THE HARDEST SURVIVOR

THE HEAVY.Strategic bomber b-52 STRATOFORTRESS. Contest project of a new reagent tion of the strategic bomber to replace the CONVAIR piston-IN-36 were announced, the U.S. air force in 1946. Despite the fact that some high-ranking air force officers did not believe in the possibility of the construction of a heavy jet with a range of over 13,000 km, company Boeing, Convair and Douglas enthusiastically set to work.

 
The designers of the company Convair decided to upgrade their aging In-36, setting it on a swept wing and jet engines. The firm Douglas began to develop a brand new machine with turboprop engines. While the firm Boeing chose to increase in appropriate scale medium bomber b-47, bringing its characteristics to the level of the strategic bomber.
 
The development team of the Boeing company consisting of leading specialists in design and aerodynamics, Edward wells, George Schairer, Henry Withington, vaut Blumenthal, Art Carlsen and Maynard Pennel. Almost all of them participated in the development of medium bomber b-47, the design of which has actually ended and began construction of prototypes. A new project has assigned the brand designation of “Model 464”.
 
Preliminary calculations showed that to achieve a given range with a bomb load of 4500 kg takeoff weight is up to 150 tons, which is almost two times more than In-47. To ensure such a heavyweight, the speed of 960 km/h the car decided to equip eight new jet engines J-57 with a thrust of 3,400 kg. Engines combined in a four pack and hung them on the wide, protruding in front of the wing pylons. This form of pylons in combination with extremely high keel provides excellent longitudinal stability of the aircraft. The internal volume of the wing of large aspect ratio with square 371,6 m2 were filled with fuel in an amount to provide the aircraft of Intercontinental range.
 
In 1947, the project company Boeing has received the official approval and it signed a contract to build two prototypes. The first bomber “Model 464-49-0” with the military designation XB-52 was rolled out of the Assembly shop late at night on 29 November 1951. In preparation for flight tests of the car was damaged, but maintaining the authority of the Corporation was officially announced that the plane returned to the factory for installation of additional equipment. In the end, the right of the first flight moved to the YB-52, the second copy of the aircraft, the construction of which was completed on March 15, 1952.
 
April 15, YB-52 took to the air. In this well proven chassis Bicycle type, which is one of the most interesting designs in aviation history. It consisted of four two-wheeled stands, each of which was cleaning out its own niche in the fuselage. All four stands had a hydraulic control and automatic braking, wheels could be mounted at an angle to the building axis of the fuselage during take-off and landings with crosswind. This removes restrictions related to weather conditions in the terminal area. At the approach to the airfield the pilots received information about the speed and direction of wind, according to the table found lateral component of the wind speed and in accordance with the received data has turned the wheels of the landing gear so that when you run the plane was moving sideways. During the first official screening of the bomber in 1954, this feature has caused genuine surprise with the public.
 
After flight testing the b-52 has received the official name STRATOFORTRESS (“Air fortress”) in continuation of the traditions of the firm Boeing.
 
Complaints from pilots to the new machine were many. So, the aircraft was a chronic tech wing tanks, and the technical staff had to resort to all sorts of tricks to eliminate leaks. This shortcoming not only the first modification of the b-52, but also all subsequent. The authors were able to verify this during the inspection of the b-52 during his visit to the town of Poltava. The pilots also expressed his concern about the rescue of the crew, as those who catapulted down the safe evacuation of the aircraft is guaranteed only with the height of over 300 m. In the tail of the plane were small install to protect the rear hemisphere, and the cabin arrow with a toilet, elektropechkoy and other facilities. In flight, the shooter was virtually isolated from the rest of the crew and failure of communication could only guess what was happening on Board. One day, while flying in a storm, b-52 caught in a downdraft of air, and the shooter decided that the plane crashes and… ejected. The crew was discovered missing just after planting. This comical situation was complemented by the fact that before the bailout arrow had to reset the machine gun installation.
 
Serial production of the b-52 began with the release of three aircraft modification “A”. The first bomber was transferred to the strategic air command in June 1955. On these machines, training was held with the most experienced crews and conducted testing of the system of refueling in the air. Two b-52A factory rooms and 52-002 52-003 was dobrodoslice special underwing pylons for launching experimental aircraft X-15 (flight altitude over 100 km and a top speed of about 7000 km/h).
 
The following modification — IN-52В (50 aircraft) was fully equipped to carry out combat missions with conventional and nuclear weapons. It was a sighting and navigation system MA-6A and more powerful engines J57-P-18W with 4620 kg of thrust To demonstrate the increased capabilities of the U.S. strategic aviation in the January 1957 three-IN-52В from the 93 wing made a nonstop round the world flight with simulated nuclear strike on the designated target.
 
Five bombers b-52 STRATOFORTRESS flew on 16 January at 13 o’clock local time, aviation air force base castle in California. One plane landed in England. Other aircraft due to engine failure made an emergency landing in Labrador and on the following day returned to base. The three remaining bombers flew over Newfoundland, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Ceylon, Malaya (where the conditional target), over the Philippines, GUAM, the base of the castle, and then flew to March air base near Los Angeles, where on the morning of 18 January at 10 hours and 19 minutes local time, landed at intervals of about 1 minute. Due to adverse weather in the way the aircraft flew for approximately 30 minutes after the calculated time.
 
39 a distance of about 200 km the aircraft flew for 45 hours 19 minutes with an average speed of about 865 km/h Speed over the target was 965 km/h In the calculation of average speed includes time spent on four in-flight fueling, which were conducted from airplanes, KC-97 over the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, Saudi Arabia and the Philippines (for comparison, in 1949 the b-50 for the first round the world flight took 94 hours). The flight was mostly at heights between 10 700 and 15 200 m. the Aircraft flew at different levels to avoid collisions in poor visibility.
 
Refueling was carried out by day or night and regardless of weather conditions. For refueling bombers IN-52В decreased altitude and decreased the speed of 400-480 km/h, and at night for visual detection of the tanker pilots were landing gear, to include landing lights.
 
The crew of each aircraft consisted of the commander, the first and second pilots, two navigators, radar operator. electronic warfare operator, gunner and the chief of the ground supports the team. The crew members did not wear high-altitude suits, but dressed accordingly to the terrain over which they were flying, to be ready to eject at any place.
 
In 1956, a series of 35 aircraft launched a GTA-52S with the engine J57-P-29W thrust of 5400 kg. Pneumatic motor starters were replaced by gunpowder, it is possible to reduce the startup time of eight engines from 30 to 6 minutes. New sighting and navigation system ASQ-48 allowed the use of the strategic cruise missile the GAM-77 (AGM-28) Hound Dog (“Hound”) If the bomber was on duty, during takeoff, the crew could include turbojet engines of the rockets as boosters to reduce the distance of the takeoff of the aircraft, and after his blast-off was gosupravlenie from the tanks of the bomber.
 
For a more accurate determination of coordinates of the starting point used astronavigation system.
 
When the development of the b-52 in combat units has reached a pretty high level bombers began to be used for patrol flights with nuclear weapons on Board along the borders of the USSR. It was very dangerous, because in case of accident of the plane the place of his fall could become the second Hiroshima. Secret code strategic aviation accident with a nuclear weapon was called “Broken arrow”. A few “arrows” the Americans “broke” over its territory and a couple of over friendly countries. In 1958, the pilot accidentally dropped an atomic bomb on the roof of a residential home in the city of Florence in the state of North Carolina. The exploding detonator wounded their fragments six people and ripped the bomb apart. In June 1961, again in the state of North Carolina, b-52 dropped one atomic bomb, which completely destroyed from the impact. In 1962, near the air force base Seymour Johnson near the city of Goldsboro has fallen b-52 with two Hound Dog missiles. Over Spain on 17 January 1966, faced KC-135 and patrol b-52. Three hydrogen bombs fell in the village of Palomares and one in the Mediterranean sea. One of the bombs exploded the detonator and plutonium scattered around the village. The last officially released “arrow” “broken” in Greenland, in the Gulf of the North star. In the winter of 1968, the burning b-52 could not reach to the ice airfield in Tula and, breaking through the heavy ice, was on the bottom of the Bay. Six square kilometres were contaminated with plutonium. For reference: according to the results of a secret experiment “Project 57” Americans found that people, located 150 meters from the place of release of plutonium to die in three hours.
 
Strategic bomber Boeing B-52H
 
Strategic bomber Boeing B-52H
 
Strategic bomber Boeing B-52H:
 
1 — antenna system radar irradiation; 2 — turrets with scanning of the television camera operating in low light conditions; 3 — LDPE; 4 — lower door; 5 — the operational outlets for electronic warfare equipment; 6,8,17,28 — fold niches of the chassis; 7 — bomb Bay doors; 9 — antenna tail section EW; 10 — drain the fuel system; 11 — access hatches to the cartridge boxes gun; 12 — 20 mm six-barreled cannon VOLCANO; 13 — trimmer of the Elevator; 14 — steering wheel height; 15 — section of the stabilizer; 16 — hatch access to equipment record the results of bombing; 18 — inner section of the flap Fowler; 19 — chaff spreaders; 20 — fixed wing; 21 — outer section of the flap Fowler; 22 — guard wheel wells underwing support; 23,96 — shield stand supports underwing; 24 console wing; 25,27 — nacelle engines; 26 — oil intakes of air-conditioning system; 29,30 — hatches ejection of the Navigator and Navigator-radar operator; 31 — the front glazing of the cockpit canopy; 32 — lower radiotransparent Radome bomber sight; 33 — upper radiotransparent Radome; 34,64,68 — antenna; 35 — radio-transparent nose fairing; 36 — air intake pressurization of the fuel tanks; 37 — antenna Omni-directional beacon; 38 — discharger; 39 — rudder; 40 — trimmer of the rudder; 41 —Luke drag parachute container; 42 is a retractable Radome warning system radar illumination; 43 — fairing for the search radar; 44 — cone system ALQ-117 and EW system; 45 — trunks Quad-mounted machine gun; 46 — radar Radome maintenance; 47 — flap access to the machine-gun ammunition boxes; 48 — sealing strip; 49 — fairing antenna; 50 — cabin Windows tail gunner; 51 companies outlets for electronic warfare equipment; 52,60,83 — dashboard; 53 — the commander of the crew; 54,55 hatches ejection Koman

 
The following modification-520 (101 plane), test flown in 1956, differed shortened the keel and upgraded sighting system. Modification of IN-52Е (100 aircraft), which had a strengthened wing and special equipment was specially suited for flying at low altitudes. In 1959, construction began on a series of 52Е 89 bombers with more economical engines J57-P-46W thrust of 4990 kg.
 
Over new Mexico April 7, 1961 b-52F was a tragic case. During training, one of the pilots on the F-100 simulated attack on the STRATOFORTRESS. On the sixth time he accidentally fired a missile AIM-9 and shot down his bomber. Three crew members were killed. After this incident commanders strictly forbade the participation of b-52 in such “teachings.”
 
The most massive modification of the bomber b — 52G. From 1958 to 1961 was issued 193 aircraft. It featured new engines J57-P-43WB thrust 6340 kg and a strengthened wing with larger external fuel tanks.
 
Last modification of the bomber received the designation-52N (102 aircraft). Her issue ended February 26, 1962. These machines were equipped with double-circuit turbojet ТБ33-3-3 thrust 7710 kg. due to the low fuel consumption range, compared with the modification of “G” has increased by 2700 km and amounted to 16 700 km. 10 Jan 1962 without refueling in the air-52N flew 20 200 km in 22 hours 9 minutes.
 
Until 1983 all of the b-52, to modify the “F” inclusive, is decommissioned. Exploitation of the remaining in service aircraft will continue until 2030. Thus, the b-52 may be among the military aircraft on the first place on the duration of use.
 
B-52 bombers were used in almost all military conflicts involving the United States. Constant modernization, Sovershenstvovanie equipment and weapons allow you to maintain the combat readiness of the BOING B-52 STRATOFORTRESS, of these the oldest and most heavy bombers, at 80 percent.
 
DESIGN DESCRIPTION
 
Wold-52 STRATOFORTRESS -vosmidesyatitonnye jet strategic bomber of all-metal construction. The crew — six people.
 
Wings laminar profile of caisson structure with a total area of 371 m2 have sweep of 35°, with a transverse V = 3° are made of aluminum alloy. Under each of them is mounted on two pylons with nacelles of the engines. Here, between the outermost pylon and wing tips, can be installed additional fuel tank. Next is a niche additional wing-mounted landing gear. On the upper surface of the wing between the fuselage and the first pole is set in the turbulence of the air flow. At the trailing edge from the fuselage to the outer pylon are Fowler flaps — two sections on each wing, between the pylons in front of the flaps are spoilers used on the latest modifications IN-and 52G-52N to control the aircraft in roll (on older versions they were playing the role of air brakes).
 
The fuselage is also built from aluminum alloys. At the front is set radiotransparent Radome, which, if necessary, lifted to access the bomber trailer with antennas, radar and navigation system. For compartment electronic equipment is the crew cabin, which occupies two tiers. The chair of the Prime crew catapulters up and down, depending on the layer on which they are installed. If the crew includes instructors, they can leave the plane only after the ejection of all members of the crew through hatches or dropped through the lower hatch. For cabin crew are the fuselage fuel tanks, and under them — electronic equipment and apparatus air-conditioning system. In the next section, are a niche of the front landing gear. Next is a compartment with electronic jamming equipment and another Doppler radar from a navigation system. In the upper part of the fuselage behind the wing is a second fuel tank, and the lower bomb Bay. The bomb Bay leaf consist of six sections. For the bomb Bay is the niche of the rear landing gear. Further — tail. In front of him in a special compartment of the fuselage control units are fitted with air conditioning and reconnaissance photographic equipment. In the tail section of a defensive system including infantry unit, and radar, combined with a video camera aiming and review rear hemisphere.
 
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The tail Assembly swept, classic type made of aluminum alloy. The angles of sweep of the horizontal and the vertical stabilizer is 40°. On the surface of the horizontal tail is located a turbulence, increasing efficiency.
 
Bicycle landing gear consists of four trucks that are in flight, are retracted into the fuselage rotated by 180°. Niches main landing gear located in front of and behind the bomb Bay. On the flaps NIS pillars installed on one of the landing spotlight. The exhaust system and the landing gear is hydraulic. Emergency it can be released from the air system.
 
Before planting all four truck chassis could be mounted at an angle up to 20° to the right or left relative to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft. Auxiliary gear on the wing tips — single column with one wheel.
 
The power plant consists of eight turbofan turbofan engines TF33-P-3 firm Pratt & Whitney. Installation of these engines thrust 7710 kg to replace the old J57 thrust of 5080 kg led to a significant increase in power availability of the power plant of the aircraft. In addition, used a new starting system that allows you to start the engine within two minutes.
 
Fuel system is a complex of fuselage and wing tanks, and two outboard located in end parts of the wing. The capacity of the internal fuel tanks 181 600 l, suspension — 2650 L. Bomber is equipped with a refueling system in the air. The neck of the fuel receiver is installed above the cockpit. As fuel tanks are filled with inert gas to enhance the survivability of the aircraft.
 
In the typical ledges of the forward fuselage mounted cameras AN/AAQ-6 and the camera AN/AVQ-22, used in low-light conditions. The aircraft is equipped with navigation system AN/ASN-131, autopilot, electronic bombsight. In the rear part of the fuselage of the radar viewing and aiming AN/ASG-21. There is also a system of determining the parameters of enemy radar and suppress AN/ALT-28, AN/ALT-32, AN/ALQ-117 and AN/ALQ-122, station warning receiver AN/ALR-46.
 
The composition of radio electronic equipment during serial production has varied. So, in 70-e years on the bomber set the navigation system AN/ASQ-151, extending the application range of the aircraft. In particular, the system allowed to perform a flight at low altitude even in adverse weather conditions.
 
Strategic bomber Boeing b-52 STRATOFORTRESS
 
Defensive armament consists of six-barreled 20-mm gun M61 VOLCANO rate of fire 4000 rounds per minute (can be set gun T-171 rate of fire of 6,000 RDS/min.). The composition of the bomb armament consists of conventional bombs Мк28, Мк43, Мк61 and nuclear bombs Mk5, Mk6, Мк15, Мк17, Мк36, Мк39, Мк41, Мк53 and Мк57. The most powerful weapon, which raised the b-52, became the first American thermonuclear bomb with a capacity of 25 megatons.
 
In addition to unguided bomb weapons the aircraft can carry a missile and strategic cruise missiles AGM-28 Hound Dog (GAM-77) with a maximum speed of flight corresponding to the number M = 2.1, and a warhead capacity of 1 MT.
 
In the 70-ies of the aircraft were armed with the missile AGM-69 SRAM, which speed corresponds to the number M = 3, and the power of the warhead of 200 kilotons. The bomber is capable of taking up to 20 of these missiles, eight from the holder of the revolving type, located in the bomb Bay, and six on each of two under-wing pylons. Standard for aircraft variant weapons (with whom he was on combat duty) was six missiles AGM-69A SRAM on underwing pylons and four nuclear bombs in the bomb Bay.
 
Since 1978, the armament of the b-52 entered cruise missile AGM-86M ALCM with a range of 2,500 km and a capacity of a nuclear charge of 200 kilotons.
 
Arsenal bomber is constantly updated. So, to the Armory missile AGM-142 with the television guidance system, the missile AGM-129A, made on technology stealth, bombs, GBU-15 with television guidance system. If necessary, the b-52 can be armed with anti-ship missiles AGM-84 Harpoon. In addition, the aircraft could carry unguided bombs new Мк80, Мк81, Мк83. If necessary, the aircraft may use air-sea min Мк40 (80 pieces) and torpedoes Мк60.
 
Performance CHARACTERISTICS strategic bomber Boeing-52N STRATOFORTRESS
 
Wing span, m……………………56,39
Length, m………………………………49,05
Height, m…………………………….12,40
Wing area, m2………………..371,6
Empty weight, t………………………..72
Maximum takeoff
weight, t…………………………..221,35
Maximum speed, km/h 960…
Ceiling, m…………………………. 16 765
The maximum range
flight, km………………………. 16 700
Maximum bomb
load, t………………………………..23

 
N. Food reserve was, A. CHECHIN, Kharkov

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