LACE HOUSEThe decoration of houses, carved wooden items — the traditional folk decorative arts — widespread in our country. Remember how much joy the eye gives light and elegant, beautiful trim casings, shutters, cornices, skates roofs and rural, and still-preserved city houses the Central part of Russia, the Urals and Siberia. Here you can find the most difficult kinds of thread complex forms, using vegetal ornament and fantastic images of all kinds of birds and animals. In the North widespread simple geometric patterns. from shallow pits and grooves: they are not afraid here abundant precipitation, which quickly would lead to destruction. intricate carving.
Ornamentale not only exposed architraves, cornices, pediments, doors, gates, pavilions, terraces, and various fences. Dressing modest home in a wooden lace, the owner not only decorates it, but also shows their skill, artistic taste.
Fig. 1. Carving tools
Fig. 1. Carving tools:
1 — knifes-kosjachki, 2 — chisels flat. 3 — semicircular chisels. 4 — kljukarzy, 5 — angled chisels, 6 — rasps. 7 — jigsaws (hand and foot)

For a prize let us consider the decoration of the house N. I. Volkovym, a resident of Zalisne village, near Kazan. How much skill and love he put into the decoration of their homes. The casing is made in the tree”, trim thread in the house and on the front, not repeat each other, it is complemented with a beautiful cornice. The pediment over the porch is made in the form of complex pointed arches; the roof of the porch is supported by decorative square posts. The angle of the gable is partially enclosed with boards, which boards are cut on the cone; they fortified a beautiful rosette. The top of the roof is crowned with a carved Board.
The house has a terrace, window covers which are also patterned in the form of direct and rhombic shapes. Top — wide Board with scalloped carvings.
Fig. 2. Holder
Fig. 2. Holder:
1 — end. 2 — figured. 3 corner,4 — jacks or pushes.

And the fence of the house unusual. The heads of the bars imparted a beautiful form, full of strap not strictly horizontal, but with a small notch in the middle of each Link between the pillars, the mirror strips, with a circle in the middle and triangles at the edges. In the center of the circle — outlet-star.
Posts for hanging gates are closed with boards — it is called the blades — with fortified them carved details. The covering of the gate is made in two tiers; the lower with the location of the boards vertically, and the upper *herringbone”, with rosettes.
Fig. 3. The transfer of the pattern with decreasing or increasing — cells
Fig. 3.The transfer of the pattern with a decrease or increase of cells.

Such a fence is decorated and the house and estate as a whole.
The wood trim elements of the house used coniferous (as more resistant to weathering), without defects (ROE, knotty) that hinder the work or ruin the product; is dry, or when dry it warp and crack.
Fig. 4. The template pattern.
Fig. 4. The template pattern.
The blank — bar, a Board of the desired length after give the desired shape to cause the contours of the figure. If the surface is not clean enough after planing, it should never be cleaned with sandpaper before the thread: working in wood abrasive grain will quickly dull the tool. Therefore, it is best to first run the thread and then sanded.
For durability soft deciduous species should be maintained — antiseptic impregnating compositions, painted with oil paints.
To fasten the individual parts with each other on the spikes, nails or screws, water-resistant synthetic adhesives.
Fig. 5. Work the knife.
Fig. 5. Work the knife.:
1 — the position of the knife at the beginning of recess. 2 — the final cut. 3 — darisana line, 4 — cross cutting end of the straw; And — spaced workpiece.

For simple wood patterns is enough to have a woodworking jig saw, a knife, a joint, direct and semicircular chisels. For more complex thread will need a more complex tool. General rule: it must be very well ground and directed on oselke.
Knife-joint. Its working part is sharpened on both sides and forms an angle of 20°, the blade is bevel or oblique cut at an angle from one type of knife at 45°, the other 60°. Blade length is small: it appears from under the arm of 50-70 mm.
The handle is wooden or plastic, length 100-120, 20-30 wide, with a thickness of 12-15 mm. give Her easy to work shape without sharp corners and edges.
Fig. 6. Training the implementation of the grooves
Fig. 6. Training implementation recesses:
1 layout, 2 — half sample, 3 — sample through-the hollows 4 — a closed cavity 5 of the sample square.

From cutting a toe joint (acute angle) and a heel (blunt corner). These terms in the future will be a recurring theme. During thread sock always deepens into the wood, and the heel is slightly raised. Knife pot is widely used in geometric carving.
Chisels have straight, semi-circular and kljukarzy. They are sharpened so that the angle was in the range 18-20°: work at easier than with a steeper sharpening the chisel-kljukarzy curved cloth of different widths.
Chisels-corners virtually represent two chisels with cloth, welded together at an angle of 50 to 70°. The width of each is from 5 to 15 mm. they are Used for cutting through one of the veins or lines in the form of grooves of different widths.
Rasps are steel rods of various shapes, widths and lengths, with notches in the form of small teeth — for grinding of wood and giving it a particular shape, to which other tool is not possible.
Fig. 7. Strengthening relief
Fig. 7. Strengthening of relief:
1 — internal cut at an angle of 450, 2 blunt edges of the cut chamfer, 3 — edge rounding of cut.

Ciocana — steel rods with working ends of different patterns. Under the hammer blows they leave on the wood of a small pit — to obtain the necessary background of the product. Typically, the groove depth does not exceed 5-6 mm.
Jigsaws — manual, foot and automatic, most often electric. With their help, performed Welt in wood propisyvayutsya curves or holes. With the same purpose, there are handsaw with a narrow blade.
Blade of the jigsaw is normal with a width of 5 mm and thickness of 1-1,5 mm, with teeth for longitudinal or mixed pilenija. One end of it has no hole, and the hook: thanks to him, saw quickly removed from the handle and skipping in the hole of the workpiece, again to fix.
The teeth can be of different sizes: the bigger they are, sherokhovatoi propyl, and Vice versa. They are directed should be to cut wood in the direction from itself, and at the foot of the jig saw from top to bottom.
Fig. 8. The details of the frieze formed by triangles with a hollow center
Fig. 8. The details of the frieze formed by triangles with a hollow center:
1 chain of triangles, 2 “mirror chain,the adjacent grounds, the 3 — adjacent vertices, 4, 6 — three-row chain 5, the zigzag of the two chains.

The latter is arranged so. In the workbench or the Board is drilled or hollowed a hole which is missing a blade. Over the hole hung a spring, and beneath it is attached the pedal into it and the spring on leashes cling to the saw blade. This gives you the opportunity to work with his foot, and the workpiece to hold with two hands, directing the button exactly in the picture. Below the saw blade was more steadily on the sides of it over the hole on the bracket installed lugs-guides.
At work standing height workbench should be at elbow level carvers, 100-110 cm to Sit better on a solid, stable stool with a height of 65-75 cm, have a proleg at the height of 20-30 cm from the floor for the stop of one foot during operation.
They can be used to securely fasten the workpiece to the workbench and, if necessary, easily removed. They are end, corner, curly, female, remote, etc.
End is needed for narrow and long workpieces, the corner — for large square or rectangular, notched speak for themselves.
Prop holds the workpiece at performance of a geometrical carving. Attach all Dergachi to the bench two nails.
For the same purpose, in addition to tool holders, use mounting screws — cone-shaped rods with ends in the form of a corkscrew with one hand and lamb on the other: it is easy to screw and Unscrew.
Jacks and the pushes represent pieces of boards or bruskov with cutouts on the ends that is secured to the workbench with screws.
Apply themselves properly. To the workpiece from them does not remain a hole, make allowance for 20-35 mm, here and screw them. After executing thread allowances cut off.
Fig. 9. Kinds of thread
Fig. 9. Types of thread:
A — outline B — cut. In — slip.

Also a handy clamp for securing workpieces. They come in wood and metal. Skilled craftsmen prefer wood for accidental blunt tool.
The contours of the future pattern transferred on a tracing paper with a soft pencil, ballpoint pen, pen. Ink or paste is desirable to use black.
If the picture is small. it can be increased (a large decrease) by using the grid. To do this, its outline transferred to tracing paper, then divide the field into squares and numbered them. On paper or cardboard is applied the same number of squares, but larger or smaller and visovivat in their image, focusing on the first grid.
The image with tracing paper it is easy to transfer to wooden surface by using carbon paper.
Figure 10. Details of the ornament
Figure 10. Details of the ornament:
A — formed by recesses; B — overlays of different configurations.
If it is necessary to perform many of the same parts, it is better to make a template from cardboard, heavy paper, plywood, thin boards. You can also use a well-executed first workpiece, be sure to carefully cleaning the edges, which will move the pencil.
On the details of the decoration can meet different patterns: geometric with different background and contours Welt, bill of lading, bas-relief, high-relief carving. Not knowing the technology of its implementation, it is impossible to avoid many mistakes. It is therefore useful pre-trained in performing carving on small pieces of wood of soft hardwoods such as basswood. Best to start with geometric carvings, executed with a knife, a Bong, or a chisel with an oblique edge. First, you should pass triangular grooves, lines, squares, ornament elements of leaves and flowers.
For exercise take a blank measuring 20 x 70 x 200 mm, planed on two sides and threads execute on both surfaces.
Technique knife-joint. The cutter should be taken not only for cutting but also for the painting of the blade, taking his hand so that the blade protrudes from beneath clenched fingers 30-40 mm. Heel is drawn towards the Carver. The part of the blades, which are held by hand, you can wrap electrical tape or cloth.
Fig. 11. Welt thread and device for its implementation.
Fig. 11. Welt thread and device for its implementation.
Weed is against the workpiece vertically, leading him on. Toe cutter is pressed Into the thickness of the workpiece is not desired depth, and the heel is raised above the surface of 1-2 mm. When it is lifted more, the joint cutting the wood easier.
If the incision is not through and does not reach the end of the workpiece, but only to cross the line, then finishing the cut, the heel is immersed in the wood to the required depth. Then Bong again reject myself and daresay that toe and cross the line.
The performance of trihedral deepenings. The groove is a triangular shape with a width of 4 and a depth of 3 mm is cut out of the Bong at an angle of 30-40°. Previously using a square hold on the workpiece centerline with a solid line. From both sides at a distance of 2 mm spend a dotted line additional lines that define the width of the groove. First cutter, holding it vertically, incised centerline to a depth of 3 mm or slightly deeper. Then the blade is put to extra lines to the right of the axis, give the cutter a lateral inclination of 45°, embed it into the wood to such a depth that the toe penetrated to a cut on the centerline. Cut this extra line, the billet was rotated at an angle of 180° and similarly, do the pruning in the second additional line. When done correctly, cuts the straw, as it is called, she comes out of the groove. If not, this means that the line is not cut and the work has to be repeated.
When two such recesses are next to, between them is the wood is called a site. The groove may not go through, and to be closed as if forming a trough; at the ends it is cut cross lines clipping sticks.
The movement of the joint along the annual layers more easily than across them, but the cutter can deviate from the straight, having gone in the direction of the fibres, it must be borne in mind when carrying out the work.
Getting squares. They are formed when p residenee trihedral deepenings. First, grooves are cut along the grain, then across. The execution of lines should be done — the figures will turn out cleaner.
Fig. 12. The details of the decoration of the architraves and their design cuts.
Fig. 12. The details of the decoration of the architraves and their design cuts.
The underline topography. Pictures of triangular grooves will look sharper if they are to identify the shadow. Cut the scat groove with a slope inwards, for example, at an angle of 45°. Received a sharp edge can be cut, formed by the chamfer, which additionally it is easy to round.
Cut triangles. Such figures are widely used in geometric carving; they come in different shape, size: isosceles,
equilateral with straight and curved lines. These include so-called almond-shaped grooves, which are formed by curved sides the same size. Of triangles are created different beauty and complexity patterns — rosettes, friezes, cutting.
Friezes of treugolnikov. The three triangles are carved so that they have one common vertex and the two lines of contact with each other, form a large triangle. Thus it is necessary to strive to the common vertex was buried: there will be something like pressed pyramid — a spectacular figure for formation of geometric patterns, widely used, for example, in the decoration of friezes.
The frieze can be obtained simply from the chain of such recessed triangles. The pattern is easy to complicate things when placed next to two identical chains. Moreover, there are two possible patterns, depending on, whether the dock chain bases of the triangles or their vertices. The main requirement here is the absolute identity of the figures themselves and the depth of their selection.
Fig. 13. Trade outlet: round, square, elliptical
Fig. 13. Trade outlet: round, square, elliptical
Interestingly, the latter pattern may be more complicated if the diamond-shaped pads between the two chains to punch two in-depth triangle would be obtained as an intermediate third chain, in which triangles are connected in pairs by the bases, vertices. This pattern clearly readable vertical crests-arrows and stretched a little four-pointed stars. They will have the correct shape and fit beams into squares if all the triangles of the pattern to make an isosceles triangle.
Finally, another interesting frieze happens if the two original chains to locate close to the vertices of the triangles are not docked, and formed between the other two: pattern embossed zigzag run through the snake.
Transformation of the triangles.
The options of patterns of triangles with deepening in the centre becoming g the truth countless, if one two or all three sides of the triangle to give a curved shape. Fancy sockets And colors of ornaments and stars — a variety of shapes can be obtained FROM such elements; first make an incision internal lines, and then the outer side of each triangle. The pictures show the figures and sockets are made in this technique with the help of joints and chisels.
In addition to the above, have other kinds of thread, which can find wide application in the transaction of the house.
Contour thread is. The workpiece is transferred the outlines of the figure, and these lines a joint or a corner chisel perform is not deep, 1-1. 5 mm, thread in the form of triangular grooves.
Fig. 14. Carved cornices
Fig. 14. Carved cornices
The relief carving is the same as the contour, only the depth of the groove is from 2 to 2.5 mm.
In-depth carving is characterized by deeper cutting of the background. The technique of thread remains unchanged. Contouring is necessary.
The relief carving is that wood billet convex cut human figures, masks, birds, animals, fish. They vozvishaetsa above the background.
Cut figures are also very common. They can be freestanding, such as cock on the ridge of the roof, or patch on the walls, doors, gates, fences.
These threads are widely used in the decoration of houses: on the architraves, cornices and fences.
Welt — with a fully drawn background, as if lace. Often called her delicate. It is used where x-rayed the underlying background — for example, wooden trim go the painted surface.
Invoice thread is a ornament made by cutting and pasted or nailed on the finished background. So adorn the trim boards around the window opening, shutters, gates, wickets.
Details for frames can be of different shapes and sizes of geometric, floral and other. Some are cutters, others are cut with a saw, rarely trimmed by the cutters.
Fig. 15. Frames with geometric ornaments.
Fig. 15. Frames with geometric ornaments.
To get the piece, such as triangular bars, it is recommended ostrogat Board thickness desired, mark the edges of the triangles, hold risks for the plates, cut and ostrogat the sawn side. When required, a five sided sticks, it is best to prepare square or rectangular and fill them triangular. When vystragivanie flutes-grooves apply planes-of the throat.
They are not cut from a solid piece, but made of individual parts (plane, cut, drill).
Prepared from details collected conceived pattern, bonding of the workpiece with nails. If the form of rosettes of elliptical, you first need to draw an ellipse, divide it into sections (8, 10, 16, 20) thereof and to arrange the individual elements.
Fig. 16. Decoration fencing
Fig. 16. The decoration of fences:
As for gazebos, porches, terraces. B — for estate.

For decoration can be used different ornaments. The figures show the most affordable options composed solely of geometric ornament. The shape and size of the individual elements can vary depending on the size of the window opening and the General solution of home decoration.
For the design houses are widely used all sorts of cornices, simple and complex shapes. They can consist of geometric, plant and combined ornament. Often they are made of fishnet and perform drilling, sawing, gouging, and cutting.
They are different around porch, gazebo, terraces and shared — around the estate. The height of the fence of the first type to 1 m, the second from one meter and above. Often there is a fence, sticks, planks (solid is more material on sparse — less). Decorative elements on them easier than on the house, but overall the fence perfectly complements the overall outfit of the home.
A. SHEPELEV. engineer

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