SCHOOL INNOVATION: FROM IDEA TO REALITYCreative finds of young technicians, the successful resolution of their original design objectives our magazine told repeatedly. Examples of research innovation activities of school today can cause a lot. However, in order for the movement of young innovators has become more widespread and effective, they need to properly and skillfully manage. This is often write to our office, heads of groups, clubs, stations of young technicians, enthusiasts, social activists, the immediate organizers of technical creativity of children and adolescents.
Methodological literature on this topic is very scarce, and one that is often does not meet the requirements of today. Trying in some measure to fill this gap, the magazine offers readers the materials, giving some idea about the logic and structure of the process of technical creativity of pupils prepared by the candidate of pedagogical Sciences Yu. s. Stolyarova. The editors hope that the information contained in them tips and recommendations will help planners and managers of technical creativity of children and teenagers are more rational, “for science” to search build and design the work of their Pets.

On the ground ran thin snake — crack, from it in both directions rays scattered gyrus is smaller. It was felt that somewhere, deep yellowish-brown soil, there is a work, someone or something persistently moves along the canal, almost Packed to the brim with a mixture of peat and loam. These channels — a kind of testing grounds for new machines that are created in Ukrainian research Institute of hydraulic engineering and land reclamation.
Today on the roadside near this building, scientists and engineers have located a dozen children, students of boarding school, at the University of Kiev. At this time, adults and children seem to have changed places; the boys acted as testers and designers, the employees of the Institute as spectators (along with the examiners). Tested also a fundamentally new device — a mechanical “worm”. In comparison with its living prototype two-meter steel “worm” in the rubber vestments looked like a giant. Nevertheless, it was only an experimental model, which was to Give answers to many questions that arose as the young designers, and specialists of the Institute. Figuratively speaking, this “worm” was in some way in the position of “servant of two masters” (think nimble Figaro from Beaumarchais Comedy).
The fact is that, on the one hand, he had to prove the reality of mechanical reproduction principles of the movement of an earthworm and the ability to move these devices into the earth, on the other — to play the role of an experimental model for future worm-like machines are even bigger that young engineers wanted to create for hydromelioration. And because their postovariectomy creativity was inherent all the features of inventive activity, we decided to elaborate on this example and trace the logic and show the structure of the creative work of students to create a new technical object. In other words, to draw out the way to highlight those steps by which to send young technicians to organize their creative work as more as possible rationally, sensibly given and the willingness and ability of the children.
Technical creativity — a single process of cognition and action. On this interpretation of today converge psychologists, philosophers, and educators. Cognitive activity of students here looks like a chain consisting of research, experiment, solving technical problems, creating models, real machinery, tools, appliances. The resulting knowledge be for the kids the necessary theoretical and practical basis for further participation in the technical work, the choice of a profession, in defining the path of life.
Note that even at the initial stage of initiation to the creative process when designing reproductive (for finished drawings, and schematics) and build copies of the device in the image and likeness of the already existing, students acquire a lot of new scientific and technical knowledge. In the process of making these models they are to some extent already faced with the technology of processing of various materials, with the manifestation of their physical and chemical properties, the behavior of devices in different conditions (for example,-models of ships, planes, etc.).
On a more Mature, creative levels, a new technical initiative for children’s physical, chemical and other phenomena and processes found in even greater degree. Technical creativity, thus, through the creation of a technical object contributes to getting students in-depth knowledge about the world. It serves as a proof of the truth (or falsity) advanced young experimenters those or other theoretical assumptions, as it is in the course of technical creativity they are confirmed or refuted by practice.
It is known that in finding solutions to technical problems brought to life the main stages of creative thinking. This is primarily a reflection in human consciousness of the surrounding technical environment, admission to it specific information about her condition, the concentration of available knowledge and experience, the selection and analysis of facts, their comparison and generalization, the mental construction of new images, establishing their similarities and differences with existing real objects technology, and to some extent, the idealization (schematics in General), abstraction (distraction from the real conditions), specification, foresight, imagination.
Still to this day persist look at the technical initiative of children and adolescents as a kind of appendage to the school curriculum, extra-curricular continuation of the lessons. And sometimes it seems to the same and the lower element of compulsory training in physics, chemistry, mathematics, mechanical drawing skills. Technical ideas made in this case students, adults want to see necessarily as a result, a consequence of knowledge gained in the lesson, not as something new (even a new subjectively), based on the imagination of the Creator and the knowledge gained not only in compulsory education but also outside it.
Often ignored the fact that technical ideas and their solutions arise in the minds of pupils and under the influence of other sources of information, including independently extracted information, it is possible that scientific knowledge can be, but in works, they are not translated, ideas, designs, students do not have. But the point here is that the process of technical creation is not directly from scientific ideas to technical device and technical ideas to her designs, and from it — to a specific model, car, device. With respect to Teens, the novelty of such subject may be an objective in the full sense of the word (is first created at the level of the invention), and subjective (created something like this already existing, but still unknown to the students).
You can meet this approach to the problem, when the result is technical creativity of schoolchildren, adults will certainly want to see implemented in production and necessarily generating economic benefits. In such a situation, the guys definitely require to prove the advantages of the invented device before mass-produced industrial products. Persist more utilitarian approach to children’s technical creativity, which is expressed in the exaltation of the criterion of “direct benefit.” Such passion is mandatory achievement of economic effect is often manifested in the organization of inventive and innovative (“Vorovskogo”) labour. Regardless of age, experience, and knowledge, students sometimes there is a requirement (it is also a criterion of utility, or the futility of creativity, young technicians): in whatever was to implement the results of search and development work in production. This overlooks the main technical task of the child initiative — training work. “I’m still a magician, I’m JUST learning!” — these well-known guys words a little page from the movie “Cinderella” should be remembered by all adults when working with young technicians. After mastering the skills of creativity today, the students, when they grow up, probably will be able to apply them to the desired effect in their work!
Since the process of creating guys any new technical device includes a number of relatively independent but organically related stages, we may talk about the logical structure of their technical creativity.
What is the essence of these phases and what are their most distinctive traits?
There is in science is the notion of the “creative subject”. They call the one who directly creates the technique. In this case, the subject of creativity, a student in the singular or plural. Depending on age they can be a child, a teenager, a young man with all the qualities and possibilities inherent in any of these ages, with greater or lesser practical and theoretical training for their creativity.
The subject of creativity in different ways can be expressed numerically: the individual student, the creative group, link, circle, kids KB Junior primary organization of VOIR, scientific society of students, etc. Sometimes on a solution is relatively complex technical problems and realization the real object has several links, groups, clubs. Here we are faced with such a distinctive feature of technical creativity of children and adolescents, as the variety of forms of organization of their creative activity.
In addition, the stages of the creative process may vary the nature of technical contradictions, the analysis of which was the starting point of creativity of schoolchildren, features and technical challenges, the solutions for which they work, the feasibility of these tasks, degree of novelty, originality themselves of the problems and their solutions. Finally, an important role in achieving the goal of creativity play tools, ways of solving technical problems.
The first stage of creative activity of school students in the creation of a new technical device is the fact that they are actively, critically try to understand the existing, already created in the chosen search direction and design. At this stage in their consciousness is formed problematic situation, which is analytically comprehended by young technicians: there is a creative search.
The formation of the problem situation stimulated the boys awareness of their specific needs in equipping the school office, workshop, enterprise, a new technical device or in the implementation of the technological process, the understanding of necessity of new technical means and disadvantages of the old. At this stage, before the students open and specific technical contradictions — a kind of “disagreements between the efforts to achieve the intended result and obstacles or engineering standing in the way. In the minds of children are indicated by the General outline of the technical problems and formulations which are determined to approximate the ultimate goal of the search source data, subject to the conditions of the solution required limits and means to achieve the objective.
Thus, the “product” of the first stage of the search and development of creativity of students is the formulation of a specific technical problem. At that time, she has already a certain structure, comprehended and logically formulated, can serve as a basis for further exploration. The birth of the technical problem is influenced by the factors of reality, the level of development of science, technology and production, but the nature of its formulation depends on the creative abilities of children, their knowledge and skills. If the wording of the tasks are not sufficiently taken into consideration the real factors in the first place the conformity of the proposed technical ideas, laws of nature, then such an idea as the first stage of solving the problem would be unviable, unrealistic.
To successfully mastering a problem situation to children it is important to be observant and self-critical, to show interest in new things, ability to analyze, will to action, a sense of reality. It is also important to be very aware of the lack of information available on the selected theme of creativity, to strive to fill this gap, to newly acquired knowledge to choose the most needed for the definition and specification tasks. We must not forget that even the process of formulating students technical problems are the source of finding a new one. By the same to the search for the necessary conditions and means of solving the problem will serve as the ongoing at the same time young designers the analysis of the correlation of requirements, tasks, search targets and conditions for achieving the desired result with the disclosure of contradictions between them.
Of course, finding, identifying guys technical contradictions and their technical challenges will be different: with or senior in the process of studying a variety of information, in disputes and debates, with a joint discussion of these ideas, when conducting tests and experiments. The intensity of the creative will certainly promote and familiarize students with technical problems or ideas already set life, but not allowed in practice, and also with the logic of a particular real device, analogues of art.
The entire course of a creative search for solutions to technical problems, the results largely depend on how competently and efficiently the problem is formulated as the Creator takes possession of its structure. At the stage we are now considering, in a critical study of the problem situation, someone once found and fixed solutions in the minds of children is specification of tasks to develop the direction of further search for its solution.
The phrasing or the choice of technical tasks depend primarily on the practical experience of students and their Empirical (obtained from experience) knowledge. Available they have the same theoretical knowledge as the prerequisite for the formulation of the problem, and a condition of successful creative search of students at all stages of the creation of any new technical device. If it is delivered and processed correctly, already accounts for some portion of future response.
To illustrate our reasoning about the logic and structure of technical creativity, we refer to the experience of the study group “Young mechanic” physics and mathematics school-internat in the Kyiv state University, which has already been mentioned in the beginning of the article. This group for many years by enthusiast, social worker, employee of the Ukrainian center of Metrology and standardization, candidate of technical Sciences Anatoly Y. Lyubarsky.
As is often the case, the circle is not immediately found a core theme of creativity. Young mechanics started the engines, trying to build a model of a free piston internal combustion engine with a hydraulic transmission, and then tried to create a machine, the internal combustion engine. At the same time one of the groups of students began to engage with mechanisms of movement. Attempts of modeling the original motors were unsuccessful, but the second direction of the creative — the creation of moving devices on the “patents” of nature — gradually attracted the interest of all club members, became the core theme of the work of this team.
It should be noted that the specialty of the leader of the group, this topic is no direct relationship had the scope of his official duties — development of measuring devices. So in this case, young technicians and their Manager share a common interest, passion in seeking to establish mechanisms functionally similar to the wheels of living creatures.
A. Y. Lyubarsky recommended that the members of the special literature on the biology, biomechanics, mechanics, the guys themselves looked for and found information on their topic of interest in popular science books and magazines. A reference book in the circle was, for example, the pamphlet of Professor G. P. Katys “Information robots and manipulators”, revealing the essence of the movement of a number of little floor mechanisms.
The beginning of creativity in a new direction was the design and construction of several simplest models, the six — legged mechanical bug on Cam mechanisms, centipedes on the Pneumatics and the original propeller — propelled “wave” surface. By this time the members had had a serious information search, providing them with the necessary minimum of theoretical knowledge, determined the General direction of creativity, has accumulated considerable practical experience in creating little floor self-propelled devices.
Once one of his young technicians there was a thought: and whether it is in the image and likeness of the living creatures to man to penetrate into the geospace environment, in the depths of the Earth? After all, in nature there are “mechanisms” by which living beings are progressing smoothly in the thickness of the earth’s surface, live in it. Why not borrow these creatures have a technical solution?
The relevance of the research topic was obvious: the Earth is still very poorly understood, is considerably less than, for example, the depths of seas and oceans. So, Geokosmos is a promising area of application of forces. Fantasy teen draws a picture more tempting than the other. Conceived with the help of technical means they see themselves not only conquerors of the earth’s crust, but penetrates all the Geosphere up to the center of the planet.
To fantasy finally brought the members into the area unreal, head important time to re-adjust it to direct you on the appropriate way to impose some kind of restriction.
Easily proving to students that the penetration into the solid earth to a greater depth would require a gigantic expenditure of energy and special materials for implementing a technical device, if it even gets made, A. J. lubarsky suggested by their pupils to think about where today really can be useful in the national economy underground vehicle.
About what to think and how to understand the task themselves, the young authors of the project, convincing them of the arguments contained in the essay on the subject.
“Drainage of wetlands in the modern reclamation work is necessary to use not quite convenient drain technique — written by the students. — Use a special steel knives. Three tractor pulling narrow steel knife which cuts through the soil to a depth of about five feet. In the land of the knife pulls the disc in the form of an artillery shell, mounted on its end, which extends and objavovat channel depth”.
The disadvantage of this method see young techs that have to spend too big a job for the discovery of soil, digging of trenches, which, in essence, is not needed, only tunnel, which pierces the disc into the ground. “Therefore, in order to avoid unnecessary costs energy — I come To the conclusion the club, we need to use a device which would perform only underground work, that is the device that digs the tunnel.”
So was in this case is formulated the technical problem. It’s pretty specific, relevant, dictated by public need. Come to her young technicians managed only through deepening into the problem, thanks to the painstaking study of the literature on the topic, discussion of gathered information, debate and discussion.

The second stage towards the creation by students of any device according to his own design comes with the birth in the minds of children with his technical ideas, at first still unclear, seemingly in General. The novelty of the design” of the design in this case again looks from the point of view of adults, usually subjective, it is “objective” is often only for the young technicians, although, as we will see later, there may be exceptions.
At this stage, students define the principle of operation of the future technical devices. He either is selected, transformirovalsya already known or determined separately. By itself, the technical idea is not a solution and not even an ideal, an imaginary image of the future device. But this is a qualitative leap in the process of implementation of the tasks formulated in the first stage, because the idea will make its technical essence, something like a hypothesis in science.
The period of art characterized by the use of the extensive Arsenal of methods of finding technical solutions. Method of actualization of knowledge (the selection of knowledge that is most important at the moment) and the method of transfer and reconstruction of ideas, abstractions, and generalizations that constitute the logical basis of search — not only because they do not exclude the imagination and intuition of boys at birth technical ideas. Without them it would be absolutely impossible, for example, conclusions by analogy with the creativity of students almost crucial. All this speaks in favor of a cognitive role of technical creativity, which at the stage of technical ideas appears exceptionally active.
Clearly formulated, grammatically correct and recorded (orally, in writing or graphically) technical ideas, as well as logically expressed technical problem — it is a product of creativity of pupils, which will be used further as a starting point for the next stage of their search and design activities. While the result achieved can be used not only the authors ideas, but other students wishing to join the solution of the problem, to find ways to achieve the intended purpose. At further development formed the technical ideas transformirovalsya in the minds of children in an increasingly concrete images, which then will be put into practice, turn into “flesh and blood” of technical devices.
So we see that there is a design idea and to real implementation. The materialization of her, due to the specific parameters, it is not that other, as the very technical device that was intended to create. But sometimes it also happens that the creativity of students does not reach a logical conclusion, further technical ideas are not promoted. This happens usually in cases when in the course of development of the topic suddenly found the teenagers lack the necessary logistical capabilities to implement the idea or it is for some reason lost interest.
The result of the efforts of students in the first phase of creativity, as we noted previously, is a technical problem — you want to create the device, making an underground tunnel without opening surfaces (for example, mug A. J. lubarsky). Add — only, drainage of wetlands, i.e. to work in soft ground. The latter is a restriction of specifying the task. And quite essential, because it facilitates the task and, therefore, facilitates its implementation.
Search technical ideas starts with the choice of a living prototype that live in the earth and moving in its thickness. After analyzing the variety of types of underground beings on the principle of their movement, participants stopped search on the earthen worm.
The technical idea in this case is to borrow from a live prototype of the principle of motion and part of its external form.
In fairness I must say that the study of popular science and literature, members of the circle did not find information about developing such ideas. Familiarization with patent information which held their leader, nothing new has been added. However, in the course of studying the topics participants search found a number of interesting ideas and solutions aimed at the laying of underground tunnels. A good source of information on this issue, in particular, was the “Bulletin of inventions”. However, the basis of all published messages was based on the principle of a shock introduction into the soil or drilling, fit only for the dense soil. Were found in the Bulletin and decisions for the weak and saturated soils, but they all involved the use of retractable legs and stops. Devices in the form of a mechanical worm, with no exposed moving parts, the young technology are not met. In the end, they came to the conclusion that the implementation of their ideas will create a mechanism simpler and more flexible than existing, able to make tunnels of any curvilinear shape.
Thus was formed the participants of the technical idea of the second stage of creativity.
In the third stage of creativity is the development of an imaginary (ideal) future technical devices. It arises in the minds of children as a result of mental experimentation, the technical idea in their view is drawn in the diagram. It defines functional and structural schemes of machines, apparatus, devices, emerging in the mind as ideas-images.
It should be noted that the mental construction of the ideal model (schema) and the birth of the technical ideas have significant differences.
First, when mental simulation is already clearly seen the active development of children, which is based on previously formulated goals and objectives of their creative search which in turn the course of schematization technical ideas. Second, the ideal model is a kind of prerequisite to the construction in the perspective of the actual object or its model. Therefore, in the third stage of creativity is extremely desirable the most clear functional and structural study of the future device as a whole and its individual elements. Education in the minds of the pupils the ideal model of the future device is the beginning of its construction, imaginary reality, in other words, you guys already settle, mentally form an image of the conceived product.
This stage of work is important because it has an evidential value: it is theoretically determined by the effective implementation of advanced technical ideas. And if, figuratively speaking, the idea to consider as the essence of the future device, then the ideal model is a representation of him. Because the idea-the image is of a preliminary nature, it defines only the basic features of future technical devices. The participants of the creative strive in this model, perhaps to better introduce the design of the mechanism and the principle of its action. However, they are not always able to foresee all the difficulties inevitably arising in the incarnation of the ideal model in the material. During the “thought experiment,” an ideal model or is approved and is the basis for the further development of technical devices or “discarded”, is replaced with a new one.
Construction of the ideal model looks like an attempt of the Creator to anticipate future specific design, therefore this model is considered a heuristic, that is search. It is legitimate in the case when this model is adapted to existing real-life circuits something similar (for the further development and improvement of machines, machine, appliance, etc.), and then, when you create a truly original technical device that has no direct predecessors (as, for example, took place in the circle, led by A. J. Lubarsky).
At the stage of development of the ideal model, the students inevitably obstreperous (distracted) from the specific qualitative features of the future technical devices, because the available information on possible ways and means of its implementation “to the metal” is pretty limited. For this reason, an imaginary model will always be simplified in comparison with the design of the actual device.
We note here one characteristic and very important feature of the mental model: when truly creative research it is not similar to an existing object, because its still a pet at all, and just reflects the idea of some future device (in contrast to reproductive development work students, when the ideal model is nothing more than a reflection in their minds of something real, the real). In this case, it is very important for successful creative activities the children acquire the so-called matching (“postroitelnym”) imagination and conclusion by analogy. The latter develop from understanding the properties and structures already familiar to students of technical designs for a hypothetical (alleged) characteristics of the future technical devices.
So, in the process of search and development of creativity the ideal model to fulfill the role of mental images, “structures”, which are born in the mind of man and over which he makes an imaginary operation and transformation of “mental” experiments. These ideas-images recorded with certain graphic AIDS such as diagrams, sketches, drawings, paintings, becoming visible. In this form they are discussed, refined, improved.
That was a perfect model for drill tunnels in the soil?
Designing a mechanical “worm” brought the children to the idea that the device needs to have the stepper move: the efficiency will not be enough to depend on the length of the connecting communications. The principle of movement by analogy is taken from a live prototype, the rationale for the conclusion about the benefits too from him. The imagination of the children draws a long pointed structure that progressively “steps” is moving in the soil. It’s already a perfect model that arose in the minds of the authors of the project.
The design of the device should ensure the stability of the direction of movement. Hence the conclusion that a significant part of the case will play the role of the guide (in the form of a cylinder) with tapered head compartment and therefore to be tough. Behind the cylinder is a flexible part of the body, for her — connective communication (hoses or wires, depending on the type of energy used).
So on the basis of the technical idea was born, the first mental image of the device, “built” his first, very approximate the ideal model. But life whether it is under what conditions an imaginary device be able to perform their functions? Preliminary answers to these questions I can try to have a logical build at the same stage of the search.
The fourth stage of creation of technical devices design. Here, the young technology are seeking to align the “form” and “content” of the device. Meanwhile. that they imagined, “system a” perfect model (the structure schema, the functional dependencies of components and parts), and a constructive scheme of a real object (work projects or layouts) usually is not enough compliance. Naturally, in the process of designing the device guys find errors and weaknesses in their mental models (assumptions), their suitability is tested by means of technical experiment and logic of structural relations. There comes a time linking all of these moments: to be advised earlier planned scheme, revealed additional structural features. Have students be new ideas and born with the additional options of improvements of the structure of the future product. The basic principle of the creative search to achieve feasibility, clarity, simplicity and manufacturability of the produced device, the justification of external shapes and sizes, the optimal compliance with the intended purpose of the mechanism.
The execution of young technicians of this principle is organically related to the use of other important methods of design, such as substitutability, aggregation, succession, which are a kind of synthesis of the design ideas of the predecessors. All this clearly shows the children that the process of finding specific solutions to technical tasks impossible without using of other people’s achievements. Observing these principles, students are on their own experience convinced of the effectiveness of the basic law of technical creativity — a differentiated approach to solving a common problem, which, in turn, consists of a synthesis of a number of private decisions. Developed again only the elements that directly determine the novelty of the designed product.
In the process of creating a new technical device it is useful to offer the children to perform in this respect, design they design, identify, borrowed from ready-made, invented others, and that is the byproduct of their own search. However, the effect of novelty in technical creativity is often through the use of other structure, other functional elements application of already known structures (method of inversion). These elements can be deliberately taken from available technical devices.
In the technical work of adolescents, the method of combining already known elements, finds the wide application, which is quite natural for designers beginners with small baggage of scientific and technical knowledge and modest practical experience. And this, in turn, corresponds to a peculiar feature of technical creativity, as it is combinational in nature. Hence, an important principle of creativity in technique — start to develop new construction elements only convinced of the impossibility to do without them.
Depending on the complexity of the developed technical devices and the level of preparedness of its authors, the movement of design ideas from General ideas to a specific decision or may cover all the three main stages of design — conceptual, technical, working projects, or restricted to the first two. It should be noted that in technical circles often receive only a thumbnail of the designed product, fitting, as they say, “where is” parts of the device. But there are many such non-school children’s institutions, where service of leading circles created their own, in miniature, the design office with the appropriate equipment. It is noticed that the drawing Board such KB Amateur girls willing to work, and similar “design” subdivisions are created, usually in large clubs of young technicians at industrial plants, pilot plants and industry KB.
Since the “production” stage design can be expressed in conceptual or technical projects, working drawings, p the model view or layout, the transition from mental construction to a particular development represents a qualitative leap in the creative process that requires from the guys ingenuity and imagination. This process at this stage is given the General basic requirements for any invention, and specific, depending on the context of the work of a technical object — a machine, apparatus, fixture, etc. In the field of view of the authors should, of course, also be and results, the effects of inventions on the environment. And since the existence of a new technical device at the stage of designing his pupils is expressed primarily in graphical form, in the form of preliminary layouts or models and not the real current devices, the authors required the development and expression of intuition, and foresight. Of considerable importance at this stage acquires the account of the young designers and such factors as the nature of the possible changes of the technical conditions in which to work created device, the prospects for its further development.
Designing in the process of technical creativity for pupils is the stage that starts the path of overcoming, resolving technical contradictions between idea and materialization, between theory and practice. This is the path 0t of the invention in the form of ideal model to the drawings of a specific device, and from them to the model, the working model of a real experimental sample. Often, this path completes a significant change in the scheme of the technical device.
The basis of design based on technical calculations; depending on age, level of physical-mathematical and technical training to students the complexity of these calculations can vary widely. At this stage can also be carried out experimental testing of individual parts and the parts of the device. The test, developed technical object in General is only possible with the creation of a prototype or working model.
Extremely important when designing consistency and accuracy performed by the pupils of the calculations — a condition largely associated with the entire course of the creative process. Note that at this stage is to identify “off-design” characteristics of construction elements, depending on the functional purpose of certain parts of their common link in a technical object, kinematic, technological and other considerations (not to mention “nereshennost” in cases where adolescents do not own this scce sufficiently the mathematical apparatus). In technical creativity of pupils in determining the off-design characteristics are mostly satisfied with the use of possibilities of intuition and common sense. This is valid in cases when design the product (model, device, etc.) does not bear any significant power loads.
Teens solve new technical challenges identify the failure of available students data, which is the inevitable method of selection detailed, consistent approach the most appropriate design solution, restrictions, simplifications and assumptions. For this reason, solutions of the same task different ways and means can lead to different results. Characteristically, the use of calculations and other means of technical justification in the design demonstrates to students the relationship of theory (mathematics, physics, etc.) with practice, their interpenetration.

As mentioned before, in the circle, led by A. J. Lubarsky, young writers project as a live prototype to be emulated chose earthworm, the principle of its movement. Mechanical “worm” decided to design of separate sections movable in the axial direction and having an elastic shell (Fig. 1). Students was based on the fact that under the action of compressed air or hydraulics sheath needs to expand and thereby be fixed in the walls of the paving of the tunnel, and the head section, relying on them, with an effort to infiltrate the soil. Then, having fixed this way, it will pull the rest of the section.
The idea embodied by the guys in the draft, and then modeled them in a pneumatic version, confirmed the usefulness of following the chosen path of creative search. Modeling here was functional in nature: the authors wanted to make sure that they invent a mechanism capable of moving according to the principle of the movement of the worm, and check how healthy sheath of this design. Dynamic and static characteristics of the device at this stage of the study was not subject.
Note that because young designers are not going to experience the first model in the working conditions (for the laying of drainage channels), and did not make sense to apply hydraulics: this would get expensive and sophisticated equipment, manufacturing high-precision individual parts. The authors of the project granted at this stage and Pneumatics: a compressor was fed compressed air into the shell sections, forcing them to simulate certain muscle groups live worm. And to the cycles of action Pneumatics alternated in sections in the desired order, the guys used a homemade device with a simple logic circuit assembled on four relays.
Tested the device on “modularity” — the ability to construct a mechanical “worm” of different numbers of sections. Depending on their number in the machine according to the working hypothesis of the authors of the project should change the amount of effort applied on the head, making a tunnel in the ground. For actuating the head section in the model applied a small electric motor with a screw pair. He provided the translational motion of the entire device… on the table. Obtaining the desired data by using the model experiment, the children begin to create a working model that is able to penetrate the soil, to make it a real tunnel with a small diameter.
A working model of a mechanical
A working model of a mechanical
A working model of a mechanical “worm” consists of a head portion I, a pusher hydraulic drive II, auxiliary section III, the transition of part IV, block major sections V, VI connecting hoses:
1 — the shock cone, 2 — cylinder, 3 — a nut of fastening of the piston, 4 — piston, 5 — stock, 6 — rear cover cylinder, 7 — wire jockstrap, 8 — elastic shell, 9 — guide, 10 — split ring, 11 — rod, 12 — recoil, 13 — elastic case, 14 — pipeline fluid, 15 — body of a worm, 16 — duct 17 — rubber tube, 18 — nut.

Here already had the device with hydraulic drive, which according to the authors of the project was to provide a big effort and increase system reliability. First, they performed a preliminary design of the whole mechanism — working drawings of individual parts and components.
A mechanical “worm” (Fig. 2) was composed of six main components: the head, pushing the hydraulic drive of the auxiliary section, the transition part of the section, main sections and connecting hoses. The head part has decided to issue in the form of a cone, the base of which was a cover of the hydraulic cylinder. The pushing drive of a worm is odnopodezdny hydraulic cylinder with spring return. The cylinder bore diameter — 60 mm: this size, as shown by preliminary calculations, at a pressure of 35 kgf cm2 will provide a burst pressure of about 1 ton per second.
An auxiliary section of a worm includes the cylinder cover, guide and an elastic shell, the front of which is attached to the rail with a wire brace. The opposite part of the shell they decided to attach to the rail with the aid of a split ring having on the outer surface of the teeth, which are attached to the longitudinal reinforcing strands shell.
In the transitional part of the “worm” young designers placed the joints for the rod casing tubing fluid and air tubing from the casing. Outside transitional piece closed with an elastic cover with helical wire reinforcement that allows the case to stretch when you move the rod with the housing along the guide.
Block main sections of a worm consists of a body, which has seven elastic shells attached to it similar to the sheath support sections. Through the body crossed by pipelines with one of them, the working fluid supplied to the hydraulic cylinder, and the second serves to supply air to an elastic shell support sections. The exit tubes from the housing are sealed with a rubber stopper, tighten the nut. To supply air into the body and into the shell main sections there is a special tube.
Distribution block litany (not shown in the diagram) is connected with the connecting hoses. It has electrically-controlled valves and a software mechanism for opening the valves in the correct sequence. A source of compressed air in this case was a mobile compressor with capacity of 6 kg/cm2, and the working fluid (spindle oil) in a hydraulic cylinder was used the multiplier that converts the pressure of 6 kgf/cm2 pressure of 35 kgf/cm2.
The conditions in which you had to work with the new device from its creators were required to ensure overall tightness and a sufficient length of its guide part (to stabilize the direction of movement of a worm, since the remote controlled maneuvering was not planned). To navigate the device should have been stepping forward movement.
Experienced young technicians their model, as we mentioned, in the soil channel research Institute of hydraulic engineering and land reclamation. Mechanical “worm” manually buried in pre-prepared soil in a horizontal position at the depth of half subsequent podrabotkoj loosened layer. Then, turning on the compressor and manifold block, setting the device in motion. With one setup it was a road of about 5 m is the length of the soil backfill of the channel. Time spent on overcoming this distance, the boys measured the average speed of the model, and each pass of the worm channel were determined on the density and humidity of soil (according to the measurements in three places along the path of motion of the model). Forces acting as it moves (pull-UPS and the maximum thrust generated by the elastic membranes), were measured and the end of each passage using the dynamometer. The force pushing the soil was determined by the pressure of the working fluid in the pressure cylinder of the multivibrator. We add that the duration of the working cycle mechanical “worm” was 20-60 m; in the ground he was making a tunnel with sealed crimped walls.
What the test showed a mechanical “worm” its creators? They answer this question very succinctly: “the operating cycle is carried out in accordance with the description which was made before the tests.”
The experience of studying the movement mechanism in the ground and the Torah repeated 10 times, and the obtained data was tabulated, showing him the picture. During the tests the device has been in the ground about 50 meters. It worked smoothly, breakdowns and failures were not observed, except that some defects in the hose joints: along the way had to doplatit seals. Elastic camera kept working, metal parts was not discovered wear.
The report, compiled after testing and certified by the heads of research Institute of hydraulic engineering and land reclamation, confirmed the relevance of the topic, the development of which involved the club, led by A. J. Lubarsky. Noted and design flaws — the lack of control device movement in the soil and management. If further refinement was necessary to equip it with means of controlling the position in the soil, which will give the possibility to create channels with a predetermined bias.
Model tests confirmed the operability of the device and therefore the reality of the creative vision of its creators, loyalty to the chosen path in the design and construction. They are convinced of the legitimacy of specific technical solution adopted for the realization of the intent of the current object. And as a result — recognized experts, “adult” author’s certificate for invention № 521381, which proves the feasibility of further development (based on the design proposed by the students of A. J. lubarsky) of the device for laying drainage and aeration channels in the soil.
So, the first model of a worm, built by young technicians from Kiev, was a poster: she is well moved on the table surface and thereby prove the existence of a device capable of moving on the principle of a worm. Then, during design, was chosen and tested the most suitable mechanisms, which allowed to build a second model that moves from deep in the earth with a speed of 20-40 millimeters per minute, paving the tunnel with a diameter of 80 mm.
In search and research work on the “worm” participated by three generations of students. Graduates as the baton passed on their experience and design finds newcomers, the eighth graders coming into the school from all regions of the Republic.
We note here a curious fact: usually the specialists on the technique of child technical creativity is strongly recommend that the head of the circle to pick up for creativity are themes that can be started and finished by the same students, often during the school year. Experience A. J. lubarsky allows for a more flexible approach to the definition of the specific forms of work with members of the group. Case obviously not so much in need to complete the theme forces the same guys as the ability to inspire them with the creative process, to be able to make attractive even the long term, to seriously involve teenagers search.
Scheme a real device for tunnel lining
The scheme of the real device for tunnel lining:
1 — actuator, 2 first section 3 second section 4 — teeth, 5 — star, 6 — circuit, 7 — gear, 8 — elastic shell, 9—conveyor, 10—drive from the hydraulic cylinders of small capacity for conveyor (not visible), 11 — conveyor 12 — inclined plane, 13 — roller, 14 is a hinged plate 15 — the case of the knife, 16—, 17 — axle, 18 — bearing, 19 — cylinder of the cutting mechanism, 20 — main undercarriage cylinder.

The ultimate goal of such a search for all generations of students in the example were one and the same — unusual machine, a mechanical “worm”, an invention that can bring tangible benefits to the national economy of the country. Solved socially significant task, and around it was built the whole long-term work of the team of teenagers.
Of course, the relative completeness of the work required for the members here. Lubarsky has built a program of search, experimentation, and design so that before leaving school every young technician could see the results of their labor. Objects of design and construction in these cases were either stage model of a mechanical “worm”, or their individual components. The atmosphere of creative search, continuously supported in a circle by his head, stimulated the interest of students to the overall theme didn’t reduce the creative potential of the designers.
The contribution of each member of the society to the common Fund of ideas, projects and experiments is shown to the whole school, the most distinguished of the young technology are encouraged, which creates additional moral incentives for students involved in a circle of “Young mechanic”.
In the atmosphere of the succession of ideas of young technicians of several generations of the next replenishment mug — eighth grade, just come to school, decided to continue the work begun by their predecessors.
Now the head of the circle in front of the young designers were set another task: on the basis of the already achieved theoretical and practical results to create a machine suitable for underground work — piping gas and water lines, underground communication lines in hard to reach places (under houses, highways, etc.). Not excluded thus the possible use of a worm and an underground vehicle.
The club decided to design and build a machine that can lay an underground tunnel with a diameter of about 500 mm, to remove the generated ground — transport it to the surface.
Within one school year, the students completed the design and development of machines, consisting of several functional units. The following year, being the ninth-graders, they have already started the material embodiment of the project of the giant mechanical “worm”.
In the device — two sections, which are pivotally interconnected and serve as mounting frames (Fig. 4). In the head part of the first section is the working body, made (unlike the previous model, the head of a worm) in the form of a cutting mechanism. On the basis of carefully conducted by students of calculations it was shown that in such a large case diameter of the “worm” method of pushing an ordinary soil cone head is virtually unusable: it would take too much effort and, as a consequence, additional energy costs.
Active working body is a device, appearance and principle of action reminiscent of the massive jaw. It is pivotally mounted on the head portion of the machine and moves upward in an arc. Her teeth of solid steel welded to the corners with screws freely mounted relative to the housing of the knife. When the teeth are together, they can be replaced by disconnecting the pre-angles from the body of the knife, which is rigidly connected to the axle, rotating in bronze bearings. Axle mounted two sprocket converts the translational movement of the rod of the hydraulic cylinder through chains and additional gears in the oscillation of the entire knife.
When the movement of the head section knife cuts the soil and then, moving from top to bottom, raises it to the level of the inclined plane. It hinged plate, attached to the chains, delivers the earth onto the conveyor.
Young technicians found an original solution for the conveyor in the inoperative position it folds and takes up little space. This is achieved due to the fact that it is based on a wire frame with a rubber band. It turns out the original structure with curving edges.
In the working position the conveyor is translated by the first support rollers. While the paste special opens the sidewall and does not allow them to emerge; it turns out the groove, from which before the last roller where the conveyor closes, another insert removes the soil brought. The cylinders of small capacity, mounted on the housings sections or outside (on pillars), by using hooks on their stems and wire frame give the Transporter in motion.
Suspension of a worm is made on the basis of preliminary experiments conducted with models of elastic shells made from three car cameras. However, in the design of the machine the young technicians there was a proposal to protect the sheath from mechanical damage thin metal strips.
To the chassis is also the main undercarriage hydraulic cylinder moving section of the machine.
When the flow through the pipelines of the compressed air in the elastic shell of the latter under the action of excess pressure inflated and securely fix the section in the well. When such will be the rear section, the front with the working body with the main chassis of the hydraulic cylinder can apply forward — stroke are performed. Then is recorded for the front section, and moves back. Then the cycle repeats.
So a mechanical “worm” will work underground.
In a circle
In a circle “Young mechanic” boarding school at KSU: a machine for tunneling and its designers.
Action hydraulic and pneumatic systems is provided by a compressor and oil pump. The cyclical action of elastic shells and cylinders is due to the software of the device located in the remote control.
Control over the direction of movement of a worm under the ground where young designers do using a narrow beam of light as well as for sinking of workings in the mines. To adjust the direction of the movement near the working body will be strengthened on the circumference of the three pneumonology by which the head part of the machine will be able to deviate in the desired direction upon command from the control >Board.
In conclusion, adding that the development of such an unusual machine, the project authors were able to consider issues of manufacturability of its manufacture in the school workshop. To this purpose it Provides for the application of a number of mechanisms already commercially available, mainly from agricultural machinery: that they were guided young designers, creating an entirely new car.
Of course, many of the details they have to do with their hands in the school machine shop. And those that will be unbearable for 8-9-graders, promised to produce an organisation — building trust.
In the first year of work on the “big worm” the boys in the school workshop manufactured housing sections and the head part of the machine with a working body (Fig. 5) and has embarked on the construction of the conveyor. Tests of this unusual device young technicians intend to carry out together with building trust. And if they show good results, the club will give their offspring this organization for implementation.
We followed the search and design students work from a choice of tasks for research to the creation of a prototype of the actual device. However, its construction is a creative process does not end. Experimental device must be tested in real conditions for which it was created. While it will surely be discovered some flaws and will need to be addressed, that is, to improve the design. Everything is a continuation of the process of technical creativity.
If the young techniques open the prospects for the introduction of the new devices (fixtures, apparatus, machines, etc.) in production, there is a need to design to technical documentation (drawings, diagrams, descriptions). This stage will be final for the complete process of technical creativity of schoolchildren. Often, however, school ends the invention at the stage of creation of experimental model of the device.
And sometimes the guys are building the prototype of the actual machine, based on mental modeling and conceptual sketches, bypassing the model experiments. This path leads to faster implementation of the idea into a real design, but the degree of confidence that the device will be operable, that the laws of nature, properties of materials, features of the scheme and its elements are considered quite true, in this case, obviously, will be less.
Depending on the specific conditions and opportunities technical circle any of these ways to solve the technical problem, the embodiment of in “metal” design ideas creativity in students is legitimate. But the most effective one which promotes maximum development of knowledge, creative search and creative work. It seems that we reviewed the system of organization of classes in the circle of A. J. lubarsky is one of the possible and, moreover, very effective options system group work with students on technique.

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