UNKNOWN CELEBRITY

THE UNKNOWN CELEBRITYFlying boat POTEZ 452. In the early 1930-ies of the French aviation firm Aeroplanes Henri Potez (“Aeroplanes Henri Poteza”) built a small flying boat Potez 452, which has become one of the most interesting and yet little-known seaplane naval aviation of France. Small series, consisting of 16 aircraft of this type, left quite a significant mark in aviation history: these cars had a chance to fly over virtually all continents, and in the battle line, they remained until 1944.

 
The development of the Potez 452, the type of which was defined as ejection seaplane sea scout, started by order of the fleet, in accordance with the program of modernization of the naval forces of France, 1930. The technical demands of the sailors, it was stated that the machine must be double, to have small dimensions and folding wings. In addition, the firm had to ensure ease of operation and maintenance in conditions of Autonomous navigation of the ship. Ejection of start imposed significant restrictions on minimum flight speed is not more than 83 km/h. At the same time, the maximum speed of the seaplane had to be at least 140 km/h.
 
The design of the machine was headed by a former naval officer, Delaruelle (Delaruelle). The majority of the requirements of the fleet did not constitute a great technical complexity, even reducing the flight speed to 83 km/h easily solved by installing a fixed slat.
 
He Delaruelle engaged in the development of the hull and the wing with the slat was designed by a group of experienced designers, created at the time the aircraft Potez Potez 36 and 50, led by engineer Corolla (Coroller). By the way, the same slat has proven itself on the Potez 36, and even earned the nickname “the beak of security.”
 
The design of the new aircraft was seen to engineers mixed, with extensive use of components and parts from abundant wood. Such an approach allows for quick repair of the aircraft at almost any airport. When choosing the power plant, the designers settled on a reliable air-cooled engine Salmson 9A 230 HP
 
Flying boat Potez 452 No. 2 takes off on Board the battleship
 
Flying boat Potez 452 No. 2 takes off on Board the battleship “Lorrain”
 
In accordance with the final draft of the seaplane was a flying boat-polutoraplan length of about 10 meters and a scope of the upper wing 13 meters. Stability on the water was provided by two floats attached to the endings of the lower wing. The prototype aircraft, designated Potez 45 (serial number 2661), was collected in Meaulte in 1932. By the time the firm Potez got the test center hangars, which were located next to the Seine. It is there for preliminary testing of seaplane and delivered unassembled ready flying boat.
 
The first flight of the new seaplane was held on April 15, 1932. Measurements have shown that the minimum flight speed is 72 km/h and the maximum speed reaches 200 km/h. After the completion of the first phase of the test, the car was sent to Vegg, located on the shore of a large lake. There was a aviation company of Villiers repurchased by the firm Aeroplanes Henri Potez in 1930.
 
The results of the tests of the seaplane was quite satisfied of its creators, but nevertheless, these machines were made some changes. In particular, wing stabilizing floats drifted further away from the fuselage, providing greater stability of the aircraft when taxiing on the water. Modified flying boat on 5 September, was brought to San Rafael, where he began its official flight test conducted by captain Nomy (who later became an Admiral). The pilot noted that the air plane behaves perfectly: well listen rudders, sustainable, from the cockpit provided a good overview on all phases of flight.
 
Disadvantages of a seaplane became apparent only when testing in the open sea. When taking off already with little excitement of flying boat in the planing “caught the wave” and the water flooded the open cockpit and the observer. In the future, the crew, soaking wet from head to toe, like this was supposed to work at height, in conditions of low temperature. It is no coincidence that the pilots were experienced Potez compared with a submarine.
 
To correct this structural disadvantage of the prototype seaplane (No. 01) was sent to the factory. First of all was the boat modified to improve the hydrodynamic characteristics of its nose part is rounded, has increased the length of the body from 9.03 to 10.03 m and reduced its deadrise. It also removed the lower wing (of polyterpene the plane turned into a parasol) and, accordingly, changes in the attachment of the floats. If before they were installed on the wingtips of the lower wing, improved flying boat floats more streamlined shape secured on wooden poles connected with the wing and the fuselage.
 
The opportunity for the aircraft was fitted with a more powerful radial engine air-cooled Hispano-Suiza 9Q power 350 HP, built in France under license of the American company Wright. To improve aerodynamics, the engine shut down the dural bonnet NACA. The first prototype Potez45 with a Salmson 9A engine was equipped with a metal screw with a constant pitch the French company Levasseur (license Reed), but for the engine Hispano-Suiza 9Q took a two-blade metal propeller of the company Chauviere.
 
Repeated testing, conducted in early 1933 after completion of the flying boat, a fully satisfied customer. The minimum speed is not exceeded 72 km/h and the maximum reached 222 km/h. the Height of 5000 meters the plane was gaining in 28 minutes. The only change that was made on the results of the tests — the machine was re-installed was rejected by the propeller of the firm Levasseur that was to improve its rate of climb.
 
Last tests were carried out ejection of the launch aircraft fleet in the Breste where the flying boat was launched on Board the cruiser “Wegp”. At the end of testing in the design have made the last change. At the request of the Navy on the aircraft replaced the rigging knots that have excluded him swinging when lifting on Board the ship.
 
After all the tests and modifications of the flying boat Potez 45 announced the winner of the contest and was adopted for service aircraft fleet, which has ordered 10 cars. The contract for the production of aircraft, received in series production designation Potez 452 was signed in 1935. The first production Potez 452 took to the air December 20 (according to others, 17 October) the same year. Serial production of seaplanes launched at the plant in between sartrouville. On October 6, the representatives of the company Potez and the Navy signed a new contract to build six more machines.
 
Flying boat POTEZ 452
 
Flying boat POTEZ 452
 
Flying boat POTEZ 452:
 
1 — two-blade metal propeller with a constant pitch of the firm Levasseur; 2 — propeller hub; 3 — engine Hispano-Suiza 9Q; 4 — ribs; 5 — air intake of the carburetor; 6 — hermetic bulkhead No. 1; 7 — hatch in a sealed compartment (used as a cargo); 8 — steel motor mount; 9 — the attachment of the motor; 10 — a fire extinguisher; 11 — oil pipe; 12 — power frame; 13 — malonarushennye device; 14—filler neck of the tank; 15 — the oil tank; 16 — a sealed compartment hull No. 3; 17 — main fuel tank; 18 — power tubular spars; 19— filler neck primary fuel tank; 20— power frames; 21 — root rib of the wing; 22 — glass canopy of the cockpit; 23 — reinforced tubular cover of the canopy of the cockpit; 24— control knob; 25 — seat pilot; 26—headrest pilot’s seat; 27—instrument panel; 28 — glazed cockpit canopy of the observer; 29 — reinforced tubular cover cockpit canopy of the observer; 30 radio station; 31 —a-bag for cards; 32 — spare disk stores to the gun; 33— fuel filler auxiliary fuel tank; 34—additional fuel tank; 35 — hermetic bulkhead No. 4; 36— lightweight frames; 37— the power range of the keel; 38 — the root rib of the stabilizer; 39— power set of the rudder; 40 rocking of the Elevator; 41 —traction control; 42 — tail docking node; 43 — hermetic bulkhead No. 5; 44— a sealed compartment No. 5; 45 — fixing unit of the catapult; a 46 — second redan; 47 — a sealed compartment No. 4; 48 — seat observer; 49 — camera; 50 — internal wiring of the actuator of the rudder; 51 — the first redan; 52— hermetic bulkhead No. 3; 53 — rails; 54 — hermetic bulkhead No. 2; 55 — floor sealed compartment No. 2; 56 — a sealed compartment No. 2 (used for the carriage of goods); 57—attachment catapult; 58 is a sealed compartment No. 1; 59 — aft mooring site; 60 sites of attachment of the struts to the nacelle; 61 — harness belt system; 62— rod retractable cable radio station, a 63 — step for planting crew in the cockpit; 64 — a removable access cover to the main fuel tank; 65— operating tripping; 66 — two-blade metal propeller of the constant step of the company Chauviere; 67— oil cooler; 68 — handrail; 69 — struts struts nacelles; 70— Pitot tube; 71 — hinged side of the cockpit in the open position; a 72 — gun Dome; 73 — external control wiring rudder; 74 — Kiel; 75 — rudder; 76 — struts stabilizer; 77 — hinged side of the cab of the observer in the open position; 78 — wheel perekatnoe truck; 79—perchatochnaya cart; 80 — removable operating panel of the control system; 81 is the headrest of the seat of the observer; 82 — rocking of ailerons; 83 — detachable engine hood-type NACA; 84 — support wing floats (ballonets); 85—stands ballonets; 86— a Dynamo; 87 — bandwagon; 88 cover additional fuel tank; 89— stationary section of the center section of the wing; 90 — rotatable section of the center section of the wing in the folded position; 91 — swivel wing; 92— right console wing in the folded position; 93 — slat; 94 — ANO; 95 — stabilizer; 96 — trimming of the Elevator; 97 — the steering wheel height; 98 — the hinge of the Elevator; 99—restrictive earrings linkage control; 100 — handrails; 101 —rotary sections of the center section of the wing in flight position; 102—Aileron; 103 — brace of the ballonet; 104— struts swivel cantilever part of the wing; 105th rotary nodes of the struts; 106—struts of the fuselage; 107 — struts of the center section of the wing; 108—the control devices of flight parameters; 109—compass (installed in a horizontal position); 110 panel of the dashboard; 111 — blade windmill Dynamo; 112 — housing; 113 — front; 114 — balance weights; 115 — brace-bag of

 
In the course of transfer of aircraft to the customer obsolete 7.7 mm Lewis machine guns were replaced by modern, faster-firing Darne 7.5 mm caliber, as well as strengthened the hull of a boat. The Navy received the aircraft in two batches in accordance with firm contracts. The first batch of 10 machines were adopted by representatives of EGAM (Etablissement General de l’aviation Maritime — Management of naval aviation) in the period from December 1935 to February 1936. Six planes under the second contract was transferred during the first quarter of 1937.
 
From the beginning, Potez 452 began to place not only on cruisers, always being in FNEO (Forces Navales d Extreme Orient— Naval forces Far East), but also on the ships of the fleet stationed in France. Flying boat Potez 452 appeared on Board the battleship “Lorraine”, cruisers “La Galissonniere” and “Jean de Vienne”. They acted as a Supplement to already available on the ships machines Gourdou-Leseurre 812, but so long could not continue. Operation aboard two aircraft of different designs — float Gourdou-Leseurre 812 and a flying boat Potez 452 — caused considerable difficulties.
 
In particular, trucks for ejection launch these machines had a different design, and the replacements took a lot of time. Moreover, for a flying boat Potez 452 was necessary polutoratonny ejection installation, which had the cruiser “La Motte-Picguet”, “Duguay-Trouin” and “Primauguet”. Other ships, which were based on new reconnaissance Potez 452, had a three-ton catapult installation, designed to launch heavier aircraft Gourdou-Leseurre 812 and Loir 130. So to start light Potez 452 the power of the catapults had to be reduced. All this led to the fact that the presence of Potez 452 on ships based in the metropolis, was short-lived.
 
Thus, since the end of 1936 the Potez 452 was exclusively on ships based in the overseas territories and had no ejection installations, and on Board the cruiser “La Motte-Picguet”, periodically changing a plane there “Gourdou-Leseurre 832”. In addition to the cruiser “La Motte-Picguet”, to which were assigned three “Potez 452” (No. 7, No. 11 and No. 15), they were on the ship “Amiral Chamer” (No. 7), “Bougainville” (No. 10 and No. 13), “D’azur” (No. 4), “D lberville” (No. 6), “La Grandiere” (No. 3), “La Galissonniere” (No. 5) and “Lorraine” (No. 2).
 
Operation flying boat Potez 452 took place mostly in the period between the two wars. Gradually, starting in 1937, the plane began to withdraw from the Naval aviation fleet. So, on March 1, 1937 the fate of the flying boat No. 12, 1 Mar 1938— No. 10, may 1, No. 2, June 1, from 8 vehicles were transferred in the auxiliary part. By September 1939 flying boat Potez 452 in the aircraft fleet is almost gone. But those few cars that continued to operate in the metropolis, in the battles of 1940 did not participate. The longest of these flying boats remained in remote parts of the French colonies.
 
In late 1940, the government of Siam (modern Thailand), inspired by the defeat of France and encouraged by the Japanese, declared territorial claims on Cambodia, which was in that period together with a part of Indochina a French colony. The situation deteriorated rapidly, and to escape the armed conflict was impossible. In November 1940 FNEO commander rear Admiral Strick decided to remove from the ships all the hydroaviation.
 
Aircraft, taken from “La Motte-Picguet”, “Amiral Charner” and “Dumont d’urville”, brought in SHM (Section d Hydravions de la Marine — a Division of hydro-aviation fleet), the management of which was entrusted to Lieutenant Gaxotte, before that, commanded a detachment of aircraft cruiser “La Motte-Picguet”. The main objective of this small unit was conducting reconnaissance, search and locating of ships of Thailand. All the machine parts are carried on Board the prefix SHM. In a Gaxott was three Potez 452 No. 7 (SHM-8), NO. 14 (SHM-7) and No. 16 (SHM-6). The place-based aircraft SHM chose Ream, located on the territory of Cambodia. From this base machine is operated throughout the conflict, in particular during the battle of Ko-Chang, during which a small squadron of Admiral Strick inflicted heavy losses to the Navy of Thailand. Last flight in the area flying boat Potez 452 was made on 7 September 1944 from the base of seaplanes in Bien-Hoa.
 
In France after its surrender in June 1940, the flying boat Potez 452 continued to ekspluatirovat on ships based in the African French colonies, — “D lberville” (No. 6), “D’azur” (No. 4) and “La Grandiere” (No. 3). Two of them (No. 3 and No. 4) were killed on 8 November 1942 the U.S. Navy planes during the Normandy invasion.
 
Wake up the boat Portez 452 number 15 on the side of the ship
 
Wake up the boat Portez 452 number 15 on the side of the ship
 
In 1936, Spain began to look for a plane that can replace the outdated Italian Maritime reconnaissance Macchi M-18. 15 February 1936 commander of the aircraft fleet of Spain asked the Minister of aviation, permission for the purchase and testing of a flying boat Potez 452, selected by the technical Committee for a possible purchase of this aircraft type. Just a week French flying boat (serial number 10) landed and stood on the anchorage in Barcelona, where he planned to conduct pétain trials. The flight took place on the route Chalon — Saone — Vegg — Barcelone.
 
The test program defined by the technical Committee was very rich and included determination of the level of reliability, maneuverability, flight range, takeoff and landing characteristics and stability on the water, and the ability of the aircraft to perform reconnaissance and bombing tasks. Was tested the possibility of maintaining steady communication with ships in the course of task execution. Representative of the company in these tests was a pilot and engineer Marcel Roussel, who not only ferried the plane to Spain, but the Spanish prepared the crews for testing.
 
The Commission’s conclusion according to test results was ready on March 7. The findings were superb, and the Commission of aviation of the fleet recommended flying boat Potez 452 adopted. With aprapya the Spaniards began negotiating the purchase of licenses for the production of self-pet. The Potez firm demanded a sum of 150,000 francs to pay 13 000 francs for every built machine. The first three aircraft had to release the French branch of the company Potez. Manufacture of engines Hispano-Suiza 9Q was already established in the Spanish branch of the firm.
 
The production of flying boats was planned to establish at the enterprise L Aeronautica Naval, which was completed Assembly of the licensed aircraft Savoia 62. By the summer of 1936 all the preparations had been completed, but the outbreak of civil war prevented the organization of production aircraft in Spain.
 
Design a flying boat Potez 452
 
Aircraft Potez 452 was a double ejection single-engine flying boat of mixed construction, made on a parasol.
 
The wing in the center section and two consoles. The latter is fixed to the center section at an angle of 7 degrees relative to the horizontal to increase the stability of the machine. Each of the wing panels had slotted slat with a fixed channel for the flow of the air flow. The presence of the slat provide aircraft stability at low speeds and also increased the efficiency of the ailerons. In the plane of symmetry of the wing from its leading edge to the rear, housed a spindle-shaped fairing of the engine mounted on the fuselage reinforced with wooden struts-struts.
 
All sections of the wing done on dvuhlonzheronnoe scheme. The spars are wooden, box-type. Transverse power set of the wing consisted of wooden ribs of the truss. For greater rigidity of the wing spars was pulled between the ropes-braces. When storing the airplane wing was on the flight back. While the rear section of the wing was tilted upward.
 
To the bottom of the wing spar is attached to a support strut of the floats and wing struts. Stand floats and wing struts were made of wood. At the trailing edge of the wing mounted ailerons. Control of the Aileron cable from the control knob. Wing skin is plywood. Toe wing to the first side member with a reinforced lining is trimmed with a 3-mm plywood and a layer of percale with a special water-repellent impregnation.
 
Power set of the tail consisted of spars and ribs. Stabilizer with a fixed installed angle of attack on the keel — here did not reach him spray during takeoff and landing. In addition, in this area the efficiency of the elevators, working in the area of the air flow from the blades of the screw was significantly higher. To give the stabilizer more rigidity in the hull of the boat he was connected by struts.
 
On the rudder pitch and direction was provided for horn compensation. On elevators installed trimmers, the position of which was regulated on the ground. All surfaces of the tail trimmed the fabric with a special water-repellent coating. Control wiring all control surfaces — flexible, cable.
 
The boat is designed for dvuhrjadnoj scheme with a large deadrise. Power set case, made of wood, consisted of a longitudinal longerons and stringers and transverse power elements of the frames. Five major longitudinal force elements held at the corners of the frames and the bottom of the hull. In the power set of the power boats were used, sealed and auxiliary frames. First went the main burden is fastened thereto the struts and the struts of the wing, nacelles and ballonets. The second divided the hull into six compartments — this design of the housing capable of achieving a high buoyancy. Even if a complete flooding of one of the compartments of the boat was kept on the surface of the water. The hull was sheathed with plywood followed by pasting the surface of the canvas with water-repellent impregnation. Cabin crew open. The pilot in front and gunner-observer was covered .transparent visors. To provide greater crew safety in the rear edge of the canopies of the two cockpits were set protivokapotazhnoy steel arc. The requirements correspond to the start of ejection seats and crew. They have soft padding. High soft headrests protect the head from bumps at high accelerations during the catapult launch.
 
Instrumentation placed in the cockpit, allowing to operate in simple and adverse weather conditions. On the set of machines in the cockpit observer’s installed radio TSF and a small work table under which is attached a tablet with the flight cards.
 
Defensive 7,5-mm machine gun Dame was mounted on a pivot installation. Eight removable disks, cartridges were kept in a special bag on the starboard side of the cockpit observer. In addition, the cabin of the observer on a special bracket was the camera, with enough film for 200 frames. For easy access to the cockpit left side of both cockpits were back, and the hull on the port side, there was a long bandwagon.
 
THE UNKNOWN CELEBRITY
 
Powerplant was a radial engine air-cooled Hispano-Suiza 9Q power 350 HP propeller company Levasseur (license Reed) metal, two-bladed, constant pitch. Nacelle engine fusiform recruited circular cross sections. Engine motor mount was welded from steel pipes and fastened to the front power frames of the nacelle of the engine. The hull nacelle is attached to two N-shaped-mi reinforced struts-struts. Engine closed ring quick-release hood NACA. Engine control was carried out using the push-pull rods driven from the Gaza strip, located on the left side of the cockpit.
 
Two fuel tanks located in the fuselage. The main tank was located directly in front of the cockpit, extra — behind the cab of the observer. The fuel fed into the carburetor of the engine through the motor-pump, at the exit from the system which used a hand pump driven by a handle located in the cockpit. Engine start was carried out from start Viet. The oil tank and devices of the oil system housed in the nacelle behind the engine.
 
Flight characteristics of a flying boat POTEZ 452
 
Wingspan, mm …………………………………………………………………………………….13 000
Wingspan when folded wings, mm……………………………………………………………5370
The length of the plane, mm…………………………………………………………………………………..10 030
Aircraft height, mm ………………………………………………………………………………..3260
Wing area, м2……………………………………………………………………………………24,30
Maximum takeoff weight, kg………………………………………………………………..1500
The mass of the fuel kg……………………………………………………………………………………….160
Weight of empty aircraft, kg………………………………………………………………………….1059
The maximum speed at H=2000 m, km/h…………………………………………………….217
Minimum speed at sea level, km/h…………………………………………………..72
Time of lifting to N=2000 m, min…………………………………………………………………..6,4
The ascent to H=5000 m, min ………………………………………………………………..28,0
The maximum ceiling, m ………………… …………………………………………………………6500
The maximum range at V=170 km/h at H=2000 m, km/h………………..500 ..

 
N. Food reserve was, A. CHECHIN

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