Figure 10. Details of the ornament:
A — formed by recesses; B — overlays of different configurations.
If it is necessary to perform many of the same parts, it is better to make a template from cardboard, heavy paper, plywood, thin boards. You can also use a well-executed first workpiece, be sure to carefully cleaning the edges, which will move the pencil.
EXERCISES ON THREAD
On the details of the decoration can meet different patterns: geometric with different background and contours Welt, bill of lading, bas-relief, high-relief carving. Not knowing the technology of its implementation, it is impossible to avoid many mistakes. It is therefore useful pre-trained in performing carving on small pieces of wood of soft hardwoods such as basswood. Best to start with geometric carvings, executed with a knife, a Bong, or a chisel with an oblique edge. First, you should pass triangular grooves, lines, squares, ornament elements of leaves and flowers.
For exercise take a blank measuring 20 x 70 x 200 mm, planed on two sides and threads execute on both surfaces.
Technique knife-joint. The cutter should be taken not only for cutting but also for the painting of the blade, taking his hand so that the blade protrudes from beneath clenched fingers 30-40 mm. Heel is drawn towards the Carver. The part of the blades, which are held by hand, you can wrap electrical tape or cloth.
Fig. 11. Welt thread and device for its implementation.
Weed is against the workpiece vertically, leading him on. Toe cutter is pressed Into the thickness of the workpiece is not desired depth, and the heel is raised above the surface of 1-2 mm. When it is lifted more, the joint cutting the wood easier.
If the incision is not through and does not reach the end of the workpiece, but only to cross the line, then finishing the cut, the heel is immersed in the wood to the required depth. Then Bong again reject myself and daresay that toe and cross the line.
The performance of trihedral deepenings. The groove is a triangular shape with a width of 4 and a depth of 3 mm is cut out of the Bong at an angle of 30-40°. Previously using a square hold on the workpiece centerline with a solid line. From both sides at a distance of 2 mm spend a dotted line additional lines that define the width of the groove. First cutter, holding it vertically, incised centerline to a depth of 3 mm or slightly deeper. Then the blade is put to extra lines to the right of the axis, give the cutter a lateral inclination of 45°, embed it into the wood to such a depth that the toe penetrated to a cut on the centerline. Cut this extra line, the billet was rotated at an angle of 180° and similarly, do the pruning in the second additional line. When done correctly, cuts the straw, as it is called, she comes out of the groove. If not, this means that the line is not cut and the work has to be repeated.
When two such recesses are next to, between them is the wood is called a site. The groove may not go through, and to be closed as if forming a trough; at the ends it is cut cross lines clipping sticks.
The movement of the joint along the annual layers more easily than across them, but the cutter can deviate from the straight, having gone in the direction of the fibres, it must be borne in mind when carrying out the work.
Getting squares. They are formed when p residenee trihedral deepenings. First, grooves are cut along the grain, then across. The execution of lines should be done — the figures will turn out cleaner.
Fig. 12. The details of the decoration of the architraves and their design cuts.
The underline topography. Pictures of triangular grooves will look sharper if they are to identify the shadow. Cut the scat groove with a slope inwards, for example, at an angle of 45°. Received a sharp edge can be cut, formed by the chamfer, which additionally it is easy to round.
Cut triangles. Such figures are widely used in geometric carving; they come in different shape, size:
equilateral with straight and curved lines. These include so-called almond-shaped grooves, which are formed by curved sides the same size. Of triangles are created different beauty and complexity patterns — rosettes, friezes, cutting.
Friezes of treugolnikov. The three triangles are carved so that they have one common vertex and the two lines of contact with each other, form a large triangle. Thus it is necessary to strive to the common vertex was buried: there will be something like pressed pyramid — a spectacular figure for formation of geometric patterns, widely used, for example, in the decoration of friezes.
The frieze can be obtained simply from the chain of such recessed triangles. The pattern is easy to complicate things when placed next to two identical chains. Moreover, there are two possible patterns, depending on, whether the dock chain bases of the triangles or their vertices. The main requirement here is the absolute identity of the figures themselves and the depth of their selection.
Fig. 13. Trade outlet: round, square, elliptical
Interestingly, the latter pattern may be more complicated if the diamond-shaped pads between the two chains to punch two in-depth triangle would be obtained as an intermediate third chain, in which triangles are connected in pairs by the bases, vertices. This pattern clearly readable vertical crests-arrows and stretched a little four-pointed stars. They will have the correct shape and fit beams into squares if all the triangles of the pattern to make an isosceles triangle.
Finally, another interesting frieze happens if the two original chains to locate close to the vertices of the triangles are not docked, and formed between the other two: pattern embossed zigzag run through the snake.
Transformation of the triangles.
The options of patterns of triangles with deepening in the centre becoming g the truth countless, if one two or all three sides of the triangle to give a curved shape. Fancy sockets And colors of ornaments and stars — a variety of shapes can be obtained FROM such elements; first make an incision internal lines, and then the outer side of each triangle. The pictures show the figures and sockets are made in this technique with the help of joints and chisels.
THE PALETTE THREAD
In addition to the above, have other kinds of thread, which can find wide application in the transaction of the house.
Contour thread is. The workpiece is transferred the outlines of the figure, and these lines a joint or a corner chisel perform is not deep, 1-1. 5 mm, thread in the form of triangular grooves.
Fig. 14. Carved cornices
The relief carving is the same as the contour, only the depth of the groove is from 2 to 2.5 mm.
In-depth carving is characterized by deeper cutting of the background. The technique of thread remains unchanged. Contouring is necessary.
The relief carving is that wood billet convex cut human figures, masks, birds, animals, fish. They vozvishaetsa above the background.
Cut figures are also very common. They can be freestanding, such as cock on the ridge of the roof, or patch on the walls, doors, gates, fences.
WELT AND SLIP THREAD
These threads are widely used in the decoration of houses:
on the architraves, cornices and fences.
Welt — with a fully drawn background, as if lace. Often called her delicate. It is used where x-rayed the underlying background — for example, wooden trim go the painted surface.
Invoice thread is a ornament made by cutting and pasted or nailed on the finished background. So adorn the trim boards around the window opening, shutters, gates, wickets.
Details for frames can be of different shapes and sizes of geometric, floral and other. Some are cutters, others are cut with a saw, rarely trimmed by the cutters.
Fig. 15. Frames with geometric ornaments.
To get the piece, such as triangular bars, it is recommended ostrogat Board thickness desired, mark the edges of the triangles, hold risks for the plates, cut and ostrogat the sawn side. When required, a five sided sticks, it is best to prepare square or rectangular and fill them triangular. When vystragivanie flutes-grooves apply planes-of the throat.
They are not cut from a solid piece, but made of individual parts (plane, cut, drill).
Prepared from details collected conceived pattern, bonding of the workpiece with nails. If the form of rosettes of elliptical, you first need to draw an ellipse, divide it into sections (8, 10, 16, 20) thereof and to arrange the individual elements.
Fig. 16. The decoration of fences:
As for gazebos, porches, terraces. B — for estate.
For decoration can be used different ornaments. The figures show the most affordable options composed solely of geometric ornament. The shape and size of the individual elements can vary depending on the size of the window opening and the General solution of home decoration.
For the design houses are widely used all sorts of cornices, simple and complex shapes. They can consist of geometric, plant and combined ornament. Often they are made of fishnet and perform drilling, sawing, gouging, and cutting.
They are different around porch, gazebo, terraces and shared — around the estate. The height of the fence of the first type to 1 m, the second from one meter and above. Often there is a fence, sticks, planks (solid is more material on sparse — less). Decorative elements on them easier than on the house, but overall the fence perfectly complements the overall outfit of the home.
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