In addition, the root portion of the fin were made of the air intake that directs the flow inside the tail section for cooling the afterburner.
To continue flight tests were intended the first four production vehicles with the designation YF-105B. All of them were equipped with engines YJ75-P-3 with a thrust in afterburner 10 669 kgs.
June 19, 1956, the F-105 was given the name Thunderchief. This name continued the tradition of the company, which used different variations of names on the topic of thunder.
30 Jan 1957 soared following YF-105B. However, the flight once again ended the emergency situation. Again failed chassis. This was the last straw, not only military but even the engineers of the company. Previously they blamed the failure on coincidence, but the last episode forced them finally to reflect on the design of the chassis. The tests were suspended pending correction of deficiencies.
When problems with the chassis removed, the tests went more smoothly. All the problems concerned only the reliability of the sighting and navigation system MA-8. The maximum speed reached in the tests corresponds to the number M = 2,15, that was a significant achievement at the time.
In January 1957, considering that the Thunderchief to fly in Europe and mostly over enemy territory, the air force made changes to GOR-49. The company was ordered to give the aircraft’s independence from ground-based radio navigation and all-weather capability.
The first production F-105B flew on 14 may 1957 pilot Henry G. Bayard. The plane was solemnly transferred to the air force 27 may, three years after the initial term. The first F-105B presented to the public July 28, 1957 year in the celebration of the 50th anniversary of military aviation.
The first aircraft entered service with the 335th squadron of the 4th fighter wing. In August 1958, the unit was fully staffed and in January 1959 he was declared combat-ready. In addition to the execution of training flights, the pilots of the 335th squadron had to participate in flight tests of military systems. The new machines were significant problems with the autopilot, also lacked spare parts, which influenced the intensity of flights. Therefore, the assertions of combat readiness of the F-105B was very far from the truth. The only positive fact was the total lack of flight accidents.
11 December 1959, wing commander, Brigadier General Joseph Moore on an F-105B set a world speed record—1945,6 km/h on a closed 100-km route.
Two squadrons of the 4th fighter wing received the F-105B by the end of 1960. Well, next, 333 squadron, received a new modification of the F—105D.
Despite the large size of the aircraft and significant flight mass, in may of 1963 the F-105B was selected to replace the F-100C in flight demonstration squadron, the air force Thunderbirds. Probably, the military was guided by exceptionally impressive appearance of the plane Thunderchief. With ten demo machines took the guns and combat system, loaded ballast to preserve the alignment, and the bomb Bay mounted oil tanks. The latter was intended for tracer—two pipelines of the oil supplied to nozzle turbojet engine and at the right time has been injected into the stream of hot gases, creating a plane behind a white smoky trail. On four machines Kili sheathed in stainless steel to hot gases from the front of an airplane was not damaged.
The pilots of the Thunderbirds F-105 worked a few shows, but after a serious accident, when the audience died captain Devlin, the division again returned the F-100 and F-105 was transferred to the National guard into service 141 squadron from new Jersey. In 1964, when weapons started to arrive all-weather modification F-105D, aircraft series “In” displays in the National guard, with some cars where he served until 1981. In the air force, there were only a few F-105B of the 508 th tactical wing, which was used for training purposes until early 1980-ies.
RF-105B Thunderchief. Previously ordered the reconnaissance RF-105B was a slightly modified aircraft modification. Withdrawals of six-barreled gun and a radar range finder, but instead they were installed five cameras. Lenses four was directed to the side, and one camera down. Near air intakes were mounted two 20-mm cannon М39А1 intended for self-defense. The bomb Bay is rigidly secured the fuel tank on 1287 L. Just built three of these reconnaissance aircraft with numbers 54-105,54-108 and 54-112. After the air force decided to purchase the RF-101 Voodoo to replace the RF-84F, a contract with Repablic annulled. Three built machine was used for testing.
F-105C Thunderchief. Ordered five double training F-105C was never built. The order was cancelled in October 1957. It was only a wooden mock-up.
F-105D Thunderchief. When the U.S. air force in November 1957, revised GOR-49 (one of the points of this document was a requirement to make the aircraft all-weather), the firm began to develop new modifications, which received the designation F-105D. A feature of these aircraft was the ability to deliver on the external load of nuclear bombs such as the Mk 43 was designed specifically for high-speed tactical aircraft, without limiting the airspeed of the carrier.
Produced three versions of the bomb with the capacity of 70 Kt, 500 Kt and 1 MT. In the tail section of such a bomb had two parachutes. One was intended for braking, the other for lifting the bomb to a predetermined height of the explosion when you reset from a low height. Serial production of the Mk 43 was started in 1961. With weapons it was removed in April 1991.
External differences of the F-105D F-105B was to increase the diameter and length of the bow, which put the monopulse radar NASARR R-14A. The station provided not only the targeting and mapping, but also to fly at low altitude with rounding terrain.
On the F-105D installed the engine J75-P-19W water injection to the compressor. The latter were allowed to raise short-term thrust of 500 kg. The cross-sectional area of the air intakes was increased. The designers had to rework the cockpit. On the dashboard instead of the traditional gauges mounted signs with belt scales, that were easier to read. The weight of the aircraft increased by 454 kg, which resulted in a strengthened landing gear and brakes. To ensure landing on short runways on the keel attached hook for engaging the arresting gear. The first F-105D flew June 9, 1959. On the armament of production aircraft began to arrive in the autumn of 1960.
The initial contract was for the construction of 59 cars, but at the end of 1961, the air force ordered another 300, and in total has built 610 F-105D. In June 1961 production F-105D demonstrated its ability to carry almost 7 tons of bombs—this was the heaviest load of bombs ever hung on a single-engine plane. The achievement was repeated in October, during a visit by President Kennedy base in Fort Bragge (North Carolina). Naturally, to combat capabilities of the aircraft, such flights have had a very distant relationship, because in the accelerated version Thunderchief could carry only 16 bombs caliber 340,5 kg.
If you evaluate the overall performance of the F-105, it is difficult not to recognize its performance is very high for machines weighing almost 20 tons Without external suspensions the maximum speed of the earth corresponds to the number M = 1,25 and at an altitude of 11 000 m—M = 2,15. Thunderchief could develop a supersonic speed, even without the inclusion of the afterburner. The height of 2600 m in the plane gained over 55 since the beginning of the run and enabled afterburner and water injection into the engine he managed to climb to 12 000 m 2 min 1 s. the ceiling of the aircraft exceeding 15 000 m, and due to the speed he was able to “jump” to a height of about 21 000 m, while retaining some ability to maneuver horizontally. At an altitude of about 12 000 m and at supersonic speeds the F-105 could take a turn with overload 5.5 g.
Given the characteristics of combat use—and it is bombing at high speed with kupirovaniya or half loop — the designers put into the F-105 large margin. The airframe was designed for the operational handling of 8.67 and destroying d—13 g. When the takeoff weight of 21.4 t with 4500 liters of fuel in internal tanks, 5100, l—in three external tanks and a nuclear bomb with a mass of 1500 kg radius of action F-1050 was 1500 -1650 km If the aircraft approached the target at subsonic speed at a height of 9000-11 000 m, the normal reserve of fuel were given the opportunity to make a supersonic flight at low altitude for 3-5 min.
While flying in a small range to support the ground troops, the aircraft the F-105D could carry 190 unguided 70 mm rockets launcher in five devices, or four 454-kg bombs and external fuel tank with a capacity of 1700 liters, or any other combination of external fuel tanks and weapons weighing up to 5000 kg.
In 1961 began the deployment of the F-105D in Western Europe. Two aircraft, armed all-weather F-105D Thunderchief, became a kind of response of NATO to the building of the Berlin wall. In 1962, the F-105D emerged in Japan.
However, the aircraft come into service, was still not brought. They are constantly pursued problems with the engines, fuel leaks, poor reliability and short circuits in the wiring of the high humidity that sometimes has led to accidents in the operation of these machines. Pilots complained about the too long run-up and equipment — on the inconvenient location of the units. The low reliability of the fighter-bombers are gradually negated and their nuclear application. The F-105D was a simple bomber. In their training flights pilots practiced methods of use of conventional bombs and cannon fire.
Since 1965, the aircraft, the Thunderchief began to be widely used in Vietnam. They have performed 101 304 sorties, accounting for about 75 percent of the total number of sorties of all tactical aircraft. In a typical flight of the F-105D carried six 340-kg bombs or five 454-kg bombs. On the inner pylons under the wings hung two fuel tank L. 1703 When hitting pinpoint targets (e.g., bridges, command posts or FORTS) the aircraft could also carry missiles AGM-12 Bullpup “air—ground”, when attacking area targets—70-mm unguided rockets or incendiary Napalm tanks. For self-defense from enemy fighters on external pylons could be suspended two missiles AIM-9 Sidewinder infrared homing head.
Throughout the conflict the F-105 suffered heavy losses, although reliable airframe design, provided sufficient vitality. You can illustrate this statement with several examples of battle damage.
In the fuselage of the F-105D after planting, we counted about 90 of the holes obtained in close exploding anti-aircraft missiles. The aircraft was damaged fuel tanks, cut off the ventral keel. The pilot was wounded in the left arm and leg. Despite this, the pilot managed to refuel in the air and then land.
On another F-105D 85-mm shell tore underwing pylon and destroyed part of the wing between the spars. In the casing, a hole of irregular shape, about a meter long. The plane returned to base, flying 900 km.
Another F-105D 37-mm shell exploded in the nose cone and destroyed all electronic equipment. Refused the main power supply system. The pilot managed to return to base.
Rupture of flak on F-105D tore off the starboard stabilizer. The aircraft returned to base after flying about 500 km.
The gap of 20-mm projectile was done in the left stabilizer of the F-105D hole dimensions 0,3×0,6 m. Aircraft returned to base.
In 1970, large losses of these aircraft forced the Americans to bring them back to the continent. In 1971-1972 part of the F-105D was transferred to the air National guard, where they were used until 1983, and the rest of the car is in the air force reserve. The last aircraft like the F-105D from 466 squadron 508-on wing made its last flight on 25 February 1984.
The complexity of avionics the F-105D demanded from the pilot of the highest qualification. To achieve it was not easy, because double an educational-training F-105 didn’t exist. In 1957, on double F-105C not have enough funds. In 1959, the same fate befell another double modification of the F-105E, characterized by the large teardrop-shaped lantern. In the end, the military had to ask the firm to develop a two-seater with the lowest cost, making maximum use of parts and components production aircraft. So there was a F-105F in which two crew members were located according to the scheme “tandem” for individual lights. Cabin second crew member with a complete set of instruments and controls placed after lengthening the fuselage by 1.5 m. Weight of the aircraft increased to 908 kg.
All systems, including the refueling boom of the fuel in the air and bomb Bay have been preserved. The two-seater F-105F could carry out any combat missions.
The first flight of a F-105F (tail number 62-4412) was held on 11 June 1963. In this test pilot just managed to reach supersonic speed corresponding to the number M = 1,15.
In December production aircraft entered service in the educational wing from Nellis air force base (Nevada) and then in the 4th tactical wing. From 1963 to January 1965 was built the 143 F-105F. This modification was the last. In 1965 by order of the Minister of defence, Robert McNamara, the program production F-105 has been discontinued. Funds were spent to create universal combat aircraft F-111 TFX program.
F-105F/G Wild Weasel
Interestingly, the two-seater F-105F entered history not as a teaching machine, but as fighting. Strengthening air defense in Vietnam forced the Americans to start the development of special aircraft for the fight against radar stations, antiaircraft artillery and guided missiles. The program is the creation of these aircraft received the code name Wild Weasel.
The first specialized aircraft developed under the program was double the aircraft company North American F-100F Wild Weasel I installed a warning system for radiation signals, radar Vector IV. The latter was set up on the radars of four types, and pointed out the direction to a working station. In addition, the set of equipment consisted of a spectrum analyzer signals and a radio receiver, tuned to the frequency of the control channel of the missiles, which warned pilots about their start-up.
Total built four F-100F Wild Weasel; at the end of November they were flown to an air base Korat in Thailand. Sortie of these aircraft to suppress radar, accompanied by strike group F-105D began on 1 December. Finding radar, the F-100F began to fire its rockets, a F-105D finished marked their goal.
At the end of March 1966 the F-100F began to use anti-radar missile AGM-45 Shrike. Although the Wild Weasel was quite successful, but outdated F-100F flying in the strike group, making everyone to slow down, increasing the chances of failure.
All these problems forced the Americans to start the search for more modern aircraft that could take on not only finding and target designation, but also the destruction of the radar. The selection was small. In the air force, there were only two suitable fighter—F-105F Thunderchief and F-4 Phantom.
The modification of these cars began almost simultaneously. After equip the F-105F set of equipment from F-100F aircraft received the name of EF-105F Wild Weasel II. On completion took only eight days, but the training of the crews took almost two months.
The first flight of the EF-105F made 15 January 1966. In may ended the test plate, and the first five EF-105F was moved to the base Korat. Then came another six aircraft. The results of the combat use of the new aircraft are not encouraging—by September 1966, the group lost five EF-105F. Most of them were shot down by MiG-17 and MiG-21, since the aircraft class Wild Weasel no protection against fighters was not. Six of the remaining EF-105F returned to the United States for revision.
A further modification of the F-105F program Wild Weasel was the F-105G Wild Weasel III, possessing superior equipment and a large number of jamming stations. Among them was station QRC-128, designed to block radio signals for guidance of fighter. In addition, the F-105G was equipped with a system warning receiver—AN/APR – 35, AN/APR-36, AN/APR-37 and AN/ALR-31. Install the latest required the alteration of winglets for installation of additional antennas and navigation lights at the same time had to move to the front edge of the wing. On the sides of the fuselage were mounted two long cylindrical container with stations setting jamming.
Fourteen aircraft F-105G was fitted for the use of new anti-radar missiles AGM-78A standard, created on the basis of missiles for shipboard air defense system. Their seeker was able to re-tune in flight, and the missile control system is to remember the coordinates of the target and hit it even after switching off the radiation. The rocket was so large and heavy that I had to develop a special underwing pylon of high load capacity.
Preparation for departure of aircraft F-105G Wild Weasel at the air base There
The plane takes off, the F-105G Wild Weasel
F-105G preparing for in-flight refueling
F-105G in the Parking lot
The first F-105G entered service in the second half of 1967. The aircraft was used until the end of the Vietnam war.
The main construction material—aluminum alloy 75ST. Steel, titanium and magnesium alloys were used in limited quantities. The fuselage is technologically divided into the bow, center, rear and tail, which were collected separately.
The nose of the fuselage is of conventional design, its frame is consisted of ring-frames of various sections and powerful spars. Its internal space was used for placement of units of weapons systems of the aircraft, and a spacious cabin with a floor that is backed by strong longitudinal and transverse power elements. Under the floor was situated a niche produced downstream of the nose landing gear.
The basis of the Central part of the fuselage was angled frames and stringers, cut the main frames. In its lower part housed a bomb Bay with double opening inward doors. The root of the wing with air intakes were a single unit with the Central part of the fuselage.
The aft fuselage was planning on rotating stocks. To the side members of the rear fuselage it is attached with four bolts and is easily removed to access the engine.
The wing was equipped with flaps and auto flap. The essential design of the outer wing were the two main spar and one auxiliary, located between them. At the root of outer wing load is transferred to a powerful spar. Dural covering were fastened with bolts and studs with hidden heads. The fuel tanks in the wing was not.
Toe wing had tapered jacket, in which the curvature of the middle lines was progressively increased from the root of the wing to the tip. Wing sock was hung on hinges and could have mechanically rejected to prevent stall at high angles of attack. The wing was equipped with a single-section slotted flaps are hydraulically driven. The tail flap is attached to the main surfaces on the hinges and the flap deflection were unbent up, not touching at the same time for different loads, suspended under the wing.
The drive of the aerodynamic control surfaces was carried out using irreversible hydraulic actuators. Lateral control was carried out spoilers (on each wing was located five sections), tiltable hydraulically. The control circuit of spoilers were also used conventional ailerons, otkluchitsa from it at high speeds.
Supersonic tactical fighter-bomber Republic F-105 Thunderchief:
1—RHAW antenna; 2–pitching ANO; 3— antenna APR-25/26; 4—inlet; 5 — the wedge drain boundary layer air; 6 — handle locks, canopy; 7—rod system refueling in the air (in retracted position); 8 – sensor indicator angle of attack; 9 receiver of the refueling boom; 10—rod LDPE; 11—the radio waves cone Radome PJIC; 12—bulletproof glass; 13 canopy; 14—section brake flaps; 15—rotating stabilizer; 16—intake cooling system of the engine; 17—section spoilers; 18—flaps; 19—Aileron; 20—lock cover attaching the outer wing pylon; 21 — lock cover mount inner wing pylon; 22—radio-antenna cover; 23—a slat; 24—wing of ANO; 25 — intake cooling system of the afterburner; 26—hydraulic cylinders brake flaps; 27—cover of the braking parachute; 28—the firing handle; 29—straps harness system; 30—headrest; 31 —the Central panel of the dashboard; 32—the tube of the radar screen; 33—right panel of the dashboard; 34—control knob; 35—left panel of the dashboard; 36—pull and retract the front landing gear; 37 — shock absorber strut rod; 38—wheel turning mechanism; 39—fork front wheel; 40—wheel nose landing gear; 41 —landing light; 42 — reflector system of blind landing; 43—the bombs of MK.83 on the beam holder ventral pylon; 44—GAK landing braking; 45—small shield landing gear; 46—the big flap landing gear; 47—the bomb Bay leaf; 48—camera; 49—antenna APR-25/26; 50—fold niche cleaning the nose landing gear; 51—attachment points in the inner wing pylon; 52—the attachment points of the external wing pylons; 53 — pipe emergency drain fuel; 54—rod retract strut main landing gear; 55 — absorber strut; 56 — wheel of the main stand; 57—landing light; 58—PTB capacity 1703 litres; 59—missile AIM-9; 60 receiver node filling rods; 61—reinforcing plates; 62—braking parachute; 63 — the inner pylon; 64 — external pylon
The rudder had a small axial compensation, was not a trimmer. In the upper part was installed, the cargo weight balancing, bottom—pull steering. To prevent flutter the wheel was equipped with a special damper.
Controlled stabilizer consisted of two halves connected by a shaft— steel pipe, bent in the zone of the afterburner. The attachment points of the stabilizer connected with the shaft via a press fit. Control stabilizer produced double the power.
Air brakes formed the tip of the rear fuselage length of about one meter; in the closed position, the four sections of the brakes created a narrowing-expanding nozzle. For heavy braking in flight and in the dive was rejected all four partitions (the maximum deflection angle of flaps—40 degrees), landing only two sections that is sufficient to balance the thrust of the engine and provide excess thrust required for go-around. The upper section landing did not open (this prevented the rope braking parachute), as well as not opened and the bottom (to increase the pitch angle). Air brakes can be used in the entire speed range of the aircraft.
The F-105D was powered by a complex sighting and navigation system. The basis of the navigation part was the system of measuring the speed and drift angle of AN/АРN-131, consisting of Doppler radar, the system of air signals, gyroscopic devices and the navigation computer. The system was capable of continuously give the coordinates of the location of the aircraft, groundspeed, distance traveled, course and distance to the next turning point of the route, as well as the direction and force of the wind. These data were received in the automatic control system FC-5 and aircraft navigation equipment. The maximum error in the output plane at a given point—0.5 percent of range.
The basis of the sighting part were system AN/ASG-19 (MA-8), is able to automatically enter the aircraft into the manoeuvre for the bombing with regard to the effects of wind and air density, to stabilize the aircraft at the last stage of approach to the target and to control the dropping of bombs. System ASG-19 was provided by automatic blind bombing planning or the half loop. The main sensor was a monopulse radar 3-cm range of R-14A NASARR. Her antenna with size 450×600 mm was closed by a conical Radome. In the cockpit was a circular display, on which is displayed a radar image of the area, allowing to identify targets and adjust the location of the aircraft. In addition, the station R-14A was used to prevent collision with ground obstacles while flying at low altitude, continuous measurement of slant range to the target, and to detect air targets and aiming at them.
Main landing gear single wheel, retractable in the direction of the fuselage, in the Central part of the wing. In the retracted position the wheel is placed at the root of the wing, behind the air intake. On the main landing gear located landing lights, and the front — taxiway.
The aircraft was equipped with turbojet engine J-75-P-5 nominal 7250 kgf thrust with afterburner included— 11 000 kg and 12 000 kg—involved with an afterburner and water injection. The engine air flows through the inlets with internal compression. To enable engine operation on the ground within the wells of the chassis had additional air intakes, protected by a metal mesh.
The flow of air for cooling and ventilation of the engine compartment was through a recessed air intakes of the NACA type, located in different zones of the fuselage. At the base of the anterior edge of the keel provides the entrance to the intake channel passing through the rib and steel keel spar and extending down to the rear fuselage. The air entering through the air intakes to cool the afterburner and ejectives between the engine nozzle and the channel formed by the partitions, air brakes, increasing the effective thrust. On the edges of each section, there are spring loaded flaps that are pressed against the flaps of adjacent sections.
All fuel was housed in the fuselage above the engine and air intakes. For refueling aircraft in flight F-105D was powered retractable fuel consumer. As a tanker used aircraft KB-50J or modernized and fitted with external fuel tanks the F-105D. The rate of fuel transfer during refueling with the F-105D—2300 l/min.
Most of the components of the aircraft are driven by the hydraulic working pressure of 210 kg/cm2. In emergency cases the pump works with constant productivity driven by the emergency air vane is at the front of the fuselage.
Built-in armament of the F-105D consists of gun M-61 with a rate of 6000 rounds per minute; the aircraft was used dvuhletie powered rounds of ammunition. When odnocletocnami nutrition, how on plane P-104, the rate of fire of 4,000 rounds per minute. Drive cannon M-61 hydraulic.
The armament of the aircraft was located in the internal bomb Bay and on four underwing pylons. Bomb Bay with a length of 4.5 m was located in the center of gravity of the aircraft. Dropping loads is carried out using a hydraulic ejector mechanism; this mechanism could also be used on the ground during the suspension of the cargo in the bomb Bay. Under the wing of the plane on four pylons could be suspended high explosive and incendiary bombs, launchers NUR, guided missiles “air—air” and “air—land” and nuclear bombs total weight of up to 5000 kg Extra fuel tanks hung on those pylons in the bomb Bay. Guided missiles were located on the outer pylons.
N. Food reserve was, A. CHECHIN