The rapid construction of the armed forces began in Germany with the rise to power of Adolf Hitler. Moreover, all types of weapons developed in accordance with far-reaching plans of the führer for the establishment of a new world order.
For victory in the coming war required the presence of all modern types of weapons. In particular, for future sea battles with the leading naval powers. Germany had to have a complete range of ships including aircraft carriers.
The aircraft carrier type “A” with a displacement of 32,600 tons with a powerful artillery was developed in the shortest possible time. Weapons are not characteristic of carriers of such class, allowed him to act not only in the group with escort ships, but also independently. Air group was placed on a ship, was to consist of 42 aircraft: 10 fighters, 12 bombers and 20 scouts torpedo. The construction of the carrier has entrusted the Deutsche Werke in Kiel, bookmark it held in 1937.
As fighters and bombers planned to use modifications of conventional machines Bf 109 and Ju87. Instead of waiting for delivery of new machines, in 1938 the Germans formed the 186th group of deck aviation, which included a 4 squadron Ju87A and two squadrons of Bf 109B — 5th and 6th. The main task of these units was training future pilots of deck aircraft.
The development of carrier-based reconnaissance-bombers began two years before the laying of the ship. The creation of the plane instructed the firm Arado Flugzeugwerke GmbH. To the machine were presented the following main requirements: the possibility of using a plane with the wheel and float landing gear; payload 1000 kg; folding wing; high seaworthiness of the float option. Overall management of the design of the aircraft was carried out by engineer Walter Blume (Blume Walter).
According to all these requirements was designed biplane, designated Arado Ar.95. Float version of the index had “A” deck, “B”, and prototypes — “V”.
The first instance of Ar.95 V1 (side reparation room — D-OLUO) was a twin float all-metal aircraft with a 9-cylinder radial engine air-cooled BMW 132 power 845 HP First flight of the new plane took place in the autumn of 1936.
After some time, gathered a second prototype Ar.95 V2 (0 ONEO). Distinctive features of this machine steel inline liquid-cooled engine (firm Junkers Jumo 210Се) up to 600 horsepower and a closed cockpit. The first flights showed that we need a much more powerful motor — this is especially felt on the rise. So the plane had to install a 845-horsepower BMW 132.
The third prototype AG.95 V3 (D-ODGX) in contrast to the predecessors, provided space for a third crew member— the Navigator. Test Ar 95 V3 started in early spring 1937
The next modification was Ar 95 V4 — experimental carrier-based aircraft on a wheeled chassis. Strut and main wheels were covered by a wide large fairings-” trousers”.
Another prototype, Ar.95 V5 (D-OHGV), became the head to float a series of plane Ar.95 A-1. However, the division of the aircraft on deck and the float was purely arbitrary: after all, the designers provided the ability to quickly change the wheel base of the float and Vice versa. The versatility of the machine, the plans of the engineers of the company had to increase the volume of orders for the aircraft.
Float multi-purpose seaplane ARADO Ar-95:
1 — propeller spinner; 2 — Vit metal variable pitch Hamilton Standard; 3 — BMW 132Dc engine; 4 — motor; 5 — machine gun MG 17; 6 — compressed air; 7 — ammunition box; 8 —hour radio station, 9 — sight Revi 3C; 10 — instrument gloss: 11 — wheel control columns; 12 — cable the radio antenna; 13 — unit radio; 14 — shoulder bag for spare magazines; 15 — power set of the fuselage; 16 — power set of the stabilizer; 17 — power set of the rudder; 18 — caudal marker ANO; 19 — reinforced rib stabilizer: 20 — pull trimmer handlebar height: 21 — seat arrow; 22 — cabin floor arrow and Gatorman-scorer; 23 — camera; 24 — seat Bombardier-Navigator; 25 — Desk Navigator-Bombardier; 26 — bag for flares; 27 — battery; 28 — seat pilot; 29 — pedal foot control; 30 — fuselage fuel tank; 31 — fuel tank float; 32 — fuel line; 33 — fuel pump: 34 — cooler; 35 — oil tank; 36 — the power range of the float; 37 — mooring earring; 38 — oral compensation of the rudder; these 39.41 — the hood motor; 40 — hood oil – and vodoradiatora; 42 trimmer rudder; 43 Kil; 44 — machine gun MG 15; 45 — sliding part of the canopy arrow; 46 — sliding part of the cockpit canopy; 47 — ANO; 48 — upper wing struts: 49 — hood compartment units; 50 — fold cooling jacket of the engine; 51 — tunnel cooler: 52 — footboard; 53 — mounts float; 54 — stiffener float; 55 — braces; 56 —fuselage foot pegs; 57 — water rudder; 58 — redan; 59 — hood of a BMW engine 132Dс; 60 — wing stand; 61 — the weight compensators; 62 — ailerons; 63 — pull the trimmer of the rudder; 64 — pull Aileron; 65 — flap access to the fuel filter and pump 66 to the exhaust pipe; 67 — fuel tank 68 — handrail; 69 — rear view mirror; 70 — a folding of the center section; 71 — stabilizer; 72 — trimmer pitch control; 73 — the steering wheel height; 74 — corneal compensator; 75 — hinge rudder; 76 — hatches control the tightness of the compartments of the float; 77 — deck lining; 78 — trimmer Aileron; 79 — the inner section of the Aileron; 80 — the outer section of the Aileron; 81 — folding console wing; 82 — the center section of the upper wing; 83 — terraplan lower wing
Test AG.95 has been quite successful, with no flight accidents, but their results showed that the beginning of serial production of it will cease to meet the requirements of the time. In addition, AG.95 was prone to nose dive even with a slight, but sharp decrease in engine speed
In the spring of 1937 the Navy has put forward new requirements for carrier-based aircraft, Walter Blum had to start all over again. The new project of the company Arado received the designation of AG.195 On the creation of similar plane started to work and firm Fiseler. Her project is called Fi. 167. However, while AG.195 and Fi.167 were in the design stage it was decided to release a small series of six specimens of a plane of AG.95 in the float version.
Production vehicles, the designation of AG.95A-0. was fitted with a BMW 132Dc engine of 880 HP and three-blade metal variable-pitch propeller Hamilton Standard. The armament of the aircraft consisted of small and torpedo-bombing. Small consisted of synchronised 7,9-mm machine gun coursework Rheinmetall MG 17 with 500 rounds of ammunition and defensive 7,9-mm MG 15 Papeete on the pivot mounting in the cabin arrow with eight disk magazines of 75 rounds each. Torpedo and bomb armament could consist of a standard aeronautical 700-kg torpedoes one 375-kg bombs or six 50-kg bombs.
8 December 1938 the aircraft carrier “A” was launched. The 250-meter ship with a height of 12-storey building called the Graf Zeppelin. Almost immediately began construction of his double with a “b” designation. Completion of the first ship afloat was going quite fast, and by September 1939, the Graf Zeppelin was ready by 85%. and the second ship had already Packed hangar deck.
The war forced the Germans to reconsider their plans for aircraft carriers and carrier-based aircraft. Blitzkrieg in Europe, the air war with Britain and fight against allied ships in the Atlantic demanded serious efforts of the military industry. Funding for the construction of aircraft carriers is gradually decreased. First, in January, 1940, terminated the construction of the second ship, and at the end of April and the first.
After the failure of the construction of the aircraft carrier Graf Zeppelin, one of the AG.95A took part in trials of new catapultas install and has performed several successful flights aboard the cruiser Gneisenau. In late 1939 — early 1940 in a training unit naval aviation of Germany has received a small number of planes of AG.95A-1. In the second half of 1940, the aircraft is taken into service by the 3rd eskadrile SAGr.125 (See Aufklarungs Gruppe — air group naval intelligence). Two other divisions were armed with planes Not.60 modifications/D and Not.114 — A/V.
After the attack of Nazi Germany on the Soviet Union 3/SAGr. 125 began to perform combat missions on the Baltic sea. Aircraft squadron operated over Estonia. Lithuania, in September 1941 he participated in landing and seizure of the Islands and Moun dago Moonsund archipelago. In the summer of 1941 3 /SAGr.125 lost three aircraft AG.95A-1. June 25, one aircraft crashed on takeoff. July 18, AG.95A-1 (No. 2367) shot down by our gunners. On 30 July the aircraft tail number 7R+IL (No. 2345) crashed and sank when landing on water, the Crew managed to leave the sinking plane and was rescued.
The Plane Ar.95 roll out of the hangar
In late 1941, the personnel of the SAGr.125 relocated to the Romanian port of Constanta on the Black sea and got the flying boat firm Blom und Voss. Aircraft Ar.95A-1 were transferred to SAGr.127. which was based in Tallinn and operated over the Gulf of Finland from 1942 to 1944. On these machines flew Estonian crews. When Soviet troops began to liberate the Baltic States, Estonian pilots in the aircraft escaped to Sweden. The first aircraft with the tail number 6R+BL (up to August 1943 bore code DK+UM No. 2350) landed in Swedish territorial waters on September 21, 1944, the second, the Ar 95A-1 6R+LL, landed the evening of the same day (this machine was fired at by Swedish anti-aircraft artillery, but did not receive any damage). The third aircraft 6R+UL, worn to this side code DK+UM No. 2351, flew after all — after taking off in Tallinn, the pilot landed at the appointed place and took on Board his wife and son. The last plane landed in the outskirts of Stockholm on 22 September 1944.
The Germans demanded that the Swedes return the aircraft, but they. not wanting to spoil relations with the allies, was not given to the car until the end of the war. All aircraft got the Swedish civil registration number; SE-AOD, SE-AOE and SE-ANT and used for the carriage of mail. Machines have successfully flown until the beginning of 1950-ies. One of them (SE-ANT) crashed in the summer of 1951. Thus, the Swedish AG.95A-1 became the last aircraft of this type, derived from exploitation.
AG.95 in Spain
In early April, 1939, three and three Ar 95 seaplane Not experienced.115 arrived in Spain they became part of the experimental squadron of seaplanes AS/88, Legion Condor, based on the basis of Pollensa. AS/88 was the only German unit which had armed seaplanes. The main purpose of the transfer of AG.95 was conducting military tests in combat.
True, AG.95, as well as Not.115. arrived too late Until 1 April 1939 — the date of the surrender of the Spanish Respubdika and end nearly three years of war, the aircraft had to perform only trial overflights of the area of operations and several combat missions in the exploration. Then Don’t.115 withdrew to Germany, and all AG.95 were transferred to the Spaniards.
The new aircraft received the unit 2-G-62/73. The home remained their base in Puerto Pollensa. Adopted in Spain, the notation AG.95 was the code number “64”. The crews of the seaplanes were patrolling the coast of the country and air support ships. Command 2-G-62, took captain Luis Lerdo Tejada, who throughout the war he flew in the squadron Franco hydroaviation 1-E-70 and had a great experience of flying on different planes.
Despite the experience of the commander, the development of Hypertension.95 line pilots came with some complications, the main cause of which was the mistranslation of instructions for pilots from German to Spanish. Sometimes it came to the prerequisites to a flight accident. An illustration of this is the flight crew of the second Lieutenant Hevia, who took off with a payload of seriously violating the alignment machine. And only because of the margin of safety inherent in the aircraft designers, the pilot managed to successfully land the car and avoid accident
Original Spanish aircraft AG.95 did not have protective coloration — it appeared during the operation of the aircraft in the Spanish air force. The upper and side surfaces painted in light gray-green, lower — light blue. Roundels were applied on both sides of the fuselage and on the upper and lower wing. The rudder had a white color, and black paint was applied to diagonal St. Andrew’s cross Later on the fuselage in place of the black circle depicted the emblem of the group.
In 1932 on the Ah.95 tail number 64-3 floats replaced the wheel base of All the work carried out by the Spanish specifictime at the air base of Getafe in the suburbs of Madrid. Refurbished aircraft during the month was tested as a land scout and bomber. The machine has demonstrated unsatisfactory performance, after tests it was returned to Majorca, where he again equipped with floats.
On 1 September 1939, the Spanish air command took the decision to use AG.95 only as a seaplane base in Pollensa. All three cars drove to the OU named 51-Patrull, which organizationally was part of the 52nd squadron. Now number 51 in accordance with the new notation was applied to the fuselage of the aircraft. Changed and then the number of machines — now the # 1,2,3 were replaced by No. 7,8,9.
At this point in flying condition were given only one plane 64-2 (new number 52-8) and the other two were severely damaged as a result of different accidents. The first car was escapetravel on takeoff from the water on 6 September. The pilot and Navigator were not injured, but the aircraft was so severely damaged that were written off for scrap. 28 Sep AG.95 No. 64-3, flying from the Bay in Barcelona, immediately after detachment from the surface of the water touched the left -float for marching collision course fishing boat. The casing of the float broke off, looked Hydrosol, but the pilot decided to continue the flight and made a successful landing in Pollensa. Although the damage was slight, the plane has not been recovered and no longer flew.
At 10 a.m. on 8 August 1940, the last flying AG.95 No. 52-8 took off to perform a test flight. The crew consisted of three people. After 45 minutes of flight the plane suddenly went into a dive. Only at 50 meters, the pilot managed to start the alignment machine, but the height is not enough, and the plane crashed into the water. A rescue boat arrived to the crash site after a few minutes, but to save the people failed.
AG.95 in Chile
1939 was a turning point in the foreign policy of Chile, the Government turned sharply in the direction of fascist ideology. This was mainly due to the presence of strong German colony, and many of the Italian Diaspora of the Chilean air force (Fuerza Chile, Aegea) shifted to aviation equipment from Germany and Italy, completely denying the traditional suppliers, France, England and the United States. Such a policy in the field of aviation was authorized by the commander of aviation of Chile by General Diego of Akasaa.
Among the aircraft purchased by the Chilean government in Germany, had a few AG.95. According to some reports, there were two contracts for the supply of the first six, and then, with a short interval, three other machines are All supplied AG. 95 had included wheeled and float undercarriage. According to this they were designated AG or 95L, respectively, Ar.95W.
The date of the beginning of operation of the Chilean AG.95 can be considered on 2 December 1939, when it was formed the 2nd air group (Grupo de Aviacion 2), the arms of which began to receive new aircraft In early 1940, the group received the first five cars with Board numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 9. In 1941 it was added to AG.95 No. 6, 7 and 8.
The history of Chilean AG.95 is replete with numerous flying accidents, the main causes of which was the poor training of the crews, difficult climatic conditions in most parts of the country, which had to fly, as well as novelty designs. The weapons were machine issued in the first half of 1920-ies.
Seaplanes Ar.95 at the airbase Pollensa
One plane was out of action on December 12, 1939. They became AG.95 (No. 2), damaged during landing. He had no longer flew, and on 7 November 1941 he was off. 16 April 1940, five kilometers South of Collipulli made an emergency landing seaplane from part of Grupo No. 6. which in-flight burst the oil tank. As a result, all the oil leaked and the engine is seized. After this incident, flights were cancelled all Chilean AG.95: audited oil systems and elimination of defects in the oil system.
May 21, 1940 AG.95 (No. 5) was seriously damaged on landing and on October 31 was deleted from the air force were No better things next year. Ended in the accident and one of the first combat use of a seaplane. 5 Jun 1941 in coastal waters it was found the ship that didn’t answer to our hails. Raised the alarm AG.95 (No. 7) from the 2nd group Into the crew consisted of pilot, Navigator-broadest and Navy officer — identification of the ship-infringer. The sea was rough and the pilot had to fly against a strong wind. A sudden gust caught the plane and threw it into the water. The crew managed to leave the cabin. Grasping the floats. people within the hour expecting a rescue boat.
28 Dec 1941, AG.95 (No. 6) from the Grupo No. 2 was damaged while landing at the airport in Cogoti. The plane is already beyond recovery. The last incident connected with Hypertension.95, was the most tragic: on June 4, 1942 crashed machine No. 4, the crew of the plane died.
By the end of 1942 in flying condition left only planes 1, 3 and 9, which are most of the time idle for lack of spare parts, delivery of which of the warring Germany completely stopped. March 6, 1943, all AG.95 was taken out of the air force and sent to be scrapped.
Despite the many air accidents, the plane left the Chilean pilots the most pleasant memories. They noted the ease of control and ease of operation of the aircraft. The cabin was well thought out and provide convenience to the crew in the use of devices and equipment.
The design of the aircraft Ar.95A
AG.95A was a single-engine two – or three-seater multi-purpose (bomber-torpedo bomber or scout) floatplane.
The fuselage is metal monocoque from light aluminum alloys. The power set consisted of stamped frames, spars and supports of the stringers. Technologically, the fuselage was divided into three main sections: the front (bow), medium (Central) and tail. Bow included part of the fuselage from the first power bulkhead to cabin crew. The first frame section was at the same time the firewall had special asbestos insulation. In the first frame were the attachment points of the motor. In the upper part of the nose compartment, to the right of the plane of symmetry of the fixed exchange rate synchronous machine gun MG 17. All the rest of the compartment was occupied by 350-litre fuselage fuel tank. In the same section of the fuselage mounted main fuel pumps and filters for all the groups of fuel tanks as well as ammunition box with gun ammunition course. To force the frames forward section is attached to the struts of the upper wing and the front floats.
The entire center section of the fuselage was occupied by the crew. In the cockpit housed the instrumentation that was installed on the front dashboard. The pilot seat had adjustable height.
This cabin housed the workplace of the scorer with all necessary equipment, a work Desk and a VHF radio. Here was established the camera for aerial photography. For cabin Bombardier was working the gunner seat: the pivot setup is a defensive MG 15 machine gun on the starboard side on the flight were fixed spare shops.
The cockpit was fully glazed, even the shooter, it had a partial glass cover. The moving part of the cockpit canopy moves back on the flight, and sliding part of the cabin arrow — forward. For the convenience of the crew on the sides of the fuselage were handrails and footrests.
On the tail section was located in the keel with rudder and stabilizer with Elevator. Control wiring the control surfaces were held within the section.
The wing of the plane made by the scheme biplane, all-metal construction. The scope of the upper and lower wing are the same, their design — dvuhkonturniy of three sections — a center section and a pair of consoles. The spars of the wing cantilever I — beams.
Front spar of center wing box-type, rear — tubular. Rib — truss, the mounting locations of the struts are reinforced. End and root ribs made in the form of extruded aluminum profiles. Socks wing — stamped.
Seaplane Ar.95 of the units 51-Patrull 52 squadron. The Pollensa air base, 1939
On the trailing edge of the wing mounted rear view mirror and grab handle for easy entry to the cockpit. The center of the lower wing had a noticeable thickening of the profile to the side of the fuselage. On the upper surface of the work-hardened special aluminum lining to protect the skin from the shoes of pilots and technical staff.
Across the rear edge of the consoles upper and lower wing housed the ailerons is made in two sections (internal and external). To reduce the stresses on the control stick the ailerons were external weighting compensators with cargo teardrop shape. The inner section of the Aileron was equipped with controllable trim tabs. Bottom on consoles of the wing mounted bomb racks of the type ЕТС50.
Box of wings connected to the fuselage by a system of profiled struts and wire braces. On the tip of the upper wing mounted ANO. For easy storage of the aircraft wing is made foldable — they were on the flight back to the fuselage, with part of the wing (to the second side rail) can be tilted upward.
Tail unit all-metal. Keel dvuhkonturniy with duralumin plating. Cross set the keel consisted of stamped ribs. At the top of the keel strut installed antenna of the radio station. The rudder dural, with weight compensation. To reduce the effort on the pedals and balancing the steering wheel in a certain position provided operated trimmer. The drive from the pedals to the steering wheel direction cable.
Stabilizer dvuhlonzheronnoe design. Trim stabilizer from sheet duralumin. The Elevator made one section and has a Horny aerodynamic compensation. In the Central part of the Elevator at its rear edge was located operated trimmer. The Elevator control hard from the steering wheel column control.
The landing device of the aircraft consists of two floats all-metal construction. Floats — odnorodnye, with increased deadrise to improve the stability of the aircraft during takeoff and landing. Each float had three watertight compartments. To control the tightness of these compartments on the surface of the floats were filler door covers-plugs. The aft floats are installed water rudders with rope drive pedals foot control. On the decks of the floats are fixed with the power of the dural lining anti-skid for safe travel on them crew and staff.
In the Central part of the floats were located 300-liter fuel tanks; fuel to the engine served as a result of pressurization tanks with compressed air (proper highway took place in the racks, connecting the float to the fuselage and center section of the lower wing) To the front of the floats were fixed mooring rings.
Powerplant is a 9 cylinder radial air-cooled engine BMW 132D with takeoff power 880 HP At 1,000 m the engine develops a power of 900 HP, and at an altitude of 2500 m — 850 HP
Engine mount from steel pipes was fixed on the first power of the frames. The engine hood of the type NACA was carried out in three quick panels the Flow of cooling air regulated valves cooling jacket located in the rear of the hood. Exhaust pipes profiled, were displayed under the fuselage on both sides. The left pipe took the exhaust from four cylinders, right from five.
In the engine compartment between the engine and the firewall, located the oil tank with a capacity of 31.5 liters, electric starter, generator and fuel pump. Below, in a special fairing, installed tunnel cooler. The hood was a quick flip. Their discovery provided a convenient approach to all units of the engine compartment.
Fuel was housed in two floating and one fuselage tank. Capacity float fuel tanks of 300 liters, fuselage — 350 HP, the Engine was completed with a three-blade metal variable-pitch propeller Hamilton Standard.
Small arms consisted of a defensive machine gun in the cabin arrow and directional synchronous machine gun in front fuselage. Defensive machine gun Rheinmetall-Borsig MG 15 7.92 mm caliber had a mass of 8.1 kg, length 1090 mm and 1250 rate of fire, RDS./min Initial bullet speed 765 km/h. The ammo of 825 rounds were in 11 the box stores for 75 rounds each. Extra magazines were kept in a special bag mounted on the starboard side of the cabin arrow. The machine gun was mounted on a pivot installation.
Exchange machine gun Rheinmetall-Borsig MG 17 of the same caliber had a mass of 10.2 kg, rate of 1080 RDS./min and a muzzle velocity of 905 m/sec. Aiming is electric. The machine gun was located in the front part of the fuselage in front of cockpit, to the right of the plane of symmetry of the aircraft. Ammo 500 rounds of ammunition was in the drawer.
Bomb armament of the aircraft consisted of six SC50 bombs on the bomb racks ЕТС50, fastened on the lower surface wing panels. Under the fuselage could be suspended a 700-kg torpedo LT5f caliber of 533 mm, or 250-kg bomb SC250. Also provides the option of suspension under the fuselage on a special mnogozubkovoy-holder of four SC50 bombs.
Flight tehnicheskie characteristics of Ar.95A
Wing span, m……………………………..12,5
Wing area, m2……………………………44
Empty weight, kg ………………………….2537
Takeoff weight, kg…………………………3560
Maximum speed, km/h:
at the height of 3000 m…………………………..300
at the height of 4000 m. km/h………………….250
Time of climb: 1000 m min……2,3
Flight range, km…………………….1090
N. Food reserve was, A. CHECHIN