SWEDISH SPEAR

SWEDISH SPEARSweden was and remains one of the few countries in the world, able to create a world-class aircraft. Combat aircraft of that Scandinavian countries have always been some kind of “twist”, they should not be confused with similar machines from other countries. In a world quite similar to each other planes, but similar to the Swedish fighter, perhaps, could not be found. The explanation, in my opinion, is simple: since its inception in the late 1930-ies the Swedish aviation industry is not copied already built foreign aircraft, designed and built their own samples. And the fact that in a short time the Scandinavian engineers to develop could not (for example, modern jet engines and electronic equipment) purchased abroad, including a license for their production. The result of this competent technical policy was the fact that in the postwar “jet race” Sweden is practically not inferior to the world’s leading aviation powers, and in some cases even ahead of them.

 
In this article we will not go down in aviation history, but will tell only about creating a single plane, for more than two decades formed the basis of the tactical aviation of Sweden. This SAAB 32 “Lansen” (“spear” — Swede.) attack, fighter, reconnaissance, electronic warfare aircraft, towing targets, aerial targets simulator, a platform for fine-tuning of future systems.
 
The development of jet-powered attack aircraft to replace the piston bombers of the SAAB IN-18, SAAB J-21 and J 30 (De Havilland “mosquito”) began in 1946. Initially the project had the designation “Р1100” were calculated under two turbojet engines of English manufacture. In its cargo Bay could accommodate two bombs caliber 500 kg or up to 12 NAR caliber 150 — 180 mm. At the design stage considered a variety of aerodynamic configurations, with one of the most promising was considered a “flying wing”. However, given the not entirely successful international experience of implementation of such a scheme in those years, Swedish designers have abandoned it in favor of a traditional classic. Powerplant “cut” to a single engine placed in the fuselage.
 
As a result, in 1948, the project Р1150, which became the prototype of the serial car. At the same time the Royal air force elaborated on the tactical and technical requirements for a promising attack aircraft, which, incidentally, was quite hard. Asked to have a new double plane was ready for all-day use in all weather conditions, had a powerful impact weapons (guns, bombs, NAR and guided missiles), integrated electronics and weapon control system. And most importantly — the new bomber must be able within an hour from the center of the country to reach any point on the coast of Sweden, stretching over 1245 nautical miles (about 2000 km).
Actually “Lansen” began to develop in December 1948 already as a project “type 32”. In parallel with work on a single version of the day fighter-interceptor. In comparison with the prototype, the project has undergone minor changes, in particular, the horizontal tail was moved from the keel to the fuselage. For the first time in the practice of the Swedish aircraft designers have applied mathematical methods of modeling constructs, which were calculated for operational overload of +8 to -3 units (failure overload of +12 and -8 units).
 
SAAB J32B in flight
 
SAAB J32B in flight
 
The aircraft was designed to fly at transonic speeds, on this basis was formed and its aerodynamics.
 
The wing is supplied with automatic slats (later refused), the ailerons and large flaps of the square Prowler. Testing of full-scale wing layout (scale 1:2), as in the case of earlier development of the fighter company SAAB 29 “Tunnan”, was conducted on the flying laboratory, which performs the role of single-engine light SAAB 91 “Safir”.
 
The main obstacle in the progress of the project was the power plant. By the way, this situation in the aviation industry is the rule rather than the exception, and Swedish designers in this regard are not alone. Initially it was assumed that the “type 32” is equipped with an engine Swedish design “Govern” (RM 4) manufactured by STAL a thrust of 3300 kgs. Delays with its development was forced to make a decision about installing a TRD plane English “Well” 100 series, which in the embodiment of the R. A. 7R with afterburner built under license in Sweden under the designation RM5A2 (afterburning chamber was designed by Swedish engineers). Besides, the English copy was developed of 4500 kgf thrust in afterburner, which was considerably more than expected from the Swedish “Govern”.
 
For aircraft was developed and a new ejection seat SAAB Round 3, equipped with two-stage powder charge. Minimum safe height of ejection was approximately 50 meters. The chair were installed in the plane to separate tracks (similar solution was used on the products of the company “Martin-Baker”) and had a system that improves the smoothness of moving the seat at ejection. The canopy had a peculiar shape, and the emergency reserve is first Packed in the rigid case, in order to reduce the load on the spine of the pilot in the ejection moment. The chair was operated in two ways: by pulling derrek located between the knees of the pilot, or a protective curtain covering the face.
 
The first flight of the prototype took place (in the fall. — Approx.ed.) 1952. The plane was piloted by chief pilot company test pilot bent Olavo (Bengt Olow).
The flight was successful, it was followed by the test. October 25, 1953 the aircraft in a shallow dive broke the sound barrier. Soon, the test connected all four instances of prototypes in parallel preparation of serial production, was determined by the construction plans. It was supposed to build a car in three basic versions: percussion, all-weather fighter-interceptor and Maritime reconnaissance.
 
The training version was not originally planned. At the same time, the design included the installation of controls and some of the backup devices in the second cabin, so the need for a spark disappeared by itself.
 
In 1955 the first production A-32A “Lansen” entered service with the Royal Swedish air force, marking the beginning of re-strike squadrons to jet technology. Strike variant of the aircraft was at that time quite a dangerous weapon. Four 20-mm cannon “Bofors” M-49 General ammunition ammunition was located in the forward fuselage. Military exercises, as a rule, limited to 80 rounds per gun. In flight, the trunks were closed with special doors that could be opened by the actuator before the shooting. Hillsoboro guns had not, so the intakes of the engine were protected by special ridges on either side of the fuselage, and the outboard fuel tank was in front of isoprene pad. By the way, the interceptor hillsoboro has already been used.
 
The plane is the SAAB J32B
 
The plane is the SAAB J32B
 
The aircraft is the SAAB J32B:
 
1—wing; 2—wheel main landing gear; 3—flap main landing gear; 4—wheel front landing gear; 5—horizontal tail; 6 — keel; 7—the cockpit canopy; 8 — air inlet; 9—external fuel tank; 10—caudal heel; 11 —the steering wheel turn; 12—the trimmer of the rudder; 13—flaps; 14–Aileron trimmer; 15—Aileron; 16—stabilizer; 17—steering wheel height; 18—trimmer of the Elevator; 19—the air receiver pressure; 20—gun

 
In addition to guns, the pilot of “Lansana” still possessed an impressive Arsenal of bomb armament included four bombs caliber 250 kg or a couple of calibre of 500 kg. On twelve nodes of the outer suspension could be up to 24 NAR caliber from 120 to 240 mm or for two solid UR Robot 304 (a later designation — Rb 04), the main purpose of which was to become the Soviet ships. In General, UR Rb 04 deserves a separate article, as it is one of the world’s first rockets, who had a transonic speed and active homing head. Her Swedish designers back in the mid-1950s is so popular now implemented the principle of “fire and forget”. Of course, the firstborn had many flaws (small launch range of 10 — 20 km, weak immunity, instability over the water surface), but the engineers who created in those years, such a weapon worthy of all respect.
 
It is noteworthy that A-32A was to become a carrier of nuclear and chemical munitions since the 1950 — 1960s in Sweden was an active development in these areas.
 
Avionics attack included radar PS-431/A, designed by the French firm CSF in relation to the Swedish requirements. In 1953 — 1954 in Sweden was put 17 sets of stations, but on aircraft they are not installed, and used to study design, training and other purposes. “Lansen” was equipped with radar of domestic production, which were produced under French license in several Swedish companies in cooperation.
 
Based on the tactics of the use of strike groups and also in order to save money radar stations were equipped with only about a quarter of the planes A-32. For the same reasons, about the same number of cars with navigation equipment. Equipped thus aircraft, in addition to strike missions, performed the tasks of targeting, group management, navigation flight.
 
The aircraft equipped with means of control of the use of weapons (camera .screen sight, fotokinopulemeta), radio altimeter small (0 — 200 m) elevation, radio communication equipment. As electronic warfare was used suspended container BOZ 3 chaff spreader.
 
In 1955 — 1958 at the Royal Swedish air force were delivered to 287 attack aircraft (serial number 32001 — 32287, including three pre-production cars brought to full production standard), which has staffed not less than 12 air squadrons of 4 wings (F6, F7, and F14 M17). In the fighting ranks of the new machine replaced not only the piston SAAB-18, but jet “Vampire” of the company “De Havilland”, and the SAAB 29 “Tunnan”.
 
The next option “Lansana” became an all-weather fighter-interceptor J-32B made its first flight on 7 January 1957. Compared to the accelerated version, this version had a number of significant differences. First, the aircraft was equipped with a more powerful engine RM6B, which was a licensed copy of “Avon” series 200.
Afterburner, as in the previous case, was designed by Swedish engineers. The thrust of the new engine afterburner was 6900 kgs. The new power plant has resulted in the processing of intakes more air flow and jet nozzle.
 
Second, instead of guns “Bofors” M-49, the fighter was set to English 30-mm cannon “Aden”, turret type, ammunition 90 rounds per gun. To reduce the weight of the structure from the protective folds refused, and spent cases were collected in hillsoboro. The composition of the suspension arms will change as well. Quantity of external hardpoints reduced to four. In the nomenclature of the weapons included missiles “air — air” Rb-324, which was a licensed copy of the American UR AIM-9 “Sidewinder”. The fighter had two basic options weapons: 4 SD Rb-324 or two such missiles plus two containers with 75-mm NAR.
 
Thirdly, on the basis of the main tasks of the interceptor, significant changes were the avionics. The aircraft was equipped with three-coordinate radar PS-42/A, which is a further development of the station of the PS-431/A, which carried the Swedish firm Ericsson. PS-42/was the area of the support in azimuth ± 60°, and in elevation from +60° to -30°, the range of the target was about 30 km away.
 
In addition to the new radar, the fighter was equipped with such an innovation as the weapons control system Sikte 6A on the basis of computers. Part of the interceptors were equipped with infrared station AN/ААR-4 firm “Hughes” mounted under the left wing just before landing gear. The weapons control system displays information received from radar and IR stations, as well as the navigation information on the monitor screen in the cockpit and operator. Thanks to modern avionics the aircraft could attack a target without visual contact with her.
 
Royal Swedish air force ordered 120 interceptors, and in the period from 1958 to 1960 such equipment was equipped 7 squadrons (118 machines, serial numbers 32501 — 32620). Interesting fact: with the advent in the late 1950-ies supersonic fighter “Draken” “larceny” continued to be in service before 1973. Obviously, the reason is maneuvering characteristics of these aircraft. For all its virtues, “Fight” could not dogfight maneuver as fast as “Lansen”.
 
The last modification that produced commercially, was photo reconnaissance and patrol aircraft UAV S 32C.
 
Structurally it differed little from the shock option. The biggest changes were the forward fuselage, where instead of cannon armament was installed photographic equipment.
 
The first flight of a new version of “Lansen” was held on 26 March 1957. In the period 1958 — 1959 was released 44 machines of this modification. All the scouts were part of the only intelligence wing F11, based in Nykoping. Several S32Cs in 1959 — 1961 were stationed in part F 21 — the Northern wing of the Air force, stationed in Cal. During the operation the total flight S32C exceeded 75 600 hours. Armed, they stood until 1978, until they were replaced came photo-reconnaissance variant “Viggen” SH37.
 
Scout got an improved radar, the PS-432/A, having increased target detection range (up to 100 km forward and up to 50 km on both sides). The station was optimized for search and detection of surface targets, and to analyze the results of her exploration of the screen was filmed with a special camera.
 
Compartment equipment could accommodate up to six cameras for different purposes, although in operation their number does not exceed four. The original standard included two cameras English production (firm A. G. I. of Croydon): SKA.-17 — for shooting from low altitudes (focal length 130 mm) and SKA.-18 for high-altitude photography (focal length 920 mm). Photographing the first pair of cameras was carried out from altitudes from 100 to 1200 m, the second from 3 to 10 km.
 
But that scout was built in one copy only. Military he was not satisfied, so production aircraft had a different line of photographic equipment.
 
By 1962, spy planes equipped with advanced cameras for the placement of which was necessary to modify the corresponding compartment, increasing its volume. In fotootchet installed two high-altitude cameras SKA.-23 (in the original — “Fairchild” K-47 US made, focal length — 600 mm), optimized for night photography, as well as a wide-angle camera SKA.-15 (Williamson F-49 Mk.2). Both types were intended for shooting in night conditions, with altitudes of over 1000 m. SKA.-23 equipped with a stabilization system. For high-altitude shooting was intended and the camera “, Jugner” FL-S. 2, installed behind the left SKA.-23.
 
For low-altitude shooting used a different set of equipment, including two or three camera CA.-16 (produced by “Winter”) with a focal length of 100 mm.
 
For illumination of objects to be used up to twelve 75-kg flare, suspended on external suspension units. Also, the scout could be fitted with the device of the emission dipole reflectors BOZ-3.
 
Designed several modifications of the aircraft. This is a daily single-seat fighter aircraft J 32АD, who had no radar and armed with five guns: four 20 mm and one 30 mm caliber. But further development did not go. The Swedish government has decided to buy in the UK 120 fighter “hunter”, who served in the Swedish air force under the designation J34.
 
Was also developed an improved version of the interceptor — J32U — with a more powerful engine RA 19R is the “rolls Royce”. Designed a new, more subtle (6%) wing with a sweep of 40° and tail that would allow it to fly at supersonic speeds. There was also the installation of the rocket boosters.
 
Aircraft SAAB on a pedestal
 
The aircraft company SAAB on the pedestal
 
But this option is not out of the design stage. In 1958, the final decision on the replacement of “Lansana” eight years later, new aircraft “Viggen”. However, the technical difficulties encountered when creating a new machine, and did not rule out other scenarios. Was seriously considering the purchase of foreign technology, potential candidates appeared: a-4 “Skyhawk”, A-7 “Corsair”, F-104 “Starfighter”, F-5 “freedom fighter”, the F-4 “Phantom” and “Bakanas”. All applicants, except the last two, were excluded from the list as not meeting the entire list of requirements. “Phantom” was very expensive, the money could build more than two hundred modernized “larsanov”. And the new “Viggen” by criterion “cost — effectiveness” was to surpass and “Phantom”, and “Bakanas”. Therefore, as an interim solution in 1965 was considered finalized, interceptor J-32V in shock AND 32B, having an enhanced design, a more powerful engine RM-6S and a set of weapons designed for “Viggen”. Delivery of this option could begin in 1972, but the “Viggen” “ripe” in time: the first strike aircraft was delivered to the Swedish air force June 21, 1971.
 
During the serial production was released in a total of 456 aircraft in three main versions. The first Stroy left the fighter-interceptors, in 1973 they were replaced by “Viggen”. Five years later — bombers and scouts.
 
But the “Lansen” twenty years served his country, though in other guises.
 
In 1972, six interceptors have been modified to tow targets — J-32D, which operated until 1997. Another 15 cars since 1972, were converted into electronic warfare aircraft, the J-32Е. In the fore part of the former fighter is radar identified a set of G24 is designed for jamming ground-based and naval radar. There were three different stations on the wave band (frequency L, S or C). On under-wing pylons were placed in the containers jamming “Adrian” (frequency S or C) and container jamming against airborne radar “Petrus” (frequency X) and two containers with chaff BOZ-3. The aircraft was used until 1997, including for the training of personnel of the armed forces of Sweden.
 
Three J-32B was fitted with dual controls and used as training aircraft, as well as for collecting samples of atmospheric precipitation, which had three special containers with paper filters. After the flight filters were removed from containers for further analysis. Interestingly, two of the aircraft are still operated in the interests of the Department of radiation safety of Sweden to collect air samples at high altitudes.
 
Some planes have long been used as flying laboratories in the development of new aviation technology. For example, in А32А (factory number: 32080) to 1962 — 1963 had a new ejection seat, designed for SAAB 35 “Draken”, and later this machine became a flying stand to develop many new systems “Viggen”.
 
“Lansen” was not exported and did not participate in armed conflict, though such an opportunity once presented. In 1955 the Israeli government, after unsuccessful attempts to buy American “sabre”, appealed to the Swedish government with a proposal for the procurement of SAAB 32 to counter Egyptian MiG-15 and MiG-17, but was refused.
 
However, Swedish “spears” were still abroad, but as Museum exhibits. Museum of air power USA (United States Airpower Museum) acquired three “Lansana”, and it was reported that in 2003 it was planned to bring one of them in flying condition. In 1986, the Swedes traded one plane to another rarity is the “Dove” company “De Havilland”. In the UK, the car received a registration and a registration mark G-BMSG. Remaining service life of the airframe before the sale was 1 hour 39 minutes, and almost all of it was consumed during his flight to England. Another car in November of 1999 I flew to Spain, where he is now exhibited in the Museum of the Spanish air force in Madrid. And, of course, in most of Sweden “Lansen” — one of the main exhibits several aviation museums, it can also be seen on the pedestals at the entrance to schools and air force combat units, and then just near the highway. And who knows how many Swedish boys, looking at these monuments of their own history, lit up the dream of becoming a pilot, air traffic controller, aviation engineer or mechanic?
 
I. MIHALEVICH, Kaliningrad

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