That move through the water can be sitting for the PA log, and water starting from the first available under the hand with a stick, has been known for many thousands of years. For such a considerable historical period inventive humanity thought of a hollow log in the recess and that the horses of the stick to shape in the form of a paddle. In our time as a technique and the means of rowing remain approximately the same as in the days of the pharaohs.
What is this mysterious process, difficult evolution, and what are the basic principles of the interaction of engine and propeller — a man and a paddle?
Archimedes lever — that is, in fact, the paddle. The lever, to one end of which (Valya) rower puts their not so great effort. The other end of the paddle (the blade) thus moves in the water, and it appears the so-called “stress”, through which the ship moves.
While rowing in the work actively involves the muscles of arms, back and shoulder muscles. Since the greatest effort can develop muscles, the person is forced to sit in the boat with his back to the direction of movement. This position is not only inconvenient but also dangerous for the rower.
These deficiencies have prompted many inventors to search for new design solutions that would more fully use the power of man, he would have created the best conditions for paddling and control.
With all the variety of patented designs and the majority of them has a treadle. Here instead of hands and involved in a much more strong and hardy legs, a fit paddler can be guaranteed a good review.
Treadle, wheel, pedals — these attributes are so familiar to us as a Bicycle, obviously, and given the name ships with an engine of one man’s power — “water bike” or “aquapad”.
Aquapad bring together a large group of water transport means, which are sometimes РОДНИ1 only treadle. In all other respects the idea of the inventors is in various directions.
In the simplest case, without further ADO, attached to the axles of the bike at the terminals of the floats, and the rear wheel set of the propeller blades. The design of a similar bike, designed in 1934, And L. Popov, shown in figure 1. The device floats on the bike Popova is very peculiar. They have a triangular cross-section and soft lining that allows you to fold them into an accordion when traveling by land. When folded, they take up minimal space and only slightly increase the dimensions of the bike. Transformation equiped floats down, the springs are released and spread their floats, giving them the necessary form.
Bike Popova is simple in design, lightweight and easy to land. However, these positive qualities have a positive impact on the land. In the water a narrow “gauge” floats in combination with a high centre of gravity reduces stability equiped to the same wedge-shaped floats have considerable resistance to motion.
If equiped Popov was designed based on its predominant movement on the land, pedal boats, designed in 1939, L. And Ovchinnikov (Fig. 2) designed primarily for transportation on water Here to increase stability and reduce resistance to movement are used widely spaced long floats of streamlined shape. A large elongation of the floats, their cylindrical form, having a minimum surface for a given volume — this enables us to develop on the water more speed than the bike Popov. This contributes to a better propeller — thruster, kinematically connected with a rear wheel friction roller.
Similar in design equiped patented in the United States. He moved across the water on two floats, mounted on the Bicycle frame (Fig. 3). His mover is the same as the bike Popov. It should be noted that equiped to be on the water rather high speed due to a poorly chosen propeller, and the journey by land in such a bike is unlikely to give pleasure because of the bulky floats.
Second, the most interesting and largest group of equipado — a variety of “muscularity” with a treadle. They are distinguished by the lower landing of aquamedica. which in turn lowers the centre of gravity and therefore increases stability. They also have greater speed and improved seakeeping compared to amphibians, which made them more popular than the combined water-land bikes.
When meeting with such aquabeam affects a variety of designs of hulls, propellers, drive units. Consider just a few projects.
Figure 4 — simplest design of hybrid rowing boats and equiped. The crankshaft is made of steel rod, mounted in two bearings on the sides of the boat, on its ends mounted multiple blades (you can use the cropped blades of the oars). On the transom of the boat is the wheel of the associated flexible or rigid rods with the steering device. To convert any rowing boat underneath the pedal drive is easy. In England, for example, commercially available set of parts for transforming popular boats “Sportyak” aquapet.
But still the most widely multicase muscularity. This is explained by the greater stability and speed. This combination of qualities is due to the large width of aquiped with a relatively long and narrow buildings.
Many probably have met on the beaches with foot catamaran (it is depicted on the third page of the cover, figure 3). This is two points in front of the cylindrical float, combined into a catamaran with two seats, located near. Drive paddle wheels is carried out using a crankshaft and two pairs of pedals. Management of a kind — each paddle wheel is connected only with its pair of pedals, and a change of course is achieved due to the difference of the rotational speeds of the paddle wheels. On stability and speed the catamaran is superior to a rowing boat.
Somewhat different double casing water cycle, developed in the United States (Fig. 5). Its monolithic body of thermoplastic or fiberglass consists of floats, decks and casing for propulsion. Mover — endless ribbon with the propeller blades, moving two pedals of Bicycle type. Managed equiped conventional transom wheel.
This design makes the boat very comfortable for fishing and walking on water. The casing protects riders from splashes, while the wide deck allows comfortable placement of things and property during the campaign. The filling floats of the expandable material (foam) makes water bike unsinkable. Finally, the adopted design of the case is very technologically advanced that allows industry to organize large-scale production. Such aquapad available in Canada (Fig. 4 in.).
All considered structures are driven like a Bicycle. However, he is characterized by a major drawback: a large part of the forces of aquamedica is spent unproductively — on the compression and tension rods that does not add speed. Replace the rotational motion of the pedals progressive (or close to translational) allows better use of the spent energy. An alternative to the ILN connecting rod of the crank drive is lycantrophy drive (see “M-K” No. 7 of 1976), which was used in the “overland” bikes. Not passed is the innovation and pedalos.
In 1929, our compatriots Meerhoven A. I. and K. S. Lopatin received a patent on double-hulled paddleboat with rods of steel wire rope (Fig. 6).
In a lot of interesting design solutions. Pedal, located on the long arm (rods) connected by flexible steel cables, with propeller shaft. Due to the length of the pedal levers moving in an arc of large radius, and the leg strength is applied almost at a tangent to this arc, so energy loss is minimal. The pedals operate independently of each other, and footwork can be alternately or simultaneously.
The cables are connected with the propeller shaft through the reels with ratchet mechanism. When you press the pedal the cable begins to rotate the drum, which, in turn, transmits torque through the ratchet mechanism on the propeller shaft. At the same time the rope pulls the return spring. It returns the pedal to its original position as soon as it is removed with effort. As a mover used the propeller and for control — located in the front wheel.
In France built and trehkostochny aquapad (Fig. 2 and 5 in region), consisting of three floats and the frame mounted with its drive, propulsion and steering device.
The engine of her sleek, trimaran hull equiped first was propeller driven in rotation of the connecting rod is driven through the reducer. The second floor was used by paddle wheels.
Different and ways to manage both aquabeam: in one case, the wheel served as front float, the second normal rudder hung aft.
Even a modest review shows the variety of designs. The particular choice will depend on the purpose of the bike, from the available materials, area of navigation.
For motorists and anglers good equiped shown in figure 5. It is compact, easy to transport on car roof, unpretentious to storage conditions. This bike can also be used as a pleasure vessel.
For water tourism it is recommended aquapel-a catamaran built from two canoes (Fig. 1 in the region). It meets the basic requirements of a tourist ship: transportable, lightweight, simple in design and sufficiently high seaworthiness and stability.
Tourist equiped consists of two conventional collapsible kayaks, two paddle wheels, the crank and the steering gear. All the basic elements are mounted on the frame, connecting the body between a, which is attached to the beams of the kayaks. This solution eliminates the need for rework cases.
To reduce the number of additional parts (in the campaign and the needle pulls!) the most used nodes kayaks and their items of equipment: for example, the staff rudders, kayak to control, the blades of canoe paddles to paddle wheels…
Rowing may be one or more people. In the latter case, it is advisable to use a separate drive for the paddle wheels each side — this will ensure acabado better maneuverability.
The engine can serve as a thruster, but for the tourist option, it’s better to use paddle wheels — they don’t need gear, they are s afraid of aquatic vegetation and improve maneuverability.
The frame is assembled from wooden slats, aluminum profiles and pipes bolt-lambs. Disassembled it does not occupy much space and can be quickly assembled.
The capacity of such hybrid depending on the type of kayak can be 4-6 people, and up to 200 kg of load that can be placed in the buildings and on the bridge.
Of course, the layout of the water bike may be different — it depends on the designer.
If you want to spend your free time on the water, then do not buy a motor boat and not build the boat — the noise you have in the city. Better roll up your sleeves and make aquapet. A few hours ia the water — and your weak from the city life, the muscles will again become elastic, heart starts working as a motor, and a healthy romines on the cheeks will cause the envy of others.
V. SOROKIN, engineer