The beginning of a new period in the development of Italian fighter aircraft was the development of the company FIAT in 1936, the plane of the monoplane FIAT G. 50. The fact that Italy has long relied on fighter-biplanes, an ardent supporter of which was the chief designer of FIAT H. Rosatelli. The creation of the G. 50 monoplane associated with the advent of the firm young engineer G. Gabrielli, bringing with him many new ideas different from conservative supporters of fighters-biplanes.
In the moment of its introduction the FIAT G. 50 were the best and most modern fighter Italy He was actually the first Italian all-metal monoplane with retractable landing gear and variable-pitch propeller
Assembly of the prototype started in 1936, and at the end of February of 1937 the first prototype G. 50 number MM.334, controlled by test pilot of the firm Giovanni de Briganti, made its first flight over the factory airfield of the company FIAT in Turin. The plane, named FRECCIA (arrow, ital.) was the first vehicle designed in accordance with the new requirements of the Royal Italian air force (Regia Aeronautica Italiana), which meant the flight tests in the enhanced program.
Feedback from the pilots, the G. 50 was easy to manage and extremely maneuverable. It was noted the lack of capacity of the engine (840 HP) and relatively weak armament (two 12.7-mm machine gun), while Italian fighters such weapons was a standard — enough to remember FIAT C. R. 32 and C. R. 42.
The test results allowed the company to FIAT in the summer of 1937 an order for 45 machines experienced of the series. The first production fighter was exhibited at the international aviation exhibition in Milan in October 1937. Serial production of the G. 50 began the company CMASA in Marina di Pisa, belonging to the company Supply of FIAT G. 50 fighters began in the spring of 1938.
The command of the Royal Italian air force decided to conduct a test aircraft in a combat situation, sending the first series of cars in Spain. For this purpose, 15 Jun 1938 at a military air base Guidonia military formed the First experimental group (Centra Sperimentale). The commander of the group appointed captain Mario Bonzano, an experienced military pilot, who had already war in Spain, where he commanded the 18th squadron of the group Asso di Bastoni. Initially the experimental group consisted of ten aircraft, but after a collision on a training flight aircraft Beretta Lieutenant and captain Bonzano the group had nine cars. Bonzano managed to land the damaged aircraft, Lieutenant Berett killed.
Repair fighter G. 50 in the field
14 Feb 1939, nine fighters, Packed in large wooden boxes and transported to the port of La Spezia and loaded onto the ship Aniene. And it also sailed in Spain pilots and ground staff on February 27 cargo ship arrived in the Spanish port of Tarragona, and the crated aircraft were flown to an airfield near Reus.
Immediately started assembling machines. During their flyby manifested some defects in electrical equipment and chassis that failed to be resolved quickly. The most unpleasant surprise for the pilots was that while maneuvering in the air deformed the frame of the lantern pilot that makes it virtually impossible for it opening in an emergency On some of the fighters after their return from the flight, the lights had to open with a hammer. Because of this, pilots chose to fly with an open canopy.
In early March, all the fighters were assembled and test flown. They caused the markings and tactical numbers. 50 received code numbers “1” and the tactical numbers from 1 to 9.
March 10 fighter jets took off from the airfield of Reus, and headed for the Village, but the deteriorating weather forced the pilots to make a stopover at the airport, Santeria in the surroundings of Zaragoza. Only four days later they continued the flight, and this time reached the village where the aircraft struck emblems XXIII Gruppo Caccia “Asso di Bastoni”
March 16 was held the first combat flight group Mario Bonzano received by the time the military rank of major Task G 50 this departure was accompanied by a group of 25 attack aircraft FIAT CR.32 in the area of Madrid. The flight was at an altitude of 7500 — 8000 m In the departure Sergeant Major, Pongiluppi on the plane with the tail number 1-9 fainted from gasoline fumes leaked into the cabin, and woke up just before the ground. The pilot managed to land the fighter in the field, the aircraft received minor damage.
The next day five of the G. 50 was accompanied by a squadron of CR.32 striking blow to the Republican fortifications, and the two pairs took off to the cover of their troops in the area North of Escalona, on 18 March there was another incident in the air. On the plane the Sergeant Mantissa having problems with the fuel supply and the pilot had to make an emergency landing on a river Alberche. The pilot escaped with a broken nose, and the plane has received serious damages
March 21, six G. 50 under the command of captain Rowed was accompanied by a dozen bombers SAVOIA S. 79 in the center of Madrid. The next day, the fighters under the command Bonzano again flew to escort bombers. Once again, the experimental aircraft of the squadron took to the air 28 March to patrol the area North of Toledo. As it turned out, it was the last combat flight of fighter FIAT G50 in Spain.
Italian fighter FIAT G. 50:
1 – three-blade metal variable-pitch propeller Hamilton FIAT; 2 — engine FIAT A. 74 RC38: 3 – a consumable fuel tank; 4 – units fuel control; 5 — the oil tank capacity of 36.4 l; 6 first fuselage fuel tank capacity of 68 l; 7 fuel filler neck of the fuel tank; 8 — a collar of fastening of machine gun; 9 – cartridge box 300 rounds; 10— 12.7-mm machine gun Breda-SAFAT: 11 – sonnborn; 12 dashboard; 13 — first aid kit; 14 control panel with radio; 15 – the pilot’s seat; 16– protivokapotazhnoy frame; 17 — hydraulic cylinder; 18 — cable runs actuator rudder; 19 — power set fairing; 20 cable the radio antenna; 21 — power set keel; 22 — power set of the rudder; 23 — dimensional ANO; 24 — root rib of the Elevator; 25 — root rib of the stabilizer; 26 — the tail wheel; 27 – fork tail wheel; 28 — front tail wheel; 29 — shock strut tail wheel; 30 — power set of the fuselage; 31 – rod Elevator drive; 32 – air tank; 33 the power station; 34 rechargeable batteries; 35 — control knob; 36 – – pedal foot control; 37 — second fuselage fuel tank capacity 100 l; 38 — the second wing spar; 39 — wing fuel tank capacity of 46 liters; 40 first wing spar; 41 — a niche cleaning uprights of the main chassis; 42 — power fire frame; 43 — engine mount; 44 — carb; 45 — exhaust pipe; 46 tunnel intake; 47 — propeller hub; 48 — the hood the engine FIAT A. 76; 49 — hatch access to cartridge boxes; 50 — hatch access to radio stations; 51 — exhaust pipe; 52 modified spinner; 53 — rudder; 54 Kil; 55 maintenance hatch, 56 — removable panel 57 — the outside of the fairing; 58 — modified glass cockpit; 59 — reticle; 60 — front sight sight; 61 — fold shirt engine cooling: 62 — removable side panels of the engine; 63 — tape fastening panels of the engine; 64— the first version of the engine hood; 65 — visor of the cockpit; 66 — sliding part of the canopy; 67 — glazing the outside of the compartment 68, the hinge of the rudder; 69 footpegs; 70 — front of the main chassis; 71 — wheel main landing gear; 72 male main landing gear; 73 — flap main landing gear, 74 – the weight of the Aileron compensators; 75 — sliding part of the canopy in the open position 76 Pitot tube; 77 — slit drainage secondary air flow; 78 — a removable panel engine compartment; 79 — flap of the cockpit; 80 — horn aerodynamic compensation of the rudder; 81 — air filter; 82 — standard spinner; 83 — a modified hood; 84 antenna of the radio station; 85 hatch fuel filler pipe of the tank; 86 — stabilizer; 87 — the steering wheel height; 88 — the hinge of the Elevator, 89, the inner section of the flap; 90 — the outermost section of the flap; 91 — trimmer Aileron; 92 — ANO; 93 — LDPE; 94 — spinner modified: 95 — ski tail landing gear; 96 — fairing stand; 97 – footrest; 98 — ski main landing gear; 99 — operational hatch; 100-the access hatch to the fuel tank; 101 rudder of increased area; 102 – flap cab instructor; 103 – sliding part of the canopy of the learner; 104 — hook starter; 105 – safety side, the arresting hook 106; 107 is a cylinder; 108 — lever height adjustment chair; 109 – brake lever; 110 — cooler
1 APR fighting stopped. The pilots did not manage to hold on to the FIAT G. 50 any air combat.
April 1 at the airfield with the aircraft Escalona G. 50 was reviewed as the best of Franco Garcia Morato to determine whether their purchases. The Spanish aircraft were handed over on 21 may. The Italian staff went to Cadiz, where the sea went to Italy.
In July 1939 military aircraft of Spain underwent a complete reorganization. Remaining in the Spanish fighters FIAT G. 50 was part of the 2nd squadron of the 27th group. The home of the squadron remained in Tablada. In the area of responsibility of the 27th group were and the Spanish coast of North Africa, Spanish Morocco. A part of fighter group, based at the airfield Tauma, located on the outskirts of Melilla Group was commanded by major Miguel Guerrero, and a squadron of FIAT G. 50 — captain Carlos Bayo, Alexandre.
On 17 July at the airport in Tablada landed Ju-52, which from the city of Getafe arrived pilots and technicians had to develop new fighter FIAT G. 50.
The pilots were pleasantly surprised to see the Parking lot of a modern fighter-monoplanes with retractable landing gear But at Tablada was completely absent technical documentation for the fighters that have seriously hampered the development of technology. The Spaniards had to check the plane yourself, However, three days later, on 20 July, the pilots decided to try to raise the fighters in the air. All went well, although the pilots had taken off in G. 50, before flying to CR.32 with fixed pitch propeller and non-retractable landing gear.
After flying all seven serviceable fighters, it was decided to move them to the base Tetuan in Spanish Morocco. The flight was successful, and the pilots once again proved reliability of these aircraft. Over the next few days the squadron circled the area their home and alternate airports in the area Melilli. During these flights two G. 50 was damaged during landing — the pilots simply forgot to lower the landing gear and landed on the “belly”.
By this time the Spaniards brought together FIAT G. 50 and Not HEINKEL-112 from the 1st squadron. On the keels of the aircraft struck the emblem of the 27th group, hound dog, jumping through the circle. Emblems black color is applied to filled, Not-112. and white — Keeley G. 50
With the beginning of world war II on the 27-th group and, in particular, the Second squadron was assigned the responsibility for the protection of the airspace of Spanish Morocco. Flights resumed with greater intensity, which resulted in two flying incidents are caused by defects in the structure of the aircraft Main landing gear of the aircraft had no locks in open position and with a rough landing could emerge, leading to breakage of the plane.
The first incident happened on 22 April 1940, severe injuries to the pilot Manuel Carreno, Camacho. The second incident occurred on 16 October 1941 and ended with the death of Lieutenant Antonio Manage Garrido. The technical staff alone could not solve the technical problems, resulting in flying G. 50 limited. Until the end of the war, the aircraft was rarely used.
In the fall of 1946, the fighters FIAT G 50 got the code S. 6 (fighter type 6). On the fuselage struck a new two-tone badges and tactical numbers, the digit 2 corresponds Regimiento Mixto 2. By this time beginning to be affected by lack of spare parts. The aircraft were gradually withdrawn from operation. By 1947, three FIAT G. 50 remained in flying condition and five were idle in Tetouan next year flew only two G. 50. Ultimately, in 1949, flying on airplanes has ceased, and in 1950 the machine was taken out of the air force. Thus ended the service of the FIAT G. 50 in the Spanish air force.
FIAT G. 50 Italian air force
Small, but quite a positive experience with FIAT G. 50 in Spain has prompted the Italian air force ordered 200 of these fighters. In 1939, Italy had adopted a “Program R”, aimed at further improving the Regia Aeronautica. In accordance with the program, in addition to upgrading three Stormo (Stormo) new aircraft M. C. 200, provided for the formation of one Stormo and one Gruppo (Grnppo) armed G. 50. This time held in the test MACCHI M. C. 200 proved much better G 50, however, to curtail production G. 50 for insurance against vozmozhnyh hassles associated with aircraft company Macchi.
In November 1939, the G. 50 did some squadron of the 51st Stormo (20-I and 21-I group), who was then in the process of formation, where they had the opportunity to participate in war games and exercises. While FIAT G. 50 has demonstrated its superiority over the old C. R. 32 biplanes. The latter were simply unable to intercept the bomber S. M. 79 of the 12th bomber Stormo, a new G. 50 of 351 squadron of the 51st Stormo easily solved this problem.
For the development of the pilots of new fighters required a double modification of G. 50 Firm CMASA set about creating such an aircraft. April 30, 1940 double FIAT G. 50V (Bicomando — double) made its first flight. It was a variant of the single machine with a second cockpit and dual controls. The front cabin has been equipped with a closed lantern, and the rear remained open. Spark immediately launched. Only built 108 G. 50V numbers that started with MM.3615. Most training aircraft for many years he served in fighter flying school. Until 1948 there was only one instance. He was in fighter school in Lecce as a transitional training aircraft prior to transplantation of the students on the M. C. 205.
The appearance of the G. 50V, greatly facilitated the training of pilots and reduced the time of their training. When Italy in June 1940 entered the war, the air force had 118 FIAT G. 50 — 97 aircraft were in combat units and 21 car was awaiting delivery, or was in the shop.
G. 50 began to fly in support of the S. M. 79 bombers, which carried out raids on military targets in Corsica. In the fall of 1940, Italy sent a small mix of fighters and bombers to participate in a German air attack on England. The contribution of Italians in the battle of Britain was almost zero. The main reasons for this were bad weather conditions, the mismatch of aircraft to the task and deficiencies in training. For attacks on England created the 56th fighter Stormo, based in Madeline (Belgium). It included 18 th fighter group with 50 p. R. 42 of 3rd Stormo and 20 th fighter group with 48 6.50 from the 51st Stormo.
First sortie, which was attended by G. 50 of the 56-th Stormo, took place on 29 October 1940. Fighters covered the bombers in the attack on Ramsgate. In the period from mid-November 1940 to the end of January 1941, the Italian fighter units, actively carry out patrol flights over the channel and along the coast of Belgium and Holland, but clashes with enemy fighters were reported. By 31 January 1941, most of the parts of the Italian expeditionary corps returned to Italy, although 352-353 I-I squadron, 20th Gruppo remained until April 1941, carrying out patrol flights between Dunkirk and Calais.
Performance characteristics of the G. 50 aircraft of various modifications
At the beginning of the Greek campaign October 1940 for operations in the Balkans meant the three group, the arms of which were fighters FIAT G. 50 — 24-I in Tirana, 154 in Berat (both in Albania) and 2 in southern Italy, and 43 cars were in Albania and 33 in Italy. G. 50 were involved in intense battles over Greece until February 1941. The first derived from the fighting part of the G. 50 became the 2nd fighter group, which has been withdrawn from Greece before the transfer in December 1940 in Libya. Gradually fighter units in Greece was upgraded to the M. C. 200, more suitable for fighting with the opposing English fighters PIURRICANE. Until February of 1941, the number of FIAT G. 50 was 45% of all Italian fighters.
9 September 1940 the air went improved modification of the fighter — G. 50bis. The aircraft had increased fuel capacity, installed new radio equipment, modified chassis, changed the glazing of the cabin, set back and slightly changed the profile of the fuselage. In addition, improved the design of the rudder by increasing the chord and decreasing the height. All of the company CMASA FIAT-AERITALIA released 421 G. 50bis. Firm FIAT has collected 344 machine (with indexes MM and rooms 5933-6247 and 8561-8591 MM), and the remaining 77 machines — CMASA. Basically the G. 50bis was used during the fighting in Libya. Specifically for dusty desert areas of Africa, the aircraft was modified by installing additional air filters on the air intake of the carburetor and the oil cooler.
G. 50bis first arrived in Libya in late December 1940 e part 358 squadron, which later became part of the 2nd group (150-I and 152-I squadron), which in January of 1941 was replaced by 155th fighter group. These fighters took part in the Italian retreat from Tripolitania and the new conquest of Cyrenaica. During the fighting in North Africa part of the G. 50 was modified in the field setting under the wing bomb racks intended for a suspension bracket of bombs of small caliber. Improvised fighter-bombers are especially actively used in the area of Sidi Barrani.
The arrival in the area of fighting better fighters (M. M. p. 200 and p. 202) G. 50bis was gradually removed from the structure of the fighter units in North Africa. In 1943 the G. 50bis was armed only 158 and 159 of the assault group that operated in the area of Sfax in Tunisia.
G. 50 in Finland
Most successful fighters FIAT G. 50 achieved in the Finnish air force. The government of Finland ordered 35 of these machines in the end of 1939, just before the beginning of the “winter war” between the USSR and Finland. Unfortunately for the Finns, the first batch of 14 trucks arrived in February of 1940, when the fighting was over, and the next 12 were taken in March. They immediately began to replace the GLADIATOR fighters in the squadron HLeLv 26. Fight-FIAT G. 50 began only in June 1941.
Squadron HLeLv 26, originally based in Utti was active in the battles at lake Ladoga. G. 50 remained in its fighting line until may 1944, gradually giving way IN the BREWSTER-239 and Me-109. The best pilot to fly this Italian fighter is Oivo Tuominen, who won it 23 of their 43 victories. In addition to his nine Finnish aces flew the G. 50.
The design of the G. 50 fighter
Fighter the FIAT G. 50 was a single engine all-metal monoplane with low wing.
The fuselage is semi-monocoque all-metal, it had 4 main spar and 17 frames. Technologically, the fuselage was divided into three parts: the nose, center and aft In the forward fuselage housed the engine, fuel control units, oil tank with oil cooler. From the Central part of the fuselage nose compartment separated power fire frame No. 1. The Central part of the fuselage held the weapons bays, fuel tanks and cockpit. In the tail section housed the radio station, the transaction management system and tanks aircraft systems.
Motor mount was made from steel chrome-molybdenum tubes and is attached to the first force to the frame via shock-absorbing supports Large opening hatches provided access to the power plant directly from the sides of the fuselage, allowing for maintenance and repair of engine assemblies fuel and oil automatics.
Armament Bay and fuselage fuel tanks occupied a space between the first power bulkhead and the cockpit. On top, sides and bottom compartment closed by removable hatches large area, which facilitated the operation of the aircraft. At the top of the compartment, in front of the cockpit, were two synchronized 12.7-mm machine gun Breda-SAFAT. Fire from machine guns to as bursts, and single shots. Total ammunition were 300 rounds of ammunition in cartridge boxes; access to which, as well as boxes of swedesboro provide removable side panels of triangular shape in Front of cartridge boxes and under them were placed the fuselage fuel tanks.
On the first 45 aircraft, the cockpit was run closed. Light with large glass area afforded a good view back, but according to the results of military tests of the plane in Spain, it was decided to proceed to semi-closed vitrification. In this fifth production aircraft (MM. 3574) has been tested different types of open booths. The result took the cab with transparent flaps. The the pilot’s seat regulated on height and slope.
Instruments and controls were grouped on three separate panels in front and Top panel included the sight of San Giorgio, navigation devices, temperature indicators, fuel system and control devices of the engine. The middle section had a light indicator fire alarm, ammo counter, oxygen bar equipment, position indicators landing gear and compass. The last panel was equipped with indicators of compressed air systems, engine ignition and control of bonnet louvres on the left side of the Gaza strip, control arm, air heating for the carb, fuel selector, altitude control, and remote radio stations.
In the rear fuselage, in the outside compartment, installed the power station A. R. S. 1, oxygen and air cylinders as well as cylinders with the working fluid of the hydraulic system and carbon dioxide fire suppression system. The fuselage ended a bearing bulkhead and a tubular construction that supports the tailplane and tail wheel with hydraulic shock absorber.
The wing is all-metal, two-spar, consisting of three sections – the center section of steel pipe installed in the lower part of the fuselage, and a pair of dvuhkonusnyh consoles with working trim. Four-section slotted flaps were controlled hydraulically — they are automatically cleaned after exceeding a certain speed. Statically and dynamically balanced ailerons had metal frames and fabric covering In the center section of the wing housed two fuel tanks. In the right wing between the center section and the console provided a place to install fotokinopulemeta AM FМ62.
Tail standard, all-metal construction. Keel — dvuhkonturniy with duralumin plating. Cross set of the keel were made of stamped ribs. The rudder is duralumin with fabric covering. Stabilizer and Elevator had a similar design. The Elevator control — the hard, the rudder — flexible cable.
Chassis-retractable, tricycle, tailwheel Cleaning was carried out by hydraulic jacks, which were bearing units and the exhaust with compressed air. In telescopic racks mounted hydraulic shock absorbers. In case of failure of the systems of production and harvesting of these important operations can be done manually. Main wheels were equipped with pneumatic drum brakes. Located in the incoming airstream fixed tail wheel was turning in the range of 45° to both sides, the stand was equipped with automatic centering device.
The power plant consisted of one 14-cylinder two-row radial engine FIAT A. 74 RC38 air cooling with a power of 840 HP at 2,500 rpm at 3,800 m. the Engine was completed with a three-blade metal propeller of the constant speed and variable pitch Hamilton-FIAT, which had a diameter of 3000 mm.
Maximum fuel capacity was 311 years, it was in two wing (46 liters each), two main fuselage (one 100 l and the second 68 l) and extra fuselage tank (51 liters) of Oil in a single tank with a capacity of 36.4 liters, placed on the front side of the fire wall oil Cooler was installed in the leading edge of the wing.
Electrical system voltage 12 volt is powered by two battery pack mounted under the cabin floor
Armament (standard) consisted of two directional synchronous 12.7-mm machine guns Breda-SAFAT, which were installed in the upper part of the fuselage in front of cockpit. Ammunition — 150 rounds per gun, housed in cartridge boxes that are installed on the right and left of the fuselage. On some aircraft mounted two bomb racks for bombs weighing up to 50 kg On some variants of the fighter-bomber in the center section of the wing was mounted further two machine guns and bomb racks were designed for the suspension of bombs weighing up to 100 kg.
At the time of the capitulation of Italy in the air force was left with 48 G. 50 aircraft, 17 of them combat-ready. These machines were used until 1948. During the serial production from 1937 to 1943 was released 791 aircraft the following modifications:
G. 50 fighter, a prototype of the machine I — IV series, released 211 (according to other sources — 245) copies;
G. 50bis fighter, V — VII series, released 472 instance (according to others — 450, or 421 ), the first flight of the fighter was performed in September 1940,
G. 50B — double training fighter (part I — VII series), released 108 copies;
G 50V — pilot fighter with inline engine DB – 601A released 1 prototype, first flight of the aircraft made on 25 August 1941;
G. 50ter fighter plane with engine FIAT A. 76 R. C.40 1000 HP, released 1 prototype, the tests took place in 1941 (first flight 17.07.1941 year);
G. 50/AS — desert (tropical) version of the fighter G. 50bis with additional air filters;
G. 50 bis/A — double carrier-based fighter-bomber with an increase of 1372 mm wingspan and mounted in additional sections of the wing with two 12.7 mm machine guns Breda-SAFAT with 250 bullets and bomb racks for the 150-kg bombs, and braking hook in the tail section of the fuselage; made 1 copy for the construction of an aircraft carrier Aquila; the first flight of the aircraft performed 03.10.1942 year;
G. 50N — carrier-based fighter with the brake hook for aircraft carrier Aquila (lapping carrier-based fighters have been stopped by the Italian surrender);
G. 52 — project fighter with inline engine FIAT A. 75 R. C. 53 on the basis of the G. 50V (the project had been implemented).
A. CHECHIN, N. Food reserve was