SMALL, BUT PERFECTLY FORMED

SMALL, BUT VALIANTMulti-purpose fighter F-5E. After the Second world war, the US claimed, not without reason, on the role of world leader, particularly in aviation. The leadership was obliged to provide economic and military assistance to allies.

 
The creation of jet aircraft that appeared at the final stage of the Second world war, involved significant costs: if the company “North American” development of a piston fighter P-51 “Mustang” took 154 thousand man-hours on subsonic jet F-86 “sabre” the firm has spent 1.7 million man-hours. To implement its plans to create a supersonic fighter jet has cost the American taxpayers several times more expensive than its predecessor.
 
In a market economy, the Pentagon could choose a firm by another programs among firms, leading to acute competition for a lucrative military contract. A feasibility study of the proposals of the developers played in this case not the last role.
 
В1954 year, experts aircraft manufacturing company “Northrop”, analyzing the costs of development and operation of fighters, “hundredth” series, which includes F-100, F-102, F-104, etc., came to the conclusion that they are in direct proportion to the complexity of the aircraft and affect their sales in both domestic and foreign market According to experts “Northrop”, worthy competition fighters “hundredth” series could be easy and simple machine with high flying-tactical characteristics.
 
Preliminary study of a light single-engine fighter aircraft N-102 Fang with a Delta wing and ventral air intake was made by the firm in the early 1950-ies. Constructive ideas this machine was further developed in the project “Northrop” N-156 or SS-420A, proposed by the U.S. Navy for use with escort aircraft carriers. Simultaneously, the firm suggested that this light twin-engine supersonic aircraft for supply to US allies under the state program of military-technical aid (Military Assistance Program — MAP).
 
In the fall of 1955, the designers focused their efforts on the development of training aircraft (TCB) N-156T to introduce in March next year for consideration by the competition Committee of the air force supersonic TA in the Summer of 1956, the N-156T was declared the winner of the competition, and in December the firm “Northrop” has received the official order for the production of three prototypes in the UTS in the framework of the SS-420L. In June of 1958 to accelerate the program, the air force increased the number of experienced instances of aircraft to seven.
 
April 10, 1959, the first flew a prototype of the UTS, which received the designation T-38 a year later, the firm “Northrop” has started serial production of the T-38A with two turbojet engines of the company “General electric” J85-GE-5 with a thrust of 1215 or 1750 kgf in afterburner A17 March 1961 was the official handover of the first aircraft at the disposal of the command of training air force. Initially, the air force ordered 744 cars, but by the end of production in January, 1972, that number was 1187 units. TCB was produced in two versions: the T-38A for initial training and T-38V for high level training T-38B different from the T-38A advanced composition of navigation equipment mainly in the front cabin here over the dashboard is additionally located, the pointer angle of attack and an optical sight with shot-method Aircraft T-38 had high reliability: according to statistics, 100 thousand flight hours account for 2.2 flight accident. No wonder they trained not only the future of the American pilots (the number in the elapsed time has exceeded 40 thousand), but also NASA astronauts. Except the Americans they have mastered the profession future pilots Portugal, Taiwan and Turkey.
 
Work on the aircraft in the version of the light single-seat fighter N-156F until 1958 was conducted by the firm “Northrop” in parallel with the development of the TCB, allowing the firm three months after first flight of T-38 to lift into the air from an airfield in Palmdale (California) on July 30, 1959, the first prototype of the F-5. After completion of the first phase of testing in August 1960, three pre-production YF-5A (trade designation NF-5A) checked on the extensive program of military trials as a multipurpose fighter, assessing their suitability for operation in various climatic conditions from the tropics to the Arctic, day and night YF-5A— the first American supersonic jet fighters took off and landed on a dirt airfield.
 
After the successful completion of military trials in April 1962, the U.S. Department of defense has provided the company channeled $ 20 million In October 1963 produced the first production F-5A variant of the fighter-bomber. Serial aircraft were produced with more powerful than the T-38, the engines J-85-GE-13 with a thrust in afterburner 1780 kgs.
 
At the same time on the program MAR firm has developed double training and combat tactical fighter F-5B, which flew on 24 February 1964. The first of the allies new fighter jets in January 1965, received the Iranian air force In the same year, F-5A and F-5B was delivered to the Greek air force, Taiwan, Turkey, the Philippines and the Republic of Korea. Modification of the F-5A developed for Norway, received the designation of F-5G and differed from the basic machine by the presence of brake hook for landing on short runways and equipment designed for operation in Arctic conditions, the more powerful the heater, modified air intakes and navigation system TASK.
 
The F-5A/could hit ground targets conventional bombs, rockets and guided missiles ASM-12V “Bullpup” To combat air targets, the aircraft was armed with two 20-mm automatic guns M-39 ammunition 280 rounds each and two missiles “air — air” AIM-9 “Sidewinder”. Maximum mass of payload placed on the seven hardpoints, amounted to 2812 kg.
 
Wanting to retain the conquered market niche tactical fighter jets, the company “Northrop” in 1965, has upgraded aircraft F-5A/experimental machine, known as F-5N and F-5A-15, equipped with a more powerful and reliable engine J85-GE-15 with a thrust in afterburner 1880 kgs and radar placed in the nose of the fuselage instead of guns. Externally, the production aircraft this engine was distinguished by the valves of the feeding motor located in the air intakes, between the wing and the stabilizer. On the flight speeds of less than 530 km/h, mainly during takeoff and when performing turns at high altitudes, they provided a supply of additional air. On the F-5A-15, and has worked a new two-position nose support gear. on takeoff it increases the angle of attack of the wing 3 degrees, allowing for a 25% reduction in the length of run.
 
 
 
To test the new fighter in combat in 1965, the USAF conducted operation “Tiger” (Skoshi Tiger), forming of the 15 F-5 4503-th tactical fighter squadron (TFS 4503). Before shipping to Vietnam, fighters have finished: at the bottom of the fuselage placed overhead the armor-plate with a total mass of about 100 kg, in front of the cockpit mounted toplivoprovode device for in-flight refueling. On the dashboard set a new horizon once finalized, the aircraft received the designation F-5C (also found the symbol F-5TFS). 4503 fighter squadron, liderami plane-tanker KC-135, its course crossed the Pacific ocean and 10 October 1965 and landed on the airbase bien Hoa.
 
Already five hours after landing, the aircraft made its first combat sortie During the four months spent in Vietnam, the squadron completed about 3500 sorties for a total duration of 4,000 hours Aircraft performed various combat missions over South and North Vietnam While bombing ground targets typical combat load did not exceed 1360 kg (four Mk 117 bombs weighing 340 kg) Maximum distance to the target in this case was 330 km During the operation of the combat damage was one fighter: 16 December 1965, by small arms fire was brought down one of the TRD but the pilot managed to return to their base on a working turbojet engine and put the car In the opinion of American experts, the plane was quite effective, though not devoid of flaws – a small combat radius and a large length of the run in accelerated version (up to 2 km). 4503-th tactical fighter squadron returned to the United States, and the air forces of South Vietnam until the end of the war put about 120 F-5 fighters, of which more than 50 modifications of the F-5E.
 
To expand the market in 1965, the firm proposed reconnaissance version of the F-5 “tiger” (the name of a Freedom Fighter — “Soldier of freedom”, originally adorned the noses of prototypes and pre-production cars being phased out of circulation). In the modified forward fuselage RF-5A placed three, and later four 70-mm camera with interchangeable lenses. While it retained the gun armament of the First production reconnaissance was made in 1965. Just before 1972, they built 107 copies.
 
Given the special relationship between the United States and Canada f-5A/b for the Royal Canadian air force built under license by “Canadair” engines J85-SAP-15 produced in Malthone Canadian aircraft received a traditional in such cases, the designation of the CF-5A and CF-5D. The Canadians are to enhance the capabilities of the aircraft modified for in-flight refueling on the starboard side of the fuselage mounted fuel consumer, reinforced glass visor lamp, manned aircraft brake-plus, two-position nose strut and Windows recharge turbojet engines as on the F-5N. In the reconnaissance variant used cameras “Vinten”, photographing was carried out in three or seven Windows have Been modernised avionics and weapons control system For the canadian doubles were shot guns and an optical generator to illuminate the target when using weapons with laser guidance system.
 
Multi-purpose fighter F-5E
 
 
Multi-purpose fighter F-5E
 
Multi-purpose fighter F-5E:
 
1 —Radome radar AN/APG-159; 2 — antenna of the navigation system TACAN; 3 —20-mm aerogun M-39А2; 4 — combined antenna system of national recognition and microwave; 5 — cover cannon armament; 6 — fold of the nose landing gear; 7 — visor lights; 8 — ejection seat HRQ7A; 9 — movable part of the lamp; 10 — perforated wedge intake, 11 —antenna VHF-radio; 12 — valves recharge TRD; 13 — antenna of the TACAN system; 14 — antenna Radiotechnika; 15 — tail navigation light; 16 rudder 17 — drag chute container, 18 — brake hook; 19 — plate strut main landing gear, 20 — built-in ladder, 21 — a two-position nose landing gear; 22 — wheel 430×160 mm; 23 — the main wheel 600х176 mm, 24 — strut; 25 — cylinder cleaning (manufacture) chassis; 26 — brake; 27 — fold niches main landing gear; 28 — strut; 29 — the influx of the wing 30 is deflected toe; 31 — launcher rocket, 32 rocket “air — air” AIM-9J “Sidewinder”; 33 — technological door; 34 — Aileron; 35 — flaps; 36— all-moving stabilizer; 37 — external pylon of the wing, 38—unit LAU-3/A for 70-mm ROCKETS, 39 — rod PV; 40 — 275-gallon external fuel tank, 41 — ventral pylon 42 — guided bomb Mk. 84LGB; 43 — inner wing pylon; 44 — bomb Mk. 82GP “Snaky”; 45 — starter missiles; 46 — missile “air — surface” AGM-65, 47 — bomb Mk. 83; 48 — gun hanging container SUU-16/A; 49 — nozzle turbojet engine J85-GE-21; 50 maintenance hatch turbojet engine; 51 — the controls TRD; 52 — reflector optical sight, 53 — a magnetic compass, a 54 — rear view mirror; 55 — aircraft control stick; a 56 — seat pilot; 57 panel machines protection of the network; 58 antenna system SKYSPOT; 59 — radio compartment; 60 — air intake cooling engine compartment, 61 — turbojet engine F404-GE-100

 
In February 1968 the names of the canadian air force has disappeared, the word Royal, and upgraded aircraft “Canadair” received a new designation Single CF-5A was called CL 19, and double CF-116.
 
The first production CL-19 soared in may 1968, and four months later — CF-116. Only for the canadian air force built 89 single rooms and 46 double fighter. Some of them subsequently sold to Venezuela.
 
In the development of jet aircraft during the second half of the XX century was characterized by wide cooperation which is not only economically justified, the development and production of aircraft is No exception and such a popular aircraft as the F-5 Dutch firm “Fokker” in cooperation with “Canadair” organized in 1969, the production of the most perfect modification of the F-5A/75 single NF-5A and 30 double planes NF — 5V, intended for Dutch air force and equipped with canadian engines were installed new avionics, including laser rangefinder “Ferranti”. For rear fuselage mounted device ejection of chaff and false chains “Tractor Aerospa” Planes could refuel with fuel in flight. After strengthening the wing structure to be hung from 275-gallon external fuel tanks in addition, improved mechanization of the wing: flap, flaps and electric drive, which will substantially improve the flight characteristics of the aircraft when maneuvering.
 
Spanish aviation firm CASA organized the production F-5A/with the technical support of the Americans the First licensed aircraft, which received the trademark SF-5A, SF-5B, and SRF-5A and, respectively, Spanish-9, SE-9 and CR-9 fully assembled from U.S. components in the future from the U.S. were supplied only engines. Only Spain has built 18-and-9, 36 CE-9 and 18 CR-9.
 
The war in Vietnam and the middle East contributed to the revision of established views on the combat use of tactical fighters These developments took into account not only the newly developed machines, they quickly tried to implement for mass-produced fighters, Many technical solutions are used on different variants of the F-5A/B, tried to focus in the new basic version, focused primarily on maneuvering air combat in normal weather conditions. By this time the firm “General electric” has created another modification of the engine J85-GE-21 with a thrust in afterburner 2185 kgs. The new variant, designated F-5E “tiger II”.
 
used the control system of the lifting force depending on the flight mode, like on the Dutch NF-5A/B;
 
increased the wing area by changing the scale and shape of the nodules in the front part;
 
equipped with aircraft braking-plus spent on the canadian, Norwegian and Dutch versions;
 
mounted pulse radar AN/АРQ-153 company “Emerson electric”;
 
managed service complements modern missiles “air — surface” ADM-65 “Mavrik”, bombs MK. 84 LGB, laser aiming system,
 
significantly changed the flight navigazione equipment and weapons control system;
 
300 l, increased the supply of fuel in internal tanks due to the lengthening and broadening of the fuselage;
 
inlet area of the air intakes and inlet channels of the engine was to meet the increased air flow turbojet engine,
 
increased the base and track chassis, staffed its two-position nose strut.
 
The mass of the F-5E compared to the original machine increased by one ton at normal takeoff weight, and nearly two — accelerated version.
 
Potjazhelevshie and, accordingly, expensive plane however has not lost its attractiveness to potential buyers. The upgrade increased the maximum combat load, speed, climb rate and angular rate of turn and decrease the radius of the bend and the take-off distance.
 
The first production F-5E took to the skies on 11 August 1972, his double modification of F-5R — four years later. Combat training F-5P unlike the previous two has a built-in cannon armament in the forward fuselage to the left there is aerogun M-39А3 with ammunition 140 rounds.
 
The main technical characteristics of the F-5
 
Aircraft modifications F-5E/F built in series up to 1988: total produced 1162 single machine and 242 uchebnoye, including fighters, collected in Switzerland and built under license by the CA firm from the Republic of Korea and Taiwan’s AIDC in addition to the above the wing there is a tactical reconnaissance RF-5E “Tigery”, developed by the firm “Northrop” in 1979 and built in 12 copies.
 
The F-5E/F was part of the air force Bahrain, Brazil, Honduras, Indonesia, Jordan, Iran, Kenya, Malaysia, Mexico, Morocco, the Republic of Korea, Saudi Arabia, North Yemen, Singapore, Sudan, Thailand, Tunisia, the Philippines. One hundred and fifty F-5E/F took an active part in the Iran-Iraq war of 1980-1988, due to its simplicity and high reliability were involved throughout the war in combat, while other Iranian American-made aircraft idle for lack of spare parts Moroccan F-5A and F-5E took part in the fighting in Western Sahara.
 
30 August 1983 from the airfield of the company “Northrop” soared another modification of the F-5G (later named R-20) single engine version with modern onboard radio electronic complex. The aircraft installed engine F-404-GE-100 with a thrust in afterburner 8000 kgs. Despite a significant improvement in flight performance, the aircraft did not cause the expected interest.
 
In the future to extend the life of the family of F-5, the firm “Northrop” focused on modernisation, offering equipping it with modern electronic systems it was Supposed to equip the aircraft with improved radar APG-66, on-Board digital computing machine, a display on windshield and multi-functional displays, inertial laser system with laser gyros. The F-5E, an upgraded Alliance formed “Northrop Grumman”, “Bristol”, “Samsung”, CRDA, and CASA, the “tiger IV” for three months in 1995 were tested at Edwards AFB, and in October successfully performed demonstration flights at the air base Kelly.
 
There are other upgrades of the plane. Of CASA and Bristol in the early 1990s, modernized the Spanish SE-9, replacing the wing, equipment identification “friend or foe” and setting equipment warning radar irradiation. The Brazilian “tiger” at the end of XX century, the national firm of EMBRAER and the Israeli “Elbit systems” has installed modern electronic equipment. “Elbit systems” also participated in the modernization of the Turkish and Singaporean F-5. Modernize its air force fighter jets Canada, Indonesia and Chile. The U.S. air force expects to use the upgraded T-38 to 2010.
 
Left their mark F-5E and Soviet in the sky After the end of the Vietnam war in the USSR, among other aircraft in the Chkalovsky airfield near Moscow delivered “tiger II” serial number 73-00807 After studying the aircraft, specialists from the air force Institute got acquainted with him the leadership of the air force and the Ministry of aviation industry. A senior engineer from research Institute for the study of the F-5E was V. Evteev. After studying the aircraft was prepared to fly a Lot of trouble to the chief engineer of the research Institute of the air force Yakovlev brought the manufacture of ball-bearing stabilizer, destroyed in the preparation of the fighter to the transport of the DRV. At the initiative of the chief of the air force Institute of General I. D Gaydayenko, supported by the Deputy commander of the air force armament M-Misha, conducted comparative tests and training fighting with Russian MiG-21bis and MiG-23ML. In this work participated the test pilots the air force Institute of N. And.Stogov, V. N. Kondaurov, A. Bezhevets and the inspector of the air force Uryadov Technical staff, preparing of fine American aircraft to fly, he is remembered by simplicity and thoughtful design, ease of access to serviceable units. One of the participants in the study of American aircraft leading engineer NII VVS And I. Marchenko, remembering, said that the dignity of the fighter as the glare-free instrument panel: high quality glass enlightened devices in any lighting will not cause problems with reading. Engineers NII VVS long puzzled over the purpose of the buttons on the bottom of a deep niche in the cockpit. As it turned out, it was meant to unlock on the use of weapons when the chassis is released.
 
The pilots appreciated the comfort of the cab, a good review of it, rational placement of instruments and controls, light rise and excellent maneuverability at high subsonic speeds. F-5E flew in Vladimirovka about a year until I destroyed one of the tyres of the chassis. After the tests in NII VVS, the aircraft was transferred to TSAGI for static testing, and many of its components and assemblies was in the design office of the aviation industry, where interesting technical solutions of the company “Northrop” used in the development of domestic cars. Except Soviet specialists with the American fighter met the Polish engineers, in 1977 they got out of Vietnam the aircraft with the serial number 73-00852 intended to assess the ability to upgrade the Soviet guns NR-23. This proposal is not implemented. The third F-5E, serial number 73-00878, brought in two boxes of the Czechoslovak training aircraft L-39 “Albatross” in the Prague Museum of aviation and Astronautics in 1981, where he remains to this day.
 
N. CLEAVER

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