-10N was equipped with anti-ship cruise missiles (ASM) K-12БС with nuclear or conventional warheads, and a radar fire control system “Spire” K-12U. And the “main calibre” — RCC K-12БС also developed in OKB.
 
Complex K-12B was intended for destruction of large warships and transports, and naval bases. The estimated normal takeoff weight of the carrier with the RCC reached 48 500 kg, and the range 1400 — 1450 km at maximum launch range is 90 — 110 km (with a height of 10 000 m).
 
The aircraft be-10N differ from the original version of the bow of the boat to the frame number 18 (there was a station antenna “Spire”) and a cargo compartment (were eliminated the top and bottom hatches). It also installed the latest navigation equipment, removed all bomber weapons, equipment, and front gun mount. Completely replaced the electrical system, as the number of users has doubled.
 
Be-10N could carry on special pylons under the planes one or two missiles that can be suspended as in the Parking lot of a seaplane on erratic chassis and afloat. Preliminary design aviation complex FOR-12B was approved in June 1959 scientific and technical Council of the state Committee on aviation technology. But then words of praise of course he did not. All work on the be-10N and SIC K-12БС were closed.
We also considered the possibility of creation on the basis of the original version of antisubmarine aircraft be-10S and the aircraft designator Be-10U, equipped with apparatus “Success” for the detection of surface targets and firing ship and coastal missile systems. However, all these works are also not out of the design stage and was discontinued in August 1960 he Developed a system of fuel at sea from a submarine, but work on this topic was curtailed with the termination of the construction of a special submarine of project 648.
 
One serial Be-10 No. 0600505 turned into a record machine, with fodder infantry unit replaced the fairing on the tail secured with additional bar LDPE and dismantled bryzgogasiteli flaps. In the documents of the FAI, the car was declared as M-10.
 
In 1961, the be-10, in total, was established 12 world records. Record flights were performed in Donuzlav on the basis of the front part 318-th separate anti-submarine aviation regiment (oplap). 7 August 1961 was flown by the crew of commander of the regiment N.And. Andrievsky (Navigator B. A. Bezverkhnii, gunner ONE. Fedorenko) and 3, 8, 9, 11 and 12 September the same year the crew of a test pilot G. I. Buryanov (Navigator V. M. Rich, radio operator V. P. Perevalov).
 
For the retraining of pilots developed a training variant of the be-10 with dual controls. Instructor’s workplace was in the navigation cabin. In Taganrog produced and sent to the Donuzlav four repair conversion kit production aircraft with a force TECH, but any information on the practical application of these kits, yet could not be found.
 
When the flight biography of the be-10 came to an end, one of the salvaged vehicles was turned into a laboratory for studying the effects of salty seawater on the airframe, which aircraft for a long time put the barrel in the Bay of Gelendzhik. This work has allowed to develop recommendations for the protection of the airframe of the car from corrosion, which was successfully applied in the design of amphibious aircraft be-12.
 
Interestingly, after the last of the be-10 was written off, there was a postage stamp with the image of the be-10, bearing the symbols of the Aeroflot. It still serves as a pretext for the emergence of different versions about the existence of the civil variant of the flying boat. However, no one ever seriously considered Be-10 as a product of dual use, and hence tried to create aeroflotsky option. The aircraft was conceived only as a fighting machine.
 
In the summer of 1959 to the transfer piston Be-6, jet Be-10 started second squadron 977-th separate marine zalneraviciute aviation regiment aviation of black sea Fleet (ADREP) based on the lake Donuzlav in the Crimea. The regiment remained the only combat part exploited Be-10, and all released planes became part of his two squadrons.
 
Be-10 record (No. 0600505)
 
The be-10 record (No. 0600505)
 
Be-10 with extended intakes
 
The be-10 with extended intakes
 
The development of Be-10 in the regiment were quite difficult because in piloting the machine was more stringent than its predecessor, the be-6. Errors for the premature increase in the angle of attack on takeoff it did not forgive. Landing speed Be-10 is more than 1.5 times higher than at the corresponding Be-6, so to use the be-10 was allowed only pilots of high qualification.
 
Retraining is also impeded by the lack of new flying boat the second control and space for the instructor. Had to learn the approach and p-6 with the flaps retracted at high speed, then the be-10 was shown taxiing, running at different speeds and executed export flights. The student pilot while watching the actions of the instructor, accompanied by comments on the airplane intercom. The effectiveness of this technique was not too high, but gradually the crews received permits to fly and began to study the tactical capabilities of the be-10.
 
In different combinations on the machine can be suspended three aviation jet torpedo RAT-52, or induction of hydrodynamic three mines, IGDM, aircraft or floating mines, APM, 12 bombs FAB-250 or one of FAB-3000. Visual alignment was performed with the help of sight OPB-11km associated with the autopilot AP-5-2M. In adverse weather conditions as a reticle used radar “Kurs-M”, which was also used for solving navigation tasks when flying over the sea.
 
In 1961 in connection with the liquidation minitorpedy aviation 977-th amdrup was renamed and became known as the 318-m separate naval anti-submarine aviation regiment. That summer, the be-10 was demonstrated to the General public. Four jet seaplanes, piloted by Lieutenant Colonel Andrievsky, majors Borisenko, Gordeyev and the captain Ponomarenko, crossed over the Neva river during the celebrations of Day of the Navy in Leningrad.
 
Just two weeks Be-10 participated in the air parade above Tushino airfield in Moscow. At present foreign diplomats and attachés, these machines made a strong impression, the pictures have bypassed the world press, and in NATO the aircraft received the code name “mallow” (“Mallow”).
 
But surprise got not only the holiday guests. To participate in the parade flying boats ferried from Taganrog to freshwater Plescheevo lake in Pereslavl-Zalessky in 125 km from Moscow. Less aggressive at first glance, the water of the lake provoked a detachment from the underbody anti-corrosion coatings. Found out after returning home.
 
Although Plescheevo lake and is home to a Russian fleet (here Peter the great built his famous boat, and still saved for posterity), no special infrastructure for basing of seaplanes on it, of course, was not. So to fill the aircraft had from conventional tankers standing on the shore. The fuel hoses were fed to the machines with light wooden bridges.
 
The accumulation of the experience of the flight crews and the completions on the aircraft by the representatives of OKB and plant machine is becoming more understandable and predictable. But still the be-10 was very challenging for takeoff and landing, and piloting on these modes sometimes did not even experienced combat pilots. Not without accidents and disasters.
 
The mournful list was opened 14 Oct 1961 , because of an error of the pilot major Gordeeva crashed the first Be-10. May 22, 1962 G. crashed seaplane, piloted by senior Lieutenant Belov.
 
16 Aug 1963, crashed another vehicle from the 318, onlap (side number 50). That day the plane first overflew the Deputy squadron commander captain elyan, whose no comments on the work Mat part does not arise. After that, the execution of flight on this flying boat was started by the crew of Lieutenant Kuzmenko.
 
As in the case of Taganrog crew headed Seninim that occurred in may 1961, on the rise a car fell down with a sharp increase in angle of attack. The pilot and Navigator were killed.
 
Be-10 in the Bay of Gelendzhik
 
Be-10 in the Bay of Gelendzhik
 
After this incident, the flights of the Be-10 was suspended. But not only because of the disasters. When inspections revealed cracks on parts of the airframe, made of alloy al-8. The application of this high strength material increased the processability during the construction of the aircraft, and the al-8 was well represented in elements of the design of the be-10.
 
Specialists of the head center of aviation materials VIAM recommended to use al-8 for the manufacture of components which has high requirements for strength and corrosion resistance in contact with sea water. But over time it became clear that there was no tendency of the alloy to intergranular corrosion and stress corrosion cracking under cyclic diurnal temperature changes. Elegant flying boat just started to fall apart.
 
Another factor behind the short biography of the latest jet seaplane, became his belated “birth”. The use of free-fall bombs and torpedoes by the end of 1950-ies have been exhausted. The appearance of the ship SAM was reduced to almost zero the chances of a successful breakthrough aircraft air defense and the output of the line torpedo attack.
 
It needed a new weapon, and it appeared in the form of anti-ship cruise missiles. The be-10 was no longer interested in the command of naval aviation. All of these reasons, taken together, led to the curtailment program and the lifting of the machine operation in 1963
 
Officially, the be-10 was never adopted, so the planes had a pretty long standing on the shore in Donuzlav, waiting for disposal. Cut in 1968.
 
Unfortunately, no single instance of the be-10 was not preserved. For a long time the two aircraft were in the far corner of the factory airfield in Taganrog, and even supposed to put one of them on a pedestal, but unfortunately both cars were victims of the plan for the delivery of scrap metal.
 
Technical details
 
Seaplane Be-10 is an all-metal flying boat with two turbojet AL-7ПБ, high-set swept wing and a swept vertical and horizontal tail surfaces.
 
The main purpose of the airplane: exploration in the open sea, high-altitude torpedo and bombing of ships. Additional tasks: formulation of minefields, bombing from horizontal flight at naval bases and shore facilities. Flying boat intended to perform combat missions day or night and in adverse weather conditions in the open sea, alone and in groups.
 
The crew consisted of three: pilot, Navigator and radio operator-gunner.
 
Fuselage — duradanda boat. The boat is divided by bulkheads into compartments 9, the buoyancy of the aircraft was maintained in case of flooding of any two compartments. The bulkheads had sealed in the closed position, communicating doors.
 
The front and aft compartments is hermetic. In the front compartment housed the cockpit and Navigator, in the aft cabin radio operator-gunner. The entrance to the front compartment was performed through the left front side door and vestibule. The entrance to the aft compartment through the left rear side door and the Central hatch.
 
Exit to the deck of the boat for emergency evacuation of the aircraft using the ejection seats K-22 front vermouzek had the top hatch of the Navigator and folding the lantern pilot. Gunner left the aircraft through the bottom escape hatch.
 
In peredannoe of the boat housed the cargo Bay for suspension of the payload. To download it on top served as a deck hatch. From the bottom of the cargo compartment has a double bottom hatch. Actuators the valves and locks the bottom hatch is hydraulic. In addition, there are three fataluku: — two on the right and left side in one of the front compartments and one in the bottom of the tail section. All of the input bushing side and internal doors, lantern pilot hatches cabin of the Navigator and the radio operator, deck and bottom of cargo hatches and hatches for aerial photography are sealed along the contour of the neck inflatable hoses. The air hoses came under pressure after the closing of the locks.
The wing is made under the “Chaika” with a negative angle transverse “V”. Sweep angle of wing leading edge — 350°. Wing — two-spar, caisson type, consists of a center section and two outer consoles, has a retractable odnoschelevye flaps, rudders and ailerons are equipped with trimmers with electric drive. Wing ended non-retractable underwing floats.
 
The tailplane is swept. The angles of sweep of the vertical stabilizer leading edge — 35°, and the horizontal tail -40°. Horizontal and vertical tail dvuhlonzheronnoe design with a working lining. Handlebars equipped with aerodynamic compensation, and trim tab with electric actuator. Control of the trimmer of the Elevator duplicated cable runs.
 
The seaplane to move on land, going into the water and rolling out to the beach from the water was supplied erratically removable chassis with a non-braking wheels.
 
Powerplant: two turbojet engines AL-7ПБ, thrust 7350 kg, at the Board mounted in nacelles under the wing. Autonomous starting of the engine is afloat provided the installation of turbine starters TS-19. The nacelle in the front had a hinged lid that was used to approach to the units of the engine and inspect it afloat.
 
Fuel capacity was 18 750 kg, of which 11, OOO kg was within two boat and 7750 kg — 16 wing tanks. All fuel tanks is mild. Boat tanks — self-sealing. There was equipment to fill the space nadoblickova neutral gas and fire system. Refueling was carried out centrally. Provided emergency fuel drain in the air from the wing tanks.
 
Normal activity of the crew members were provided with high-rise equipment supporting the right climate in the pressurized cabin. The air conditioning units were taken from the compressor of the engine. Jobs crew members are equipped with oxygen system.
 
The aircraft was equipped with a thermal anti-icing devices that protect from icing the front edge of the wing and tail, the front edge of the engine air intakes and Windows of the crew cab.
 
The composition of the rescue equipment consisted of the ejection seat K-22, life jackets SOOT-43П, parachutes MPLC-49 with individual rescue boat MLAS-1, five-inflatable rescue boat LAS-5M.
 
The electrical system of the aircraft — DC voltage of 27 V. the power Sources — two of DC generator. The alarm system was powered by batteries 12SAM-55. In addition, for the power of individual systems and assemblies had a system of single-phase and three-phase alternating current.
 
The hydraulic system of the aircraft consisted of two independent hydraulic systems: the main, with pumps on engines and replacement with electric pump. The nominal operating pressure in hydraulic systems — 150 kgf/cm2, the working fluid AMG-10. The system is closed, with a supercharged hydrotanks.
 
The pneumatic system of the aircraft with a pressure of 150 kgf/cm2 as a source of compressed air had two compressor AK-150, installed on the motors, and pneumatic cylinders.
 
Control system — mechanical, from the wheel and pedals of the pilot with hard wiring, with the exception of the site cable runs to the control column. Boosters were absent, but a reasonable effort on the authorities in the channels of the course and the roll was ensured through the use of a spring servo tab and trim tab. To the transaction management for a parallel circuit, connected servos of the autopilot AP-5-2M. A water wheel turned by using the steering control wiring from the rudder.
 
The structure of naval equipment included: bottom anchor with the onboard winch and extra cable, two floating anchors, anchor cat with heaving, anchor us to the castle, MegaFon, patches, bilge pumps.
 
The aircraft was equipped with a full set for the modern age proteininteractions equipment, including the autopilot AP-5-2M.
 
Avionics include: radar sea-surface search “Kurs-M” radio altimeter great heights “Lithium-17M”, the radio altimeter low altitude RV-2 radio blind landing system “Materik”, radio ARC-5 radio command communication RSIU-ZM, the radio telecommunication RSB-70M, emergency radio station AVRA-45, the aircraft intercom SPU-5, equipment identification “Silicon-2”, radar equipment for the protection of the tail “Sirena-2” system of emission dipole reflectors ASO-2.
 
For routine shooting used cameras one from: AFA-ZZM/75, AFA-ZZM/50, RNS-ZZM/20, AFA-NT-1, for night photography — NAFA-CS/50. Perspective the photographs were taken by the aerial camera AFA-ZZM/100. Managing photostroll remote from the cab of the Navigator.
 
Gun armament consisted of two fixed bow odnopestichnyj plants and feeding unit of the DC-7B under two guns AM-23 caliber 23 mm. For aimed fire the bow guns from the cockpit had a red dot sight CRPS. Aft was equipped with a sighting station PKS-53 radar rangefinder “Argon”.
 
Bomber weapons provide different suspension options of torpedoes PAT-52, min AMD-500M, AMD-2M, IGDM, APM and Lyra, aerial bombs caliber from 100 kg to 3000 kg Maximum combat load — 3360 kg, normal — 1500 kg.
 
Managing dropping payload — electric. The bombing was done by sight OPB-11C.
 
Performance characteristics
 
Dvigateli………………………………………………………………………………………………………….AL-7ПБ
Takeoff thrust, kgs………………………………………………………………………………………………..2×7350
Length, m…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..31,5
Height, m…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………10,2
Wingspan, m……………………………………………………………………………………………………….28,6
Wing area, м2……………………………………………………………………………………………….130
Maximum takeoff weight, kg………………………………………………………………………….48 500
The maximum amount of fuel, kg…………………………………………………………………………..18 750
The maximum combat load, kg…………………………………………………………………………..3360
Maximum speed km/CH……………………………………………………………………………………910
The take-off speed, km/CH…………………………………………………………………………………………….300
Landing speed, km/CH………………………………………………………………………………………..210
Practical ceiling, m……………………………………………………………………………………..12 500
Takeoff distance, m…………………………………………………………………………………………….5000
Landing distance, m………………………………………………………………………………………….3100
Flight range with maximum fuel reserve, km…………………………………………28951)
The flight duration, h…………………………………………………………………………………..4,32)
The crew cel………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….3

 
ZABLOTSKY A. A. SALNIKOV

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