IN FLIGHT IN THE GYROPLANE

IN FLIGHT IN THE GYROPLANE

Who as a child dreamed of becoming a pilot, the conqueror of the fifth — the ocean air! A romantic nature will not abandon his dreams and in adulthood. And they can implement it: currently there is a wide variety of aircraft, which can fly even Amateur pilots. But, unfortunately, if these devices are prefabricated and offered for sale, the cost of them so high that most of them are practically inaccessible.

However, there is another way — independent production of reliable and relatively simple aircraft. For example, the gyro. In this article the description of just such a design that almost anyone involved in technical work. To build a gyroplane does not require expensive materials and special conditions —enough space in the apartment, just family members and neighbors did not object. And only a limited number of design details need turning.
 
Enthusiast who decided to make the proposed aircraft, I would recommend at first to collect the gyro-glider. He rises into the air by a tow rope attached behind a moving vehicle. Height of flight depends on the length of the cable and may exceed 50 meters. After climbing to such a height, and reset the cable pilot gyroplane is able to continue the flight, gradually decreasing at an angle of about 15 degrees to the horizon. Such planning will allow the pilot to develop the management skills required in free flight. And to them he will be able to start if installed on the gyro-glider engine with a pusher propeller. However, no changes in the design of the aircraft is not required. With an engine the gyro will be able to reach the speed of 150 km/h and climb to a height of several thousand meters. But about the power plant and its placement on the aircraft later in a separate publication.
So, the gyro-glider. The basis of his three dural bearing component: keel and axial beams and mast. On the front of the keel beam is steerable nose wheel (from the little micro-car sports-card) are equipped with braking device and the axial ends of the beam — side of the wheel (of the scooter). By the way, instead of wheels you can install two float if there are flights on tow behind a boat.
 
General view of the gyroplane
General view of the autogyro
 
The layout of the gyroplane
The layout of the autogyro:
 
1 — farm; 2 — tow hook; 3 — yoke mounting the towbar (D16T); 4 — airspeed indicator; 5 — the indicator side of the demolition; 6 — stretching (steel wire rope d2); 7 — handle; 8 — blade rotor; 9 — rotor head rotor; 10 — bracket rotor head (D16T, the sheet s4, 2); 11 — mast (D16T, pipe 50x50x3); 12 — mounting bracket of the seat back (aluminium, sheet z, 2); 13 — seat; 14 — “airplane” version of the control knobs; 15 — seat frame; 16 — bracket “airplane” control knobs; 17 — bracket for seat mounting; 18,25 clips cable control wiring (4 PCs); 19 — brace (D16T, area 30×30, 2 PCs.); 20 — an arm of fastening of a mast (D16T, the sheet s4,2); 21 — upper brace (steel, area 30×30, 2 PCs.); 22 — horizontal tail; 23 — vertical tail; 24 — the tail wheel; 26 — the left branch of the control wiring (cable d2); 27 — axial beam (D16T, pipe 50x50x3); 28 — fixing unit axis side of the wheel; 29 — lower brace (steel, area 30×30, 2 PCs.); a 30 — seat prop (D16T, area 25×25, 2); 31 —brake device; a 32 — foot unit; 33 — keel beam (D16T, pipe 50x50x3)

 
There, on the front end of the keel beam, installed farm — riveted corners of duralumin and reinforced rectangular sheet pads triangular design. It is intended for fastening of the towing hook which is designed so that the pilot, pulling the cord may at any time be disengaged from the towline. The farm also augmented navigation devices — simple homemade indicators air speed and side drift, and under the farm — pedal Assembly with cable runs to the wheel direction. On the opposite end of this beam is installed empennage: horizontal (stabilizer) and vertical (keel and rudder), as well as safety tail wheel.
 
In the middle of the keel beam located mast and workplace pilot — seat with the car pristinely straps. The mast is attached to beam two duralumin plate brackets at a slight angle to the vertical back and serves as a basis for rotor two-blade rotor propeller. The mechanism of the rotor mast is also connected by a similar plate brackets. The screw rotates freely and spins up due to the incoming airflow. The rotor axis may be tilted in any direction using the handle, conventionally called “deltalina”, which the pilot adjusts the position of the gyro in space. This control system is the most simple, but differs from the standard used on the vast majority of aircraft that when moving the handle from the autogyro itself is not reduced, but rather gaining height. If desired, you can install and “airplane” control knobs (in the picture it shows the bar-point-shooting). Design naturally becomes more complicated. However, to choose the type of management is necessary even before the construction of the gyroplane. The alteration is inadmissible, as the skills acquired with “deltalina” handle, when switching to “airplane” can give an unwanted result.
In addition, when driving on eamle pilot foot controls nose wheel, and after takeoff, when the growth rate becomes effective tail — also feet and rudder. In the first case, he steers, alternately pressing the right or left foot on the corresponding shoulder of the cross member of the brake device on the wheel; the second on a particular pedal connected cable runs with driving directions.
 
The braking device is applied during the landing on runway. It is also not very complex. Pilot heels presses the clutch (or, simply a wooden Board) to the bus wheels, causing them to RUB against each other and thereby dampens the speed of the aircraft. The most simple and cheap!
 
Small weight and dimensions allow gyroplane to carry it even on the roof of the car. The blades are thus disconnected. They are installed on their workplace just before the flight.
 
THE MANUFACTURE OF THE FRAME
 
As already mentioned, the base of the frame of the autogyro are keel and axial beams, mast. They are made of duralumin tubes of square section 50×50 mm with a wall thickness of 3 mm. these profiles are used in the construction of Windows, doors, shop fronts and other elements of buildings. The variant of using box girders of duralumin angles connected by argon-arc welding. The best option material — D16T.
 
All the holes in the joists, mark so that the drill just touched the inner walls without damaging them. The drill diameter was chosen so that the bolts MB was a hole as close as possible. The work was carried out solely by the electric drill — use manual for these purposes is undesirable.
 
In the drawings coordinated most of the holes in the parts of the frame. However, many of them swirlies in place, such as plate brackets, I-beam connecting the keel with the mast. First, right bracket, bolted to the keel beam was drilled through holes in the base pressed to his mast, then screwed the left bracket and also drilled, but after a prepared hole of the right bracket and the mast.
 
Blade rotor
The blade rotor is:
 
1 — plate (steel, sheet B2, 2); 2 — rivet d4 (9 pieces); 3 — longeron (Delta-wood); 4 — filler (foam PS-1); 5 — sheathing (plywood s1); 6 — ending (pine); 7 — athinai trimmer (aluminium, sheet s2); 8 — trailing edge (pine, rail 17×5); 9 — fairing (steel, sheet s1); 10 — load (lead, 100 g); 11—rivet d5, 4 PCs.)

 
Pattern of the sock of the blade
Pattern the toe of the blade profile
 

Pattern the top of the profile of the blade
Template the top of the blade profile
 
Gluing sheets of plywood on a mustache
Gluing sheets of plywood on a mustache
 
Rotor bearing vish
Rotor bearing vish (to the left of the axis of the rotor — section across the blade, right along the blade):
 
1 — the rotor axis (SOHGS); 2 — axle (SOHGS); 3 — M8 bolt; 4 — the terminator (D16T); 5 — lining (D16T); 6 — blade rotor (2pcs); 7 — rotor head (D16T); 8 — bearing 204; 9 — bearing 36204; 10 — clip (D16T); 11 —bolt M12 rotor; 12 — washer (2 PCs); 13 — cotter pin 4×25-001; 14 — sliding nut M20x1,5; 15 — cover (D16T); 16 — a bolt Ml2 (4 PCs); 17 — Welt nut M12 (4pcs); 18 insert (bronze, 2 pieces); 19 — Welt nut M20x1,5; 20 — the body of the axle (D16T); 21 — bolts M6

 
The attachment side wheel
The attachment side wheel:
 
1 — axial beam; 2 — bolt M6 (4 PCs); 3 — the upper clip (D16T, 2 pieces); 4 — wheel axle (wheel sizes); 5 — lower yoke (D16T, 2 PCs.)

 
The airspeed indicator
The airspeed indicator:
 
1 — mounting bracket to the farm (aluminum, sheet s2); 2 — charge (D16T, sheet s2); 3 — signal housing (glass tube); 4.7 — clamps (in aluminium, sheet s2); 5 — scale; 6 — speed indicator (plastic ball)

 
Horizontal tail
Horizontal tail:
 
1 — stabilizer (D16T sheet Jaz); 2 — reinforcing pad (D16T sheet s, 2); 3 — rivet d5 (aluminum, 4 pieces)
 
Vertical tail
Vertical tail:
 
1,6,12 — nosing (steel, strip 30×0,5, 6). 2— the keel (plywood s10); 3 — bracket (D16T, area 20×20,2); 4,9 — counterweights (steel, lead, mass 2×350 g); 5 — rudder (plywood s6); 7,11 —hog steering (steel, sheet s2); 8 — athinai trimmer (aluminium, sheet s2); 10 — card loop (3 pieces); 13 — screws 3×10; 14 — 3×5 screws
 
Front chassis
The front landing gear:
 
1 — farm elements; 2 — the left pedal; 3 — bracket of the pedal (D16T, area 25×25); 4 — keel beam; 5 — rotation axis-front (M12); 6 — spring of the left pedal; 7,14 — M6 bolts of fastening of a sole (4 pieces); 8 — mounting bracket springs pedals (D16T, strip 30×4, L100); 9 — sole (steel plate 210x50x3); 10 — brake device; 11 —wheel, 12 — fork (steel, sheet s3); 13 — Welt Ml2 nut; 15 — the left string of the braking device (rope d2); 16 — left spring brake device; 17 — bracket left spring

 
Pedals
Pedals:

 

 

1 — pad (D16T, area 25×25); 2 — pedal (D16T sheet s); 3,6 — brackets pedals (D16T, area 25×25); 4 — beam (D16T, pipe 30×1,5); 5 — hinge bolt M6 (2 piece); 7 — erugina tension of steering cable (on the right side not shown); 8 — axis hinge of the pedal (bolt M6 2); 9 — steering cable d2; 10 — bolt M6 mounting seal, steering cable.
 
Shows the left pedal. Right mirror
 
The main parameters of the glider
 
By the way, the picture layout is noticeable that the mast is slightly reclined (before you install it beveled base). Made so that the rotor blades were on the ground the initial angle of attack of 9°. Then even at a relatively low speed towing they get the lifting force, the screw begins to rotate, lifting the autogyro in the air.
 
The axial beam is positioned across the keel and attached to it with four bolts M6 zakonchennyi split nuts. In addition, beams for greater rigidity are connected by four struts of a steel angle. To the ends of the axial beam, a pair of clips attached to the wheel axis (scooter or motorcycle). Wheels, as already mentioned, motorolleri, with ball bearings, sealed to prevent the ingress of dust and dirt caps from aerosol cans.
 
Frame and backrest made of duralumin pipes (very good for this approach items from the children’s cots or strollers). The front frame is attached to the keel beam two duralumin corners 25×25 mm, and back to the mast bracket from steel angle-‘ ka 30×30 mm. Backrest, in turn, bolted to the seat frame and also to the mast.
 
On the seat frame wearing a ring cut from rubber camera wheels of the truck. On top of them and put ribbons tied durable fabric covered foam cushion. Stretched on the back cover of the same fabric.
 
The front landing gear is a fork of sheet steel with a wheel on the map, rotating around a vertical axis. Axis is short M12 bolt inserted into the hole of the sole (of the rectangle of sheet steel) which are attached to the keel beam from below with four M6 bolts. Under the head of the bolt is the axis of the keel beam cut an additional round hole.
 
From the sides to the pens of the fork of the front wheel is pivotally suspended braking device. It is assembled from tubular cross member, two angled stringers and wooden clutch. Recall that the protruding ends of the tie bar allow the pilot to turn the steering wheel with his feet.
 
In the initial position the device holds the two coil springs tension, geared for the brackets on the nose of the keel beam, and a cord, passed through holes in the Board-the clutch. The springs are adjusted so that in the absence of control actions of the pilot wheel lies in the plane of symmetry of the gyro.
 
Pedals to control the aerodynamic wheel in the air is also quite simple. Both pedals together with riveted thereto by hinge parts are connected by bolts to the tube that is screwed to the area on the keel beam. On top of the pedals attached to the segments of the cable leading to the control horns of the rudder on the fin. In the transaction management has four swivel castors, the design of which excludes the falling out of them ropes. Tension cables support the coil springs that is attached to the pedal plate and the bracket on the keel beam. The springs are adjusted so that the rudder is in the neutral position.
 
The design of the farm is described in detail above. Therefore, I focus on the fact that the farm is attached — on homemade air navigation devices, or rather, one of them — the airspeed indicator. It is an open top glass tube into which is placed a light plastic ball. At the bottom it has a calibrated orifice aimed in the direction of flight of the gyroplane. Incoming air flow causes the ball to rise in the tube, and its position determines airspeed. To calibrate the indicator can be, putting it in the window of a moving car. It is important to put the speed values in the range from 0 to 60 km/h, as these values are important during takeoff and landing.
 
Horizontal tail is made of sheet duralumin of a thickness of 3 mm. In tail, there are two slots under the dural angled struts support the mast. At the points of bolt tail with a keel beam riveted to the stabilizer pads to increase the rigidity of the connection.
 
The vertical tail is more difficult. It consists of a fin and rudder, cut from plywood of 10 mm, the second of 6 mm. Individual edges of these parts are edged with a thin steel tape. With each other, the keel and the rudder are connected by a hinged three card hinges (for left side).
 
Aerodynamic horn steering through bolt M6 attached two counterweight weight of 350 g each (they need to address the phenomenon of flutter).
The trimmer on the rear edge of the rudder is made of soft aluminum sheet. By bending this plate right or left, you can adjust the precision of the steering.
 
Both sides screwed the rudder control horns, curved sheet steel. To them are attached the ropes of control wiring course.
 
Rudders attached to the keel beam and the right for greater rigidity enhanced by two brackets of duralumin corner 25×25 mm.
 
At the end of the keel beam mounted tail wheel (on roller skates). It protects rudders from damage in case of accidental overturning of the gyroplane on the tail, as well as during takeoff or landing with too much nose up in the air.
 
RECOMMENDATION: pre-inspection of the gyroplane on the ground
 
You build a gyro-glider. Before proceeding to the construction of the rotor, check how to operate a ready-made mechanisms. Do it best in the area, from where there are flights of the gyroplane.
 
Sit on the seat and ensure that sit comfortably and get a foot pedal. If necessary, enclose under a back and an extra pillow. Jump on the seat — cushion should not prevent the touch of the frame body.
 
Decline feet the nose wheel and see how the springs return it to neutral position. Make sure that in this position the springs are not constricted, but not loose. At all junctions there should be no backlash.
 
Attach the gyro cable with a length of no more than ten meters to the car and perform taxiing at a speed not more 20 km/h to Warn the driver so that he suddenly braked sharply and did not reduce speed.
 
Remove the legs from the rungs of a braking device and see does it pass the gyroplane rectilinear direction. Otherwise adjust the tension of the springs. Learn how automatically to find the hand cord of the disclosure hook and reset the towline.
 
Rotor the rotor is placed on top of the mast, is the most complex node in the design of the gyroplane. The quality of the production, Assembly precision and the accuracy of its operation depends, without exaggeration, the life of the pilot. The main parts of this site — the D16T duralumin and steel SOHGS (all aluminum parts anodized, steel — kadmirovannyh).
 
The rotor housing is perhaps the most crucial detail, as in flight it in the ears of the housing hangs the whole structure of the gyroplane. In the housing are two bearing — radial and angular contact, abundantly lubricated with grease. Housing with bearings rotates on the axis of the rotor. On top of axis — spirtovanny Welt nut M20x1,5 (it should be noted that the simple nuts in the design of the gyroplane no: the most important of them splintery, the remaining self-locking). A blank cover hides the axle nut, protects the bearings from ingress of dust and moisture.
 
At the bottom of the rotor axis fixedly connected with the handle control of the gyroplane. Moving the handle, you can change the position of the rotor in space, since the swivel axis with the axle and the axle with its housing allows the axis deviation within the range dictated by the diameter of the hole of the limiter.
 
To the top of the mast the rotor is bolted by means of two plate brackets.
 
RECOMMENDATION: check the alignment of the gyro
 
When the rotor head is ready and installed on the gyroplane, you need to check the alignment of the gyro-glider. Insert the lugs of the rotor body, the bolt that attaches the rotor head with the blades of the rotor, and hang the gyro for this bolt, for example, on a sturdy tree branch.
 
Sit on seat and grasp the control knob. Keep it neutral. Let your assistant determine the position of the mast of a gyroplane. It should be tilted forward by the angle lies in the range of 2-6° (is — 4°). This test, usually called the weight balanced should be repeated every time you change the weight of the pilot or a gyroplane. In all cases, without such a check can not fly.
 
If the angle lies outside the allowed range, you should either move the pilot or add a little ballast in the tail. But if there has been a significant change in the mass of the pilot (it exceeded 100 kg) or on the autogyro has an engine, then you need to make a new thick plate brackets that hold the rotor on top of the mast.
 
The rotor blades are identical, so it suffices to describe the process of making only one of them.
 
Along the entire working length of the blade section its the same, no twist and change the geometry parameters are not provided. This greatly simplifies matters.
 
The best material for the frontal part of the blade — deletedrevision, used in aviation, marine. In its absence you can make yourself an analogue, glue epoxy thin sheets of plywood with strips of fiberglass. For such a suitable substitute aircraft plywood thickness of 1 mm. as sheets of plywood required for the manufacture of blades of length not be released, then you can glue on a mustache cut plywood strips. The joints in adjacent sheets should not be placed one above the other, they must be posted.
 
Better to glue on a flat surface, placing a polyethylene film to which an epoxy adhesive does not stick. Need to collect a total thickness of 20 mm. After applying the adhesive, the entire “pie” of the future blade tamped down any long and smooth object with a weight and leave to fully dry for a day. According to its mechanical properties of the resulting composition is no worse than present Delta-wood.
 
Given the profile front edge (sock) spar obtained using the template in the following way. Across the span of the spar in increments of 150-200 mm at the front edge grooved to fit the full pattern them to the spar. Wood between the grooves astrahana under the ruler.
 
In the rear edges of the longitudinal plane (cycles) selected “quarter” with a width of 10 and a depth of 1 mm under the plywood sheathing. Sheet lower cover (flush with spar) glued with epoxy resin, and to her and the spar — sheets of foam stamps PS-1, which are pre-planed to a height of 20 mm. Layer of foam strengthened with the necessary form template the top of the blade profile. As the rear edge of the used pine lath. Last glued the top valance: it was enough to hold her clamps to the “quarters” of the spar and the trailing edge and the sheet of plywood he took the desired shape (trailing edge of the blades should be slightly bent up, as shown in the figure).
 
Each blade has a weight of 100 g, mounted in a fairing on the front edge, and otryvnoi trimmer on the back. In the butt of the blade riveted steel plates, through which are drilled holes in the spar for mounting the blade to the rotor head.
 
RECOMMENDATION: balancing and setup of the blades
 
After manufacturing and painting the blades to adjust. Take this surgery very serious attention. Keep in mind that the cleaner and smoother the surface of the blades, the more lift they create, and the autogyro can fly at a lower speed.
 
Attach the blades to the rotor head and check the balancing. If a blade will be heavier and falls below, then drill out part of her cargo of lead, ensuring that the blades are equal. If this operation has no effect (delete not more than 50 g), then drill a few shallow holes in the thickest segment of the profile of the light blade and fill them with lead.
 
Since the blade tip during rotation have a circumferential velocity of about 500 km/h, then it is very important that they rotate in the same plane. Glue to the front edge at the end of the blades of the two colored plastic tape. On a windy day, choose a place where the wind blows constantly at a speed of about 20-30 km/h (check the airspeed indicator) and check the gyro against the wind. Strap him in a five-meter rope to the stump or firmly driven into the ground stake.
 
Sit on the seat, tie the straps yourself, and together with the gyro pipettes so that the rope taut. Holding the control stick with his left hand, put the rotor in a horizontal position, and the right spin of the blade as much as you can. Your assistant needs to observe the rotation of the rotor ends.
 
Gradually tilt the rotor back and let it spin in the wind to a higher speed. If multicolored stripes rotate in the same plane, the blades have the same pitch. If you feel the shaking of the airframe or the assistant will show that the blades do not rotate in one plane, then immediately unload the rotor by turning it in a horizontal position or even tilted forward. By bending the trim tabs at a slight angle up or down repeatedly until the correct rotation of the blades.
 
Increasing the rotor speed, the glider will swing, and the front wheel lifts. The rotor will be deflected back, which will lead to even Bo
more intensive unwinding. Put your feet on the ground and control the position of the gyro in space. If you feel that it takes off, then immediately unload the rotor by pulling the control knob. Practice so you will soon be ready for the first flight.
 
Farm
Farm:
 
1 — keel beam; 2,3 — M6 bolts securing the farm; 4 — middle stringer (D16T, angle 25x25x2,5, L576,2); 5 — wide pad (D16T, sheet s2, 2); 6 — narrow trim (D16T, sheet s2); 7 — short stringer (D16T, angle 25x25x2,5,1.265, 2); 8 — long stringer (D16T, angle 25x25x2,5, 1Л063, 2); 9— rivet d5 (aluminum)

 
Braking device
Braking device:
 
1 — bolt M5 (6 pieces); 2 — cross (D16T, pipe 12×2); 3 stringer (D16T, area, 15×15, 2); 4 — clutch

 
THE PRACTICE OF PILOTING
 
As in flight involves not only a pilot, but the driver of the car, then they must be full interoperability. Best of all, if the car, except the driver, will be another person who will be able to follow the flight and take all the signals of the pilot (reducing or increasing speed, etc.).
 
Before the flight, once again check the technical condition of the gyro-glider. At first use a relatively short towline length not exceeding 20 m. be Sure to warn the driver that should accelerate smoothly and in any case not to brake sharply.
 
Check the gyro against the wind. Spin the rotor with your right hand and wait until he starts to gain momentum at the expense of the air pressure. If the wind is weak, give the driver the command to move at a speed of 10-15 km/h on the airspeed indicator. Continue to help the rotor by hand until unable to do so.
 
As acceleration is acceptable with the rotor all the way back and give the driver the signal to increase the speed to 20-30 km/h. Controlling the nose wheel, move the car in a straight line. When the wheel comes off the ground, move your feet on the pedals. By manipulating the control stick, hold this position of a gyroplane, so he moved only on the side wheels not touching the ground nor the nose nor the tail. Wait until the increased air speed will not lift the gyro into the air in this position. Adjust the height of the longitudinal movements of the control stick (the rudder is not effective because the glider is towed on a rope). In flight, do not allow slack in the tow rope. Do not put the bends at high speed.
 
Before planting, line your position behind the car, until he reached the end of the runway. Gently tilt the rotor forward and fly at a height of about one meter. Maintain this position small “twitching” of the control knob. (In General, unlike the control plane, the gyro motion of the handle should be smooth and sharp, it literally jerks.)
 
Signal the driver to reduce speed. When he does, push the rotor fully back. Rear wheel gyroplane must first touch the ground. Keep the rotor is deflected back to prevent slack towline. General description, allow the vehicle to turn and move with him to the start. Keep the position of the rotor such that it continued to rotate. If flights will be no more, put the rotor in a horizontal position and when the rotational speed will decrease, stop by his hand. Never leave seat until the rotor turns, otherwise the gyro can fly without you.
 
Gradually, with the development of piloting technique, increase the length of the towline up to a hundred meters and climb to a higher altitude. The last stage of development of the autogyro flight will be a free flight after-Ceplene from the towline. In no case do not reduce in this mode, the air speed is below 30 km/h!
 
With a height of 60 m distance free flight can reach 300 m. Learn to make turns, to climb to a higher altitude. If you start with hills, then the range can be kilometers.
R. MERKULOV, air force Colonel, retired, Professor

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