“MOTORCAR” – THE CITY AVTOKRASKA

The search for the optimal design of passenger car is a matter of time. The solution to this problem and doing powerful design Bureau leading automotive companies and associations, and Amateur designers. Our magazine has repeatedly appealed to the topic. Today we offer enthusiasts autocostruzione two promising development of the Moscow engineers P. Zak and E. Rudyk.

I. Ilf and E. Petrov claimed that the car is not a luxury but a means of transportation. It’s hard not to agree, because, among other things, the car saves us time, makes it independent of urban passenger transport. However, he always used rationally? Statistics show that the overwhelming majority of the time a personal vehicle is operated only by one person. And if it is designed for 4-5 people, this means that are used irrationally and gasoline, and spent on its construction materials and tools. In addition, the car takes on the streets of many places.

 
Automakers around the world make attempts to resolve this contradiction. In 1955 in Italy produced double “Isetta” length 2.25 m with a 9.5 HP motor it was decided her entrance through the front door, so the car could Park face-to-sidewalk. Produced and very compact cars. For example, “flipper” in France. Its capacity is two people (adult and child), length 2 m, width 1,17 m, height-of 1.44 m Trying to solve this problem and Amateur designers. In our country the technical requirements for passenger cars manufactured on an individual basis, allowed the construction of vehicles of class “Lada” or “Zaporozhets”, but less.
 
Last, in terms of homebrew, more attractive, Designers sidecar, let’s call it, are not constrained by traditional forms and configurations of multiple machines.
 
Besides make the scooter much easier than a car that is close in parameters to the “Zhiguli”, and this is especially important in the youth technical creativity, because it is no secret that the creation of machinery, which occupied prize-winning places at competitions of traditional homemade machines, required 5-6 or more years.
 
An exemplary model of double sidecar was at the time the tricycle “Friendship” G. S. Malinowski (“M-K”, No. 5 of 1972). Front axle borrowed from the sidecar С3А rear suspension with motor — scooter. The body in front looked like a car, and the rear was narrowed and resembled the stern of the boat. The result is a unique, delicate design. From Malinowski found many followers and similar tricycles in the early 70-ies can be found in different parts of the country.
 
The current technical requirements do not permit the construction of a three-wheeled car scheme. Therefore as a possible alternative is “Motorcar”, created on the principle of aggregation. The basis of it — a body with one rear door. Rejection of side doors allows you to create a tough and durable box design, ensuring the safety of the crew in the event of a traffic accident. Its weight is minimal, engine — motor, with ample urban pickup.
Ease of boarding through the rear door to be provided to the short length of the machine, allowing you to Park perpendicular to the sidewalk: and to go easier.
 
Durable and tough body without any difficulties possible to attach suspension elements of the wheels and the engine. For each wheel of three points. Body shape is an irregular polyhedron. The stiffness and strength of the bottom is ensured by the use of sheet fiberglass, or metal.
 
It is important to ensure the rigidity of the side panels carrying the major loads. Therefore, the upper side panels are the struts supporting the respective front corners of the body and at the rear of the panel, forming together with the frame of the door main arc of safety. If you wish to give the structure greater stiffness in the transverse direction can introduce additional braces: front — from top right corner to the left of the medium. him back — from the upper left corner to the right middle (if the loop of the suspension doors on the left in the course). These braces will reduce the external impression of the car, but in case of an accident may be very useful.
 
A doorway in the lower part it is advisable to narrow down to 250 mm for greater strength of the rear wall of the body. By narrowing can be strengthened as the main frame of the doorway, and the attachment points of the rear suspension.
 
Of course, one door enough — it is not excluded a situation when it can jam in the “Motokare” extra exits through the side window (700X 500 mm) or removable roof (1100X 700 mm).
 
Layout
 
Layout “Motokare”:
 
1 — engine, 2, 8 — mud guards, 3 — extra gear differential, 4 — fork front suspension, 5, 7 — passengers, 6 — driver, 9 — valve lights, 10 light, 11 — door 12 — elastic cardan, 13 — door hinge.

 
In the back, length 1700 mm is enough comfortably accommodate the driver and passenger — front and rear, though less convenient, another passenger, who will have to go to skip the front. Two seats are hinged for transportation of goods.
 
Independent suspension each wheel consists of a longitudinal arm with transverse axis of rotation, is embedded in the ears of the lower bottoms on the rubber bushings, and shock absorber.
 
A motorcycle engine it is advisable to place in front for better cooling. Under it is the hub of the main transmission (for example, a cargo scooter “Ant” or С3Д) located in the plane of symmetry of the machine. This will allow the use of drive axles equal length. In front wheel drive cars axles have universal joints of equal angular speeds is normal in tight turns do not provide a smooth rotation. But, unfortunately, such small mechanisms saadeldin to take nowhere.
 
At the same time, we know: “the Citroen-2СУ” in this place are the usual universal joints. Apparently with the unpleasant giving the wheel a jerk when very tight bends can be tolerated, especially as this effect is proportional to the speed and skill technique turns comes quickly. “Motokare” this simplification is justified by the small wheel base, whereby the turning radius is correspondingly less (with the same angle of turn). For additional compensation of unevenness of the rod is elastic inner gimbal (motorized С3Д).
 
Engine — any volume from 175 to 350 cm3, say, from a motorcycle “Rising”. It is not excluded “Dnepr” and “Ural”, but the drive will probably have to do at the rear wheels. Of course, with all the attendant changes.
 
But it is best to take the engine of the motorcycle IZH Planeta: it is reliable and parts are not scarce him, besides in the conditions of winter operation it is convenient — does not require long warm-up. With this engine in load case “Motokare” one driver, the fuel consumption will not exceed 4-4,5 l per 100 km on the highway and 4.5—5.5 l in heavy city traffic.. Almost twice less, than “Zaporozhets”.
 
Wheels can be done based on a convenient detachable motorized drives С3Д, but with the tires of the scooter. You can use a full set of wheels С3Д, but it will weight the car. All for the weight you have to watch very carefully. Of course, the installation of starter (as in С3Д) significantly improves the comfort, but we should not forget that, in addition to starter (5 kgf) and the starter gear, it will need another car battery (20 kgf) and a generator (5 kgf). Here and ponder, not whether to leave the motorcycle’s starting system? At issue is the need for a reverse gear. Without it, on the basis of the differential gear box С3Д, which weighs 12 kg, easy to make the transfer node weighing just 3 kgs. In the result the total difference in weight is 40 kgs. Dry weight motocare thus reduced to 350 1сгс. With dressing (12 l fuel-oil mixture), with the tool and without a passenger its weight is about 450 kg, which is 1 when the engine producing 20 HP gives you the power 45 HP/t, that is not inferior to “Zaporozhets”.
Especially it is necessary to dwell on the technical aesthetics “Motocar”. As you can see, the basic shape of the body repeat “minimax” (see “M-K” № 1, 1975), but the rear part is raised that is of practical meaning– easier entrance.
 
The exterior of the machine primarily is a conspicuous lack of visual unity of the body and chassis and power modules of the design. This is due to the implementation of the principle of aggregation is facilitated by the ease of construction, ease of maintenance, and are prerequisites for the modernization of separate units of the machine. Her appearance an analogy with the coaches of the XVIII—XIX centuries, in which the basis of their representativity was the body itself — the finished complex, visually perceived apart from horses, wheels, springs, etc. In “Motokare” a similar effect can be achieved due to the bright body colors and subtle, neutral coloring of the remaining nodes, for example silver or black. In this case visually perceived only the body, everything else serves as a backdrop.
 
But we should not forget that GAI requires the presence of the protective wings on wheels. No violations of the “coach” idea, there are two possible solutions: installing mud flaps motorcycle type or flat panels, for example of leather, stretched on a wire frame. It is important to visually these elements did not violate the principle of “karetnoy”. Not excluded, of course, better protection of the art of mud externally, organically connected with the body. But it will be forced to abandon the idea of “coach” of the exterior of the car. Along the way, will deteriorate the conditions of service of the chassis and the engine, increase the weight.
 
In terms of comfort (mainly for the driver) I would like to have ECE at the highest level: the “Motorcar” is designed as a reliable car for every day. The driver should always be comfortable, spacious and high enough above the road to freely navigate in a street situation. Good review — it is also a comfort. In winter, the cabin must be heated; if the front engine is easy, for example, due to the removal of warm air from the edges of the cylinder. Of course, it is easier to set the heater “Zaporozhets”, but it is noisy and uneconomical.
 
“Motorcar” is intended for the city. However, it is easy to see and the possibility of extra-urban use. The permeability of the sidecar, by the way, will increase due to the transition to the tyres of С3Д (5,00—10). Necessary clearances for it. However, a natural limitation on long journeys can be a small capacity “Motocar”. Perhaps only in that he is unable to compete with small cars.
P. ZACH, engineer

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