In recent years the streets and roads of our country are increasingly the miniature machine, in appearance something of a cross between a kid’s scooter, a moped and a scooter. Their drivers are surprisingly deftly maneuver in a city stream, “not getting tangled in the legs” at large, “real” car and motorbike and however not at all inferior to them in speed.
Note that in the global market these “kids” are in great demand and every year are becoming increasingly popular. A number of major foreign motorcycle firms produces “miniaturization” machines large series, and their range is growing much faster than the high power. Here considered and the purchasing power of the consumer (small car cheaper), and metal (less weight — less cost), and fuel crises, and the increasing crowdedness in the streets, as in a stream, and — especially significantly — by Parking areas.
The domestic industry has not yet started production of microvesicles and scooters. Won’t get down to the reasons: today, in our opinion, is more useful to systematize the experience of designers and hobbyists who have created and will create, because it is prompted by life, huge variety of two – and three-wheeled micromachines, including many samples of great practical interest.
Fig. 1. A — the basic proportions of microntroller for a person of average height. B — intermittent front fork: with increasing distance S stability deteriorates, and G — examples of sustainable front forks.
But it is also very symptomatic: toys micromatic literally before our eyes into a modern vehicle! All the exhibitions of scientific and technical creativity of youth small cars are invariably present in large numbers and are becoming every year more and more perfect.
However, mainly due to the fact that their creators are working in primitive conditions, in isolation, not being able to widely share experiences, this technique is not free from numerous “children’s diseases”, check its improvement and dissemination.
The first and main problem — absence of special tires and the inability to fully use available extremely poor range. Second, the poor quality of engines. Its specific power and weight they modern requirements does not satisfy. In the same way as the gearbox, two-stage mainly. (Many have long used four – and five-speed box, ensuring the best use of power for different driving modes.)
Fig. 2. Parameters of small tires domestic production.
Despite this, craftsmen continue to work productively, creating its own is not only viable models of engines and transmissions, but even… a bus! (These interesting papers we introduced the readers in No. 2-3 of 1971 and No. 3-5 for 1972.) With problem article about Masha-the groin-the”kids” made in No. 3 of our magazine for 1971 honored master of sports Irina Ozolina — known trainer, the repeated champion and record-holder of the USSR. Her article caused a broad response on all ends strapy, the editors received many letters with comments and suggestions, and also descriptions built by the readers of the micromachines of various purpose: to teach children and teenagers practical driving and the rules of the road for internal transport, for postmen and colporteurs, tourists, fishermen and hunters, search and rescue operations and much more.
Getting acquainted with them, it is possible to draw some conclusions and comparison, allowing an objective assessment of their technical solutions — first choice of the General parameters of the machine, the type and power of the engine. We can safely say: our designers-Amateurs laid the foundations of the methodology of calculation and design of micromachines. Not every Institute or engineering plant could conduct similar research so many directions and designs are tested, proven and daily operation!
We begin publication of our “right side” of the designers of the transport of microtechnology, already have accumulated great practical experience, known to readers of the laureates of the exhibitions NTTM Vladimir Petrovsky (Volgograd), V. Bykov (Moscow), as well as descriptions of original teaching machines created in lab autoconstructor club of young technicians of the Siberian branch of the USSR Academy of Sciences.
SMALL, BUT PERFECTLY FORMED
The construction of microvesicles and microntroller is now addicted to many Amateur designers. Each of them strives to create the most advanced, comfortable and beautiful car. But everything is put in front of a real problem, does everyone understand what to consider when developing a design, the machine is easy to operate, has good riding qualities and pleasing to the eye elegant appearance?
As practice shows, it is not always the case. The vast majority of designers and Amateurs make the same “typical” error. The purpose of our article is to warn of potential pitfalls all those who are building or planning to construct micromachines.
Usually the designer seeks primarily to reduce the dimensions and reduce the weight. But the question is, to what extent? Of course, it would be good to have a scooter, which you can sit in a commuter train or bus; but the passage of cars with a tank is forbidden! So, leave the scooter in the city or on it, or putting it on the car, boat or Motorboats. Keep this in mind in choosing the dimensions of the machine. You should also not forget that when their excessive reduction deteriorates the alignment of the car and its stability on the go. Figure 1 gives a General idea of the proportions of microntroller for a person of average height.
as figure 5 shows samples of rational and irrational design.
Unfortunately, the size of the micromachines is currently often not dictated by design intent, and the available tires!
THE PROBLEM OF “SHOE”
Now the most common wheel and tire small size, suitable at first sight for micromachines, are borrowed from children’s scooters. But experience has shown that the normal operation impossible. The fact that the tires from the scooters are not designed for heavy loads and very quickly fail (sometimes 20-30 km!) because of the so-called samorazvitiyu, that is, the destruction side of the wire rings and, as a result, jump-out tyre. Imagine what threatens such a “surprise”, especially on the turns! Therefore, if no special wear-resistant tyre size 12 1/2X2 1/4 (Cute Ufa engine plant we manufacture them ourselves), at the disposal of the designer remain the tires of three types (see figure 2 with table): motorolleri size 4×10; kart size 280×85; sidecars (old type 4,5X9, 5X10 new).
Analyze the possibility of applying for microntroller tires available for sale. Motorolla rubber is reliable and durable, but heavy for a small car and also very “inflates” their dimensions. The advantage of it is that you can use ready discs, hubs and drums, front and rear forks from the production of scooters. This fact attracts many, despite the increase in the weight and dimensions of the structure. The profile of the treadmill, as well as the tread pattern motorolleri tyre ensures confident driving on the road with any coating.
Go-kart tires more suitable for microntrollers in size and weight, but its use involves extra hassle — manufacturing of special drives, brakes and forks. At known skill it is possible to adjust brake drums, backing pads and rotors from the motorbike type “Lvov” (it should be remembered that the range of spare parts for motorbikes and mopeds are very many details that almost no alterations may be used in the construction of microvesicles and microntroller).
Bus from wheelchair sidecars in size and weight more than all the previous ones. Their use on small machines is impractical. But they are of interest in the case, if you think the jeep. For her, tires 5X10 will be the best of all. Tires of this size to build great “swamp buggies” — the dream of anglers and hunters!
The micromachines can be applied to “non-uniform” rubber, for example, for rear wheel — motoroller, and to front a go-kart.
THE HEART OF THE MICROCOSM
His choice is determined by the intended purpose machines, material resources and experience of the Builder. Stations and clubs of young technicians, where microtransport equipment used primarily for educational purposes, it is best to use vasomotoric type D-5, D-6, “Bella,” etc. — they are inexpensive and can be purchased by Bank transfer, which is very significant. And for sporting purposes or personal use more interesting moped and motorcycle engines of the type W-51 “Java-05”, “Lynx”, “Java-20”, M1-A.
The choice of engine depends on the weight of the driver microntroller: if a person of average weight — enough engine capacity of up to 50 cm3, and if the driver is “too heavy” or on the microcomputers you intend to travel with a load is a necessary engine of 125 cm3 (from the lower categories of good, “Kiev”, but these engines are now not produced, and to get them hard).
Remember that acceleration and velocity data of the created machine have to stand on the level of modern requirements of traffic, otherwise, the drive the little car becomes unpleasant and dangerous. In autoconstructor laboratory of our Kuta was built over two dozen of micromotori-ditch with motors ranging from 2 to 12 HP (motors D-5 and Voskhod-175cm3).
Each machine had its advantages and disadvantages, which can be described as: increased power and comfort — increasing weight, and transportability. To build a machine weighing over 35-40 kg almost does not make sense, since the commercially available bike with motor weighs less.
WITH COMFORT OR WITHOUT!
For the comfort you have to “pay”: suspension fork, padded seat greatly increases the cost of the car.
The easiest way is to use for the frame and components of micromachines parts of children’s scooters, dilapidated bicycles, prams n even the beds — in short, any household items, made of thin, lightweight and durable steel tubes. Only in extreme cases, you can apply a water or gas pipe.
Some nodes can be used lightweight steel profiles. The connection of the parts must be performed with high quality welding. A small car in the process of building requires a lot of attention, great care. Only under this conditions it will be reliable and safe in operation.
Fig. 3. The principal dimensions of the tubular frame of microvesicle.
Figure 3 shows a typical design of the tubular frame, which can be recommended to Amateurs. Source material — an old Bicycle frame, which is cut, as shown in the drawing, welded and enhanced by kerchiefs in the most critical nodes. Such a frame can easily be adapted front forks from domestic or imported motorbikes and mopeds, as well as suspension components rear wheel.
Pendulum fork rear wheel it is best to progressivity pendants type “Riga-4” or “Verkhovyna”, and import “Lynx” or “Bella”.
STEERING WHEEL, SEAT, CONTROLS
In mini car, these design elements play an extremely important role. After all, saddle height, width and configuration of the steering wheel in any case, no matter how small the wheels and the engine should match the growth driver. In most good designs microntrollers steering wheel and seat make retractable, collapsible or removable, it gives the opportunity to the limit to reduce machine dimensions during transportation and storage. Figure 4 shows different models of the rudders, and figure 6 — saddles for micromachines.
Fig. 4. The most common design rudders for mikromotivovAnd the selection of the shape and size of the steering wheel (L — in the range of 400-500 mm, α = 12-15°), B — detachable handlebar-type Bicycle with extra long feathers, and Mr. foldable handlebars of a motorcycle type.
Fig. 5. Examples of the overall layout of micromachines: A — “Agidel” (Ufa syut, designer V. Petrovsky); B — “Honda 70” (Japan); — “Sakhs” (Germany).
Fig. 6. Different designs of saddles:
A — Bicycle type with coil springs, working in tension, B — from the moped, with a cushion of sponge rubber, — a “diva” type, single, Mr. “divan” of type double. Right — making the saddle “sofa” type.
From figure 6 it will become clear how to make a saddle of the so-called “sofa” type of their own, — for this you need to have a piece of foam-latex, two feet good leather and plywood thickness 6-8 mm, which is cut from the base of the saddle. You can use ready-made saddle from the moped “Verhovina-4”, but they, unfortunately, are rarely on sale.
The wheel can also be taken ready-made from motorbike, road bike or scooter. The placement of the controls on the steering wheel, it is desirable to keep the conventional, that is, the control knob to the gas and brake on the front wheel to the right, clutch and decompressor on the left. Output, steering wheel gearshift system should not be. Better to do it in the form of a pedal, operated by foot or hand lever directly on the engine. It will be more reliable.
THE DRIVER AND THE CAR
Do not ask a small machine that can give big. If you will overtake a swift “Java” or “Pannonia”, not engage with them in a competition, remembering that your miniature machine has many advantages. You will feel and appreciate very soon: your “baby” in the Elevator up to his apartment, if for some reason it is undesirable to leave on the street; it is easier to maneuver in city traffic when driving on narrow forest paths and mountain trails. And when to pass is impossible to change roles with him, take under his arm and carry.
However, it should be taken into account and the specific management micromachines. The driver, accustomed to ride “big wheels” (for example, with the rims 21 or 19 inch), will have even some time to relearn. In the best conditions will be people with experience of driving conventional scooters: micro machine has a lot in common with them, especially if it is delivered to the wheels with tires 4X10.
The main unpleasant feature of micromachines — “podsekanie” front wheel and rough or sharp movements of the steering wheel, especially on wet roads. It occurs more often than the smaller wheel is the result of improper “departure” fork (interdependence of these factors is shown in figure 1).
Given all the above, micromachines, having wheels with a diameter of less than 300 mm, the turns should be performed mainly through co-ordinated roll (tilt) inside the turn, not due to the motion of the wheel. Especially on slippery roads!