ICE BIRD“Ice bird” called athletes Buer-“vosjmimetrovaya” for his high speed and the ease with which it allows you to make turns and maneuver. Especially for “sense the wind”: the throttle response, as told to motorists. Finally, the ability to immediately respond to any request of the steering: “good message” — would have celebrated horsemen. This is true, because his “power to weight ratio” — the ratio of the area of the sail to the total weight of the glider is higher than other types. But still Berestov attracts you to a free class: if the rest are monotypes, and must exactly match your standard, there are great opportunities for creativity, experiment.

Almost every tie is building a Buer itself: armed with a theory, he defines and lays the optimal, in his opinion, parameters, dimensions, puts the centers of application of the forces and moments. This applies both to the body of the glider, and to the sail.
Our readers are already aware of some design iceboat created specifically for training children’s sports groups, for training novice sailors the art of managing sails in the winter (see “snowflake”, “Blue bird” in the No. 1 and 11 in 1979). Today, the magazine introduces the more serious development of sports Buer of our national class “8-meter” band the free design — that’s the official name. It was built by Paul K. Levin, one of our most experienced experts Berestov who participated in the race in the late 30-ies.
During the siege of Leningrad, he often went out on snowmobiles across the ice Ilmen-lake in the rear of the enemy, landed troops, led the exploration. In the postwar years P. K. Levine became a master buernomu sport. And to this day he parted with the land yachting: developed “vosjmimetrovaya” — a valuable combination of theory and experience.
When more than 100 years ago Buer first appeared in Russia, it was heavy, clumsy structure, like a sledge, with a thick low mast rough wooden skates and wide sails. Now sports yachts narrow streamlined body, high-snow-white sails, sparkling skates stainless steel — beautiful design rapid. This applies particularly to the “vosjmimetrovaya”. The ability to change many things in them allows you to make in the design of new promising solutions and finds — of course, within certain limits, the requirements of the rules for classification and construction, but they allowed a large range of options of the hull, mast, transverse beams, sails, skates, etc. So, the length and width of the Buer can be any, which will choose their Builder, but not more than 5.6 and 3.7 m, respectively, weight — not less than 80 IG. Limited the width of the mast up to 180 mm, the distance between measurement marks on it — up to 6.4 m, the number of lat — 5, etc. of Course, limited to a maximum sail area: it’s a limit of 8 m2.
Fig. 1. Buer-
Fig. 1. Buer-
Fig. 1. Buer-“vosjmimetrovaya”:
1 — mark the top of the mast, 2 mast, 3 — Lata in laderman, 4 — sail 5 — Salikhova weight, 6 — forestay, 7 — likes, 8 — vanta, 9 — lower grade, 10 boat the tack angle, 11 — moustache geek, 12 — boom-sheet, 13 — block mainsheet, 14 — boom 15 — Marc the geek 16 boat Shkotovo angle, 17 — grommet angle. 18 — spurs mast, 19 — ball pin, 20 — Stasova box, 21 — steering the skate, 22 — bolt-axle of the skate, the 23 — plug 24 — spring Stock, 25 — designated place, 26 — housing 27 — weight, 28 — lanyard designated place, 29 — waterbuster, 30 — rudder, 31 — lateral ridge, a 32 — coupling ridge, the 33 — transom, 34 — cockpit, 35 — frame, 36 — side Board, a 37 — podmazova support, 38 — stringer, 39 — baller skate, 40 — plate clutch.

Fig. 2. Stasova box
Fig. 2. Stasova box:
1 — strip, 2—ball, 3—slide, 4 — locking screw.

There are, however, some empirical relationships, which in the initial calculation has traditionally been the designers. The main of them: a·R=25·N·S, where a is the distance between the lateral ridges, H — height of the center of the sail, P is the weight of Buer, S is the sail area, 25 — the coefficient of stability, or, for example, the ratio is 0.125·a, where b — width of cross bar. The steering ridge — front or back — the rules are not set, although the difference is fundamental: ensuring stability occurs in both cases in different ways.
Briefly about the design of “vosjmimetrovaya”. Most importantly, of course, the case on which are placed and attached all other parts and yachts. The basis of it is the power set of frames and stringers. Frames — 12 — plywood, laminated of multiple layers of pine or fir floors, beams, Pillersee. They are more or less uniformly throughout the length of the body. Stringers 5: Central (20Х40Х Х3750 mm) passes through the top of the set, two deck (15Х20Х3750 mm) and two side (20Х40Х2700 mm) along the bottom. Podmazova is placed under the center support is a powerful beam made of oak or ash size 20X40X1650 mm. For side stringers are connected to the toe boards (used pine — 15X287X5705 mm) and a plywood bottom. Tangier. the deck is made of sheets of plywood with thickness 2 or 3 mm. At the center of the bottom run between the 4th and 10th frames of the so-called calsonic — timber (20X40X1977 mm) of solid wood to strengthen recruitment in Podmoklovo area.
In the housing are front and rear lugs, as well as ear-brastagi. Stern made entirely of wood, and glued the nose of the 15 layers: 12 layers of 10-mm pine boards, 2, 7, 11-th layers of 10 mm plywood. The nose of the glider should be particularly “strong,” as here, except heliport attached yet and the forestay of the mast (cable, Ø5 mm). So from the bottom it is further supported by the oak “cushion” (25X114X250 mm). In place of setting a cross bar set reinforced on each side of the body from the inside support “pillows” (15X100X400 mm), and under the bottom stops (40Х100Х555 mm). All of them is desirably made of oak or ash.
In the aft compartment behind the cockpit, there is only one stringer is on the top deck and a couple of frames # 11 and # 12, the first of which is both the seat steering.
Cross bar glider is its spring. He takes all the loads attributable to the hull and mast, and must therefore have high strength and at the same time rigidity. “Vosjmimetrovaya”, like most modern ice boats, the timber is laminated, and hollow — with a wooden lining on the Windows. This allows him to be lighter, more elastic. It is also important that he had died — the middle part of it a few bends up. First, that extra cushioning, and second, when snow or the hard way just requires that the case did not touch a crust of ice hummocks. Attached to the beam and a streamlined shape that reduces drag.
Fig. 3. The body of the glider and frames
Fig. 3. The body of the glider and webs:
1—aft lug, 2 — aft stringer, 3— the steering column. 4 — deck stringer, 5 — steering drum, 6 — frame, 7 — podmazova support, 8 — the Central stringer 9 — bow-boss, 10 — nasal pillow, 11 bottom plate, 12 — calsonic, 13 — side stringer, 14 — emphasis cross bar, 15 —support pillow, 16—seat 17 — eptember, 18 — slot of the stock.

Fig. 4. Transom
Fig. 4. Transom
Fig. 5. The clutch side of the ridge.
Fig. 5. The clutch side of the ridge.
Material for its manufacture is grained spruce, pine, cedar. He glued two boards in the thickness of 30 and a width of 200 mm, between them is the strip with the selected Windows: its thickness, is equal in the middle part of 15 mm, to the ends gradually comes to naught. Max killed 90 mm. When setting beams on the body it is inserted between the stops under the bottom and secured on the sides of the hard plates and bolts. In addition, the position of his fixed ropes (Ø 3 mm) waterbuster on the lanyards — ties.
The mast and boom are laminated from the same wood as the beams. They hollow almost the entire length, have the same likes. And boom the same diameter round mast has a teardrop streamlined shape and somewhat tapered towards the top and spur. With a height of almost 6 meters, it escalivada the forestay and the guys that are at the top attached to Salimova the fittings on the earrings. The fittings are made of plates of stainless steel, of a width of 20 mm and a thickness of not less than 3, as well as earrings. Connecting and mounting bolts it is necessary to take with thread M8 and M10, respectively, of the same steel.
At the bottom of the forestay is bolted to the forward end, and guys in the same way to taranum bar cross bar.
In the spurs of the mast with screws inserted metal glass heel. It when lifting and placement on the body is put on the ball stud stepsaway box. The fact that the mast can be moved (though a short distance) along the DP. This should be done during configuration or glider depending on conditions of upcoming races. Slide with welded ball finger moves in the grooves stepsaway box, mounted on a Central stringer six screws: it “carries” on a mast; a position it is fixed with the lock screw.
The Buer management is performed using the steering device. His column, fixed in the frame ring rests on the one hand has the helm, and with another drum on which is wound a few turns of a designated place (Ø 3 mm). Through the guide blocks designated place summed up along the bottom of the steering sector of the ridge, and so that upon rotation of the wheel, say, to the right, there is unfolded the Buer. The tight ropes a couple of lanyards.
The wheel is made from plywood 10 mm thick glued together in three layers. On the metal flange it is planted on the column. The last compound is made from two pipes and the rod — the length delimiter, which is inserted inside them and thus connects the two parts together. Drum if necessary, you can move the Rev limiter through the through groove.
Sailing arms “vosjmimetrovaya” — the Bermuda cat is now considered optimal for “ice yacht”. The main feature of the sail is flat “belly” — 7-8%. Armor to it on the go is not increased through-put. Rules have a constraint: they can only be five, and the width of each should not exceed 60 mm. Max “hammer”, equal to 240 mm, located at a distance of 2060 mm rear straight luff from the top of the head points of the angle.
For yachts, it is desirable to have several sets of skates: for hard and soft ice, on snow-covered hummocks. This applies to steering and lateral skates; only in each set tie, usually a third shorter. They can be fully metal — stainless steel or wooden pads. First we have a continuous blade, and at the top of the side pads with the pads. The second is the entire “body” of the tree, just low pads and Bonk-gon steel, snake — bronze; all these parts are fastened together by five studs passing through “the body.” Bonk is soldered to the snake; but it has threaded holes in them and are rolled studs.
Fig. 6. Skates ice boats
Fig. 6. Skates ice boats:
1 — the bolt hole-axis. 2 — plate, 3 — stud, 4 — stud М6Х160 mm, 5 — block, 6 — toed horse, 7 — stud nut, 8 — washer, 9 — hole stud, Ø 6.6 mm, 10 — shelf slides, 11 slides 12 — Bonk, the 13 the heel of the skate, the 14 — side pad, 15 — blade to 16 — blade, t;
As — skate Shoe, B — shield “hleborez”, — “T-shaped”, Mr. steering.

Fig. 7. Steering gear
Fig. 7. Steering gear:
1 — rudder, 2 — rivet (PT. Ø 3X35 mm). 3 — coarse wheel, Ø 22 mm, 4 — stop, Ø 18 mm. 5 — steering column, Ø 22 mm, 6 — stops ring, 7 — drum, 8 — guide block 9 — lanyards, 10 — shaft, 11 — a sector 12 — tie thing.

And the toe and heel of the skate is rounded. Front radius, back — less. The explanation to this is the need to smoothly overcome obstacles on the road. Even the middle part of the blade or runner is curved in an arc of large radius is formed by the so-called dead. It facilitates the reversal of the Buer.
On the Buer side skates are mounted on the transverse bar with the couplings. Mounted on bolt axles, they should be free to rotate around them. Couplers usually welded: with cheeks welded to the shelves along the entire length (can be cast).
I would also like to warn potential builders that the high speeds of these ice boats (often under 90-110 km/h) require observance of the manufacturing technology without exception, all the knots.
Stay on the main points of the building. All work must be carried out on a prepared slipway with precisely defined lines of DP — diametrical plane and the vertical axis, marked by a tightly stretched string.
The first thing on the stock mark the main points and dimensions, the location of the lugs, frames and respectively denote them. Final finishing to do better, “paired”, cementing clamps in the middle and at the ends, and then lay flat so that the ends of the boards around the frame № 10 slack: this will facilitate the subsequent Assembly, since the body here is bent.
Boss play the role of power elements. Therefore, choose the material better gluing guide with very high quality moulding and dry according to the technology of the glue used. Holes drilled heliport in the final processing, and preferably on the machine to prevent deviations from the vertical. Then three programsuite boss hot natural linseed oil.
The sequence of manufacturing of the frames is as follows. On a sheet of plywood is applied to the circuit. After sawing is performed a gluing of a set with fixing nails at 70-80 mm, crimping and exposure to dry, held final processing. Ready-made frames are primed with hot linseed oil and transfer it to a slipway (see box).
The stringers put so: at first, stern and side on the glue with a crimping screws, and then after adjustment, the side boards rest. When installing a toe Board rigidly and permanently connect all the frames, so the fit store in their lateral grooves, starting with No. 10, and slightly “senegalia” in bosses. Putting on glue boards on each frame, screw them into the screws, at least two on each side, pre-drilled hole of Ø 4 mm. For the boss put in the eight screws Ø5X55 mm with countersunk head, also first drilled hole Ø 4.5 mm. And feed brestka before it is inserted in place of the wedges placeholder length 100 mm. Then “stack” the rest of the stringers and podmazova support and conduct malkivka using direct beams of triangular cross-section with dimensions 20X100X2200 mm. It is applied in a sharp line on several frames and removed the edge of the middle of them across the surface with a chisel, a plane, malkivka-stroikom until it is tight beam. Depends on whether the deck is smooth, without bumps. For the manufacture of deck flooring is convenient to use patterns from construction paper or cardboard. They must have allowance: 45 to 50 mm to block the side Board. Please note that the grain direction of the plywood must match the DP. It is better to start with the stern, carefully prescovia side edges, and especially the allowance for toe boards. In these places you can take the help of laths-overlays (25X40X1500 mm) screws 4×40 mm, which are placed in increments of 70-90 mm.
The bottom of the cockpit cut out from plywood with the thickness of 6-8 mm, then the stern and the nose is a sheet of 3 mm. Between frames No. 8 and No. 9 plywood glued and put in screws 2,5 X 30 mm this window to operate the steering device. In other places upholstered galvanized nails with a pitch of 40-60 mm. make sure you cover all the leaves with varnish. The finished hull is painted in any color with waterproof paint.
Mast wikiepedia of two halves, each of which, in turn, consists of separate plates-layers. It is better first to connect them in pairs and then these pairs to produce half. Clamp during drying it is necessary to put every 150— 200 mm In both parts of the mast along the entire length is chosen likes and pockets-obligately. During Assembly it is useful to put in the “body” 6-8 studs-stops. Gik are made the same.
Blank for a cross bar it is advisable to choose solid.
The first Assembly operation of the entire Buer: installing cross beams, the so-called “breakdown”. By this time, the lumber should be delivered the clutch skates, Venturini, the lines DP and the axle side of the skates. From the center of the steering sector on the bottom is delayed for DP size 4365 mm — this point should be the same as “cross.” Stepping back from it to the nose 100 mm, having a perpendicular — this is where the front edge of the rail. Achieving precision installation, fix on the bottom stops and repeat the test.
Also perform an initial adjustment of the mast. Determine its inclination. Putting the mast on the halyard to raise a small weight and by adjusting the forestay and the guys (cable Ø 5 mm) position of top, make a plumb line was in the 350-360 mm front axle lateral skates and accurately in the DP.
The mandatory and checking parallelism of the side of the skates, and it should be carried out before each exit on the ice.

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