FRIGATES AGAINST SUBMARINESIn the summer of 1971 the calm waters of the North sea became the scene of very interesting events. On 6 July the Bay of the Firth of forth, the two venerable British ship, once very similar to each other and belong to the same class destroyers. Now only one of them, “cava-lier”, preserved obligatiry. The second, which bore the significant name of “Rapid” (“Fast”), apparently has little resembled its close relative. Extensive superstructure from side to side occupied almost a quarter of the length of the body, which is due this visually seemed much higher and more massive than in “Cavalier”. The weapons looked more than modest — only the stern was visible coaxial gun mount, stared too serious by the impressive lattice masts and numerous radars.


The reason for going to sea was very unusual: the brave young commanders called each other (and their ships) to the race. Perhaps this idea could be carried out only in the fleet “mistress of the seas”! Command decided to support the initiative of the officers, calling the competition “test performance” vehicles-veterans — the last representatives of the destroyers military buildings, who was still in the ranks.
“Cavalier” and “Rapid” was developed at full speed and came to the starting line. The race is on. Within two hours the guard could not break away from each other by more than 100 meters To the finish line, located at 74 miles, was only a few cables ‘ lengths, when marching a little ahead angular modernized “Rapide” accidentally triggered the safety valve of one of the boilers, and the steam pressure is instantly fell. “Kavalir” immediately took the lead. The winner in the literal sense of the words identified a photo finish: “Rapid” behind the opponent only 15 m!
Meaningless at first glance, the event nonetheless demonstrated excellent technical condition of vehicles. Destroyer preparing to celebrate its 30th anniversary, was able in two hours to go from 33-node speed — there is every reason to be proud of this result.
British naval tradition of serious attention to the maintenance of machinery of ships in perfect condition still not gone.
The second important point is the fact that, if necessary, “Rapid” will be able to catch up with the fleet nuclear-powered missile submarine, which became a kind of “dreadnought” in the last third of the twentieth century. So, taken nearly 20 years ago, rebuilding this ship in anti-submarine frigate was not so useless, how about making said criticism of the activities of the Admiralty…
After the Second world war, the Navy Anglo Saxon allies is so superior to all other navies that a huge number of cruisers and destroyers was just unnecessary — especially when you consider that their maintenance cost is very expensive. However, a new threat has matured. German advances in submarine available to all of the winners. Not being able in the course of the cold war to compete with their rivals, the Soviet Union went the way of the asymmetric response and began each year to build dozens of submarines, built with the German experience. The new hull shape, allows you to develop a course of more than 20 knots at periscope depth, “snorkel” (or RDP device to operate the diesel engines under water), powerful battery — all this instantly devalued numerous anti-court, now no longer able to catch up with its underwater enemy. The English have all the corvettes of the “flower” and “castle” once obsolete, and the 19-node frigates types of “Bay” and “nerd”, having almost equal with new submarines speed, could at best give one volley from their mortars, and then only under the best of circumstances. In addition, it was the appearance of atomic submarines. Although the data about their speed, the designers tried to keep it secret, everyone knew that and 25 knots for new supersubmarina is not the limit.
England lost the status of the first Maritime powers of the world and now merely an assistant to his overseas partner, however, had the second largest fleet in the area of responsibility of which fell into the most dangerous area — the European water. It was clear that for large-scale production of anti-submarine ships of the new generation had neither the money nor the time, and then the Admiralty made a bold move. The British decided to convert their destroyers “emergency” series, turning them into specialised ASW frigates.
Destroyers military buildings possessed such virtues as rugged and reliable machines, however, it seemed that the new requirements they are not quite answered. Lacked free space: there was nowhere to accommodate the new avionics; not consistent with contemporary standards of shipboard life conditions for work and rest. It would take a very major overhaul of the hull and superstructures.
The engineers have offered two options for the modernization projects 15 and 16. First it went the 15th, providing for more extensive and expensive modification of the vehicle calculated for a period of about two years. With beautiful hull of the destroyer was filmed almost everything: guns, torpedo tubes, masts, add-ins… Then lengthened the forecastle, which now reached almost to the stern. Over it was built the superstructure, extending from side to side, first tested back in the cruisers of the “town” and which became a characteristic feature of almost all post-war British vehicles. It was home to numerous devices: electronics sonar and radar, combat information center, communications. Crowned with extensive add-bunk the bridge (on the last unit of the series is closed at the top). Radar antennas were on the short lattice masts, the front of which subsequently began to sheathe with sheets of metal, whereby it has become so familiar now in the form of a square “chipping”…
Since almost all new structures are located high above the water, I had to take special measures to preserve stability. Most designs, including many elements of the forecastle, were made of light alloys based on aluminium.
37. The frigate Whitby (type 12), England, 1956
Built by “Cammel Laird”. Displacement normal 2150 full 2560 t maximum Length of 112.7 m, width 12,5 m, draft 3,9 m. Capacity twin-shaft steam turbine 30 000 HP, speed 29 knots. Armament: coaxial 114-mm universal artillery systems, and twin 40-mm machine gun, two mortars “limbo”. Just 1956-1958 built 6 units: “Whitby”, “Torquay”, “Scarborough”, “Tenby”, “Eastbourne” and “Blackpool”; 9 close to the characteristics of the ships of “Rotsey” built in 1960-1961 gg. Excluded from the lists of the fleet in 1976-1984
38. Anti-submarine frigate “Tiresias” (type 16), England, G. 1943/1952
Built as a destroyer by the firm “Cammel Laird” in 1952, the Displacement of the normal 1800, 2600 full t maximum Length of 109.2 m, beam of 10.9 m, draught 4,35 m. Capacity twin-shaft steam turbine 40 000 HP, speed 35 knots. Armament: coaxial 102-mm universal gun mount, five 40mm machine guns, one four 533-mm torpedo tubes, two mortar “Squid”. Total for the project. rebuilt in 1952-1956 10 items. All scrapped between 1961 and 1967.
39. The frigate “Blackwood” (type 14), England, 1957
Built by “thornycroft”. Displacement normal 1180, complete 1550 t maximum Length of 94.5 m, beam of 10.7 m, draught 4,65 m Capacity single-shaft steam turbine 15 000 HP, speed 26 knots. Armament: three 40mm machine gun, two twin 533-mm torpedo tubes, two mortar “limbo”. Just 1956-1958 built 12 units. “Russell” and “Grafton” scrapped in 1971, and the rest in 1977-1979
40. Frigate П80 “Puma” (type 41), England, 1957
Built by “Scott.” Displacement normal 2300, 2520, etc full Length the greatest 110,6 m, width of 12.2 draught of 3.7 m. Capacity twin-shaft diesel installation 14 400 HP, speed 25 knots. Armament: two twin 114-mm universal artillery systems, and twin 40-mm gun, mortar “Squid”. Just 1957-1959 built 4 units: “Puma”, “Leopard”, “Linke”, “Jaguar”. The fifth ship of the series, “Panther”, completed for India (new name is “the Brahmaputra”). “Lynx” and “Jaguar” in 1978— 1982 he transferred to Bangladesh, the other two are excluded from the lists of the fleet in 1977

Since modern submarines are almost completely lost his artillery (one of the negative aspects of the new streamlined forms, in which there was no room for guns), a similar armed anti-submarine forces could also be minimized. On upgraded destroyers of project (type) 15 it consisted of a paired 102-mm installing the latest military model (MK. XIX), capable of firing at air targets and operates from its own Director. The new role of the “main caliber” is emphasized by the location: “shotgun” hiding among the add-ins in the feed, having, however, good angles of fire. It was complemented by two 40-mm “botrov”, located behind the nose bridge.
The main ASW weapons are two triple mortars “limbo”, heir “Squid”, which had a stabilization system in the pitching and some great firing range. The project involved the installation of two single-tube 533-mm ASW torpedo tubes, but homing torpedo failed and the spacecraft had to be removed from the few ships on which they were installed.
On the 15th took place the conversion of the latest “emergency” destroyers, only 29 pieces, which included four Australian type “Q” and two canadian, “Algonquin” and “Crescent street”, and the ships of the dominions was rebuilt in their domestic shipyards.
A somewhat different fate had the earlier ships of the type “T”. All of them, except for “Trubridge”, modernized under the project 15, was subjected to less capital and much cheaper conversion. They were joined by representatives of the later series: “Orwell”, “paladin” and “Petrad”.
Type 16 has retained noble “des Troyanski” appearance. All the same gun mount MK. XIX located on the bow superstructure and paired “Bofors” in the middle of the enclosure was supplemented with five single-barreled guns of the same brand, After some hesitation, the designers have retained the aft torpedo tube, which is now intended mainly for firing anti-submarine torpedoes. Of course, in this scenario, two mortars simply no choice and had to limit one “Squid” in the aft superstructure.
Defective, the interim nature of the project 16 impact on the life of the ships. All representatives of this series has served for approximately 10 years, and then went to be scrapped. On the contrary, the frigates of 15 became one of postwar centenarians — some of them have been in service for nearly 40 years.
However, by the time the Royal Navy made up of new-generation anti-submarine vessels of special construction. The project unified “sloop 1945”, also known as project 11, I started in the end of the war, however, the new submarines put a cross on it — now its speed in 25 knots were clearly insufficient. He was replaced by a 29-usloviy project 12 (“Whitby”), which became the base for many years to come. Its main distinguishing feature was a peculiar case with an elevated nose, V-shaped in cross-section and passing with a sharp slope in the wide and lower middle part, which had almost linkarea “square” formation. All this gave the ship a rather unusual, but proved to be a highly effective way good to keep speed in heavy seas. Another “hit” were huge for such a small case (almost 4 m in diameter) screws, provides low noise running.
As for the weapons, originally as the main fire was supposed to be installed twin 76-mm gun, but “gun lobby” in the Admiralty insisted on a more solid spark 114-mm semi-automatic guns in the tower installation, the same applied to post-war destroyers. Originally chosen only as a temporary measure, typical of bulky square design also long been a hallmark of the British frigates.
Light anti-aircraft armament was represented by fully stabilized 40-mm twin STAAG, which also had an Autonomous guidance system with its radar. Looked powerful anti-submarine armament: two mortars “limbo” was supplemented with 12 torpedo tubes, two of which Sparky could be induced, and the other was stationary. Mentioned trouble with the new torpedoes and explicit congestion has led to the fact that all the ships of Whitby lost its torpedoes shortly after entering the system.
In a couple of fighters against submarines the British decided to create almost in the same housing a frigate defense. As mechanical installation, chose the diesel, causing the type 41 (Leopard) lost the pipe (exhaust produced via a thin tube hidden inside the lattice masts), but purchased a second paired 114-mm installation. Artillery (now automatic) was equipped with the most advanced at the time the fire control system, and the second the mast now sported a long-range detection of radar type 960.
Air vehicle type has not received wide development. Unlike “Whitby”, repeated the second series of the nine ships of the type “Rotsey” anti-aircraft “beasts of prey” gave a strange descendant in the person of the four units of the type “Salisbury”. Nominally also as a defense ships, they lost a turret, but was equipped with a more powerful and long range radar. Built truncated type 61 is very slow: the time from laying until the entry into service of the frigates was almost five years.
In addition, as anti-submarine and anti-aircraft variants were very expensive: 3.5 million lb. article, expensive than the big cruisers of the Second world war (but without inflation). And the extra money in the budget for post-war England was not observed. So superstitious constructors and the lords of the Admiralty conceded an unlucky 13 number and created a cheaper type 14 (“Blackwood”). He became truly a pure anti. Two mortars “limbo” and four torpedo tubes had only three 40-mm machine gun. As specialized has become and hardware. The power of the machines was halved, but the smaller size body it was enough to ensure a speed of 25 knots. Paradoxically, these ships are “second class” became one of the best hunters for submarines ahead of increasingly sophisticated and expensive projects. The reason was that with its monotonous service they the time was paid that is anti-submarine training. And yet, despite the successes, the “specialists” quickly passed. There came a long era of vehicles-station wagons.

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